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ILCAA Joint Research Project

A Crosslinguistic Study of Nominalizer-final Constructions: The ‘Cogitation Process’ Approach

A Crosslinguistic Study of Nominalizer-final Constructions: The ‘Cogitation Process’ Approach

‘noda’ cogitation cycle

Keywords

  • noda-sentence
  • entence-final expressions
  • cogitation process
  • ‘noda’ cogitation cycle

Areas

  • Japan
  • Korea
  • China
  • Mongolia
  • Nepal
  • Burma

Website

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About the Project

Project term: April, 2013–March, 2016

The Japanese language contains a construction that has the following structure:

[Clause] Nominalizer Copula.

The nominalizer slot is occupied by the nominalizer =no, and the copula slot by =da. This construction is known as ‘the =no=da construction’, and has a wide range of uses.
Mie Tsunoda (2004) proposed a model called ‘the cogitation process model to account for the varied uses of the =no=da construction. According to this model, when a person observes a situation, that person goes through the following four phases and utters the =no=da construction at Phase 4.

Phase 1: Recognition of a situation.
Phase 2: Question about the situation.
Phase 3: Conjecturing an answer.
Phase 4: Finding the answer.

In a stretch of discourse, that person may go through the four phases for the second time, and even for the third time. That is, the four phases may be repeated cyclically.
This model provides a systematic and coherent account of this construction’s various uses, such as in simplex sentences, complex sentences, and discourse.
A nominalizer-final construction, which resembles the Japanese =no=da construction, occurs in several languages of Asia, such as Amdo Tibetan, Burmese, Central Tibetan, Korean, Mongolian, Newar, and Sibe. In these languages, the nominalizer-final construction is acknowledged, but its uses have not been sufficiently investigated.
The present project mainly aims (i) to investigate the functions of this construction in these languages, and, (ii) to furnish contributions to general linguistics, particularly to discourse study.

Mie TSUNODA, Project Coordinator (Rissho University)

Members

Coordinator

  • Mie TSUNODA (Rissho University)

ILCAA Staff

  • Izumi HOSHI
  • Norikazu KOGURA

Joint Researchers

  • Hiroyuki UMETANI
  • Kazuyuki KIRYU
  • Kosei OTSUKA
  • Shiho EBIHARA
  • Syuntaro TIDA
  • Tasaku TSUNODA

Outputs

Meetings

Publication meeting

  • Date/Time: 21 January 2017 (Sat.) 14:00–19:00, 22 January 2017 (Sun.) 9:00–15:00
  • Venue: Room 302, ILCAA
  • Our collaborative research project, ‘A Crosslinguistic Study of Nominalizer-final Constructions: The “Cogitation Process” Approach’, was conducted from the fiscal year 2013 to 2015. The theoretical framework employed is the ‘cogitation process of noda’, which was proposed by Mie Tsunoda (2003, 2004) on the basis of the so-called noda construction of Japanese. A number of Asian languages have nominalizer-final constructions that correspond to Japanese noda construction. In this project we examined the nominalizer-final constructions of Kham Tibetan, Amdo Tibetan, Sibe, Korean, Burmese, Mongolian, and Newar in addition to Japanese. For this purpose, Mie Tsunoda designed a new elicitation method employing mangas, and drew 30 strips of mangas for elicitation. This project produced typologically important findings such as following. (a) The uses of nominalizer-final constructions exhibit differences as well as regularities crosslinguistically. (b) The framework of cogitation process can be further developed and refined. (c) The eight languages under study can be grouped in terms of the differences and commonalities of the uses of the nominalizer-final constructions.
    We presented the outline of these findings at a workshop held at ILCAA on the 23d January 2016. We further plan to co-author a paper and submit it to an overseas journal. For this purpose, we plan to do the following at the proposed meeting. (a) To examine further the details of the data, particularly the differences and commonalities of the uses across languages. (b) To investigate further the correlations between the ‘cogitation process’ and the data obtained. (c) To work out a way to standardize the transliterations of the data obtained.

  • 21 January
  • Mie TSUNODA (Rissho University)
    “Report on (a) the progress of the preparation of the paper, and (b) the findings in individual languages”
    Syuntaro TIDA (Kyoto University)
    “Korean”
    Shiho EBIHARA (ILCAA Junior Research Fellow)
    “Amdo Tibetan”
    Izumi HOSHI (ILCAA)
    “Kam-Tibetan”
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA)
    “Sibe”
    Hiroyuki UMETANI (Tokyo University)
    “Mongolian”
    Kosei OTSUKA (ILCAA Junior Research Fellow)
    “Burmese”
    Kazuyuki KIRYU (Mimasaka University)
    “Newar”
    Tasaku TSUNODA (Professor Emeritus, National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics)
    “Overview from the perspective of general linguistics and linguistic typology”
  • 22 January
  • All members
    Discussion (Part 1): Standardization of the transliterations
    All members
    Discussion (Part 2): Presentation of the data
    All members
    Discussion (Part 3): Schedule of the preparation of the paper and the roles of individual members in this preparation

The 9th meeting Report (Japanese)(81KB)

  • Workshop: A Crosslinguistic Study of Nominalizer-final Constructions: The “Cogitation Process” Approach
  • Date/Time: 23 January 2016 (Sat.) 13:00-18:00 (open meeting)
  • Venue: Room 304, ILCAA
  • Language: Japanese
  • Organized by Linguistic Dynamics Science Project (LingDy2) , ILCAA Joint Research Project “A Crosslinguistic Study of Nominalizer-final Constructions: The ‘Cogitation Process’ Approach”
  • The present project started in April 2013 and will end in March 2016, and it is now approaching its final phase. At the next meeting, an open workshop is planned on the first day (23rd), to report the results of the present project. The project leader (Mie Tsunoda) will present an overview and a synthesis of the findings. Then, regarding individual languages, relevant members will report (i) the correlation between the nominalizer-final construction and the “cogitation process” and (ii) characteristic uses of the nominalizer-final construction in each language. Finally Tasaku Tsunoda will assess the results of the project in the context of general linguistics and linguistic typology.

  • Mie TSUNODA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Rissho University)
    “Findings: an overview and synthesis”
  • Characteristic uses of the nominalizer-final construction in each language
  • Syuntaro TIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyoto University)
    “Korean”
    Shiho EBIHARA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Amdo Tibetan”
    Izumi HOSHI (ILCAA)
    “Kam-Tibetan”
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA)
    “Sibe”
    Hiroyuki UMETANI (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Mongolian”
    Kosei OTSUKA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
    “Burmese”
    Kazuyuki KIRYU (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Mimasaka University)
    “Newar”
  • Tasaku TSUNODA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Professor Emeritus, National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics)
    “Significance of this project”
  • Date/Time: 24 January 2016 (Sun.) 9:00-15:30 (closed meeting)
  • Venue: Room 302, ILCAA
  • All members
    Summary of the activities of the project
    Publication of papers and a book

The 8th meeting Report (Japanese)(74KB)

  • Date/Time: 5 December 2015 (Sat.) 9:00-19:30, 6 December 2015 (Sun.) 9:00-15:30
  • Venue: Room 302, ILCAA
  • A workshop is planned for January 2016 to report the results of the present project. Preparation for the workshop is the main purpose of this meeting. Further research into the nominalizer-final construction in individual languages will be presented and assessed. Also, for each language the relevance of the “cogitation process” to the data collected so far and characteristic uses of the nominalizer-final construction will be examined. Furthermore, the findings of the entire project will be synthesized. Further research, preparation for the workshop, and the preparation for the publication of the results will be discussed.

  • 5 December
  • Shiho EBIHARA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Amdo Tibetan”
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA)
    “Sibe”
    Mie TSUNODA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Rissho University)
    “The relevance of the ‘cogitation process’ to the uses of the nominalizer-final construction”
    Izumi HOSHI (ILCAA)
    “Kam-Tibetan”
    Syuntaro TIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyoto University)
    “Korean”
    All members
    Discussion (Part 1)
  • 6 December
  • Hiroyuki UMETANI (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Mongolian”
    Tasaku TSUNODA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics)
    “Significance of this project”
    All members
    Discussion (Part 2)
    All members
    Discussion (Part 3)

The 7th meeting Report (Japanese)(85KB)

  • Date/Time: 9 May 2015 (Sat.) 9:00-19:00, 10 May 2015 (Sun.) 9:00-16:00
  • Venue: Room 302, ILCAA
  • Further research into the nominalizer-final construction in individual languages will be presented and assessed. Also, for each language the relevance of the “cogitation process” to the data collected so far and characteristic uses of the nominalizer-final construction will be examined. Furthermore, the findings of the entire project will be synthesized. A workshop is planned for January 2016 to report the results of the present project. Keeping the planned workshop in mind, topics for further research, methods of investigation, and preparation for the workshop will be discussed.

  • 9 May
  • Shiho EBIHARA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Amdo Tibetan”
    Mie TSUNODA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Rissho University)
    “Assessment of the statistical analysis”
    Mie TSUNODA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Rissho University)
    “The relation between the ‘cogitation process’ and the results of individual languages”
    Izumi HOSHI (ILCAA)
    “Kam-Tibetan”
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA)
    “Sibe”
    Syuntaro TIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyoto University)
    “Korean”
    Hiroyuki UMETANI (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Mongolian”
  • 10 May
  • Kazuyuki KIRYU (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Mimasaka University)
    “Newar”
    Kosei OTSUKA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
    “Burman”
    All members
    Discussion

The 6th meeting

  • Date/Time: 24 January 2015 (Sat.) 9:00-19:30, 25 January 2015 (Sun.) 9:00-15:30
  • Venue: Room 302, ILCAA
  • At the meeting to be held on the 24th and the 25th January, relevant members of the team will provide additional data, including data that may have been missing in previous reports and the entire team will examine the data. We shall also investigate further the relationship between the ‘cogitation process’ and the results of research of individual languages. The entire team will start preparing for the presentation of the results of our research at workshops planned for 2015.

  • 24 January
  • Shiho EBIHARA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Amdo Tibetan”
    Syuntaro TIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyoto University)
    “Korean”
    Kazuyuki KIRYU (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Mimasaka University)
    “Newar”
    Kosei OTSUKA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
    “Burmese”
    Izumi HOSHI (ILCAA)
    “Kam-Tibetan”
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA)
    “Sibe”
  • 25 January
  • Hiroyuki UMETANI (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Mongolian”
    Mie TSUNODA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Rissho University)
    “The relation between the ‘cogitation process’ and the results of individual languages”
    All members
    Discussion on the further research
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA) and Syuntaro TIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyoto University)
    “How to use Spreadsheet”

The 5th meeting Report (Japanese)(89KB)

  • Date/Time: 8 November 2014 (Sat.) 9:00-19:00, 9 November 2014 (Sun.) 9:00-15:30
  • Venue: Room 302, ILCAA
  • At the meeting to be held on the 8th and 9th November, we shall continue to examine the results of research that has been conducted so far. Also, relevant members will report on the results of their recent fieldwork. We shall continue to investigate the relevance of the “Cognitive Process” to the nominalizer-final constructions in the languages under study, and also to ascertain the characteristics of the nominalizer-final constructions in individual languages. We intend to hold a workshop next year to report the findings of this project. Therefore, at this meeting we shall start the planning for the proposed workshop.

  • 8 November
  • Shiho EBIHARA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Amdo Tibetan”
    Kosei OTSUKA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
    “Burmese”
    Hiroyuki UMETANI (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Mongolian”
    Kazuyuki KIRYU (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Mimasaka University)
    “Newar”
    Syuntaro TIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyoto University)
    “Korean”
    All members
    Discussion
  • 9 November
  • Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA)
    “Sibe”
    Izumi HOSHI (ILCAA)
    “Kam-Tibetan”
    Mie TSUNODA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Rissho University)
    “Relevance of the ‘Cognitive Process’ to the nominalizer-final constructions”
    All members
    Discussion
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA) and Syuntaro TIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyoto University)
    “Data management on the computer”

The 4th meeting Report (Japanese)(78KB)

  • Date/Time: 24 May 2014 (Sat.) 9:00-19:30, 25 May 2014 (Sun.) 9:00-15:30
  • Venue: Room 302, ILCAA
  • Last year relevant members of the project team carried out research into individual languages, employing the questionnaire that was originally prepared last year. In the previous meetings these members reported on the results of their research. The aim of the meeting that will be held on the 24th and the 25th May is to provide data that may have been missing in previous reports and to examine the research by the entire team. Specifically, the six members listed below will report on their subsequent research and present their findings. Then, the entire team will discuss these results and the issues for further research.

  • 24 May
  • Kosei OTSUKA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
    “Burman”
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA)
    “Sibe”
    Syuntaro TIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyoto University)
    “Korean”
    Hiroyuki UMETANI (ILCAA Joint Researcher, ILCAA Research Associate)
    “Mongolian”
    All members
    Discussion
  • 25 May
  • Kazuyuki KIRYU (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Mimasaka University)
    “Newar”
    Izumi HOSHI (ILCAA)
    “Kam-Tibetan”
    All members
    Discussion on the further research
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA)
    “data management using a computer”

The 3rd meeting Report (Japanese)(76KB)

  • Date/Time: 25 January 2014 (Sat.) 9:00-19:30, 26 January 2014 (Sun.) 9:00-15:30
  • Venue: Room 302, ILCAA
  • Relevant members of the project team have been carrying out research into individual languages, employing the questionnaire that the members of the team had prepared this year. At the meeting to be held on the 25th and the 26th January, the following three members will report on the results of their research into the languages shown below. Then, the entire team will examine these results and discuss the future direction of the research.

  • 25 January
  • Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyushu University)
    “Sibe”
    Izumi HOSHI (ILCAA)
    “Tibetan”
    Shuntaro TIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyoto University)
    “Korean”
    All members
    Discussion
  • 26 January
  • Mie TSUNODA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Rissho University)
    “The relation between the results of research and the ‘Cogitation process’”
    All members
    Discussion on the further research
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyushu University)
    “How to use Spreadsheet”
    All members
    Discussion on the schedule of research this year

The 2nd meeting Report (Japanese)(77KB)

  • Date/Time: 26 October 2013 (Sat.) 9:00-19:30, 27 October 2013 (Sun.) 9:00-15:30
  • Venue: Room 302, ILCAA
  • Relevant members of the project team have been carrying out research into individual languages, employing the questionnaire that the members of the team had prepared this year. At the meeting to be held on the 26th and the 27th October, the following four members will report on the results of their research into the languages shown below, and the entire team will discuss these results, and also the method of research employed.

  • 26 October
  • All members
    Progress report of the research
    Hiroyuki UMETANI (ILCAA)
    “Mongolian”
    Shiho EBIHARA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
    “Amdo Tibetan”
    Kosei OTSUKA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
    “Burmese”
    All members
    Discussion
  • 27 October
  • Kazuyuki KIRYU (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Mimasaka University)
    “Newar”
    All members
    Discussion on the method and materials of elicitation
    Norikazu KOGURA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kyushu University)
    “How to use Spreadsheet”

The 1st meeting Report (Japanese)(77KB)

  • Date/Time: 11 May 2013 (Sat.) 9:00-18:00, 12 May 2013 (Sun.) 9:00-15:30
  • Venue: Room 301, ILCAA
  • 11 May
  • Kosei OTSUKA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
    “A preliminary study on nominalizer-final constructions in colloquial Burmese”
    Shuntaro CHIDA (ILCAA Joint Researcher, Kumamoto University)
    “kes-i-ta construction in Korean: previous studies and points of controversy”
    All members
    Discussion about elicitation materials
  • 12 May
  • All members
    Classifying forms and functions of nominalizer-final constructions
    All members
    Discussion about elicitation materials

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