Database for the Database of Multilingualism Wales, UK

1. Name of the country
<Cymru> in Welsh, <Wales> in English

2. The national language, official language(s) etc.
<English is the only official language of the United Kingdom state of which Wales is a part. Another language has legal status within Wales.

2.1. Whether there is/are language(s) having the status of the national language and/or official language(s).>

2.2. (If Yes to 2.1) Give the Name(s) of the language(s).
<This language is Welsh.>

2.3. What is the basis of the above designation? (law(s) etc.)
<The legal status of the Welsh language is underpinned by several pieces of legislation. The most important of which is noted below.>

3. General Information on the languages and socio-political situation of the country concerned.
<According to the 1991 census--the last for which data is available--18.5% of the population of Wales speak Welsh. (The 2001 national census results for Wales will be released on Monday 30 September 2002; for information, see the website*) Alternative estimates of the numbers who speak Welsh exist. In particular the regular series of social surveys carried out in Wales have arrived at different conclusions by asking questions about linguistic competence in a different way. Specifically, when respondents are given 3 options, the most recent survey (2001) found the following:
Do you speak Welsh?
Yes, fluently 15%
Yes, but not fluently 12%
No, not at all 73%
  (figures from Welsh Life in the Times survey 2001)
This suggests that 27% of the population of Wales speak at least some degree of Welsh, a higher figure than suggested by the 1991 census. The population of Wales is 2,903,085.

@* According to the Census 2001, we found the figures following:
All people aged 3 and over 2,805,701
Understands spoken Welsh only 4.93%
Speaks but does not read or write Welsh 2.83%
Speaks and reads but does not write Welsh 1.37%
Speaks, reads and writes Welsh 16.32%
Other combination of skills 2.98%
This suggests that 28.43% of all people of Wales aged 3 and over use at least some degree of Welsh.>

4. How is/are the language(s) dealed in the constitution and other laws?
<The United Kingdom has no written constitution. The functional equivalent in the Welsh context is The Act of Parliament that underpinned the establishment of The National Assembly of Wales Act, 1998.>

4.1. The name of the concerned constitution.
<Government of Wales Act> 

4.2. The enforcement year of the concerned constitution.

4.3. The provisions and contents that refer to language (multi-lingualism) in the concerned constitution.
<The U.K. doesn't have a written constitution.>

4.4. The name of other important statutes relevant to language
<Welsh Language Act>

4.5. The enforcement year of the concerned statute

4.6. The provisions and contents which refer to language (multi-lingualism) in the concerned statute.
<The preamble of the Welsh Language Act reads as follows:
gAn act to establish a Board having the function of promoting and facilitating the use of the Welsh language, to provide for the preparation by public bodies of schemes giving effect to the principle that in conduct of public business and the administration of justice in Wales the English and Welsh languages should@be treated on a basis of equality, to make further provision relating to the@Welsh language, to repeal certain spent enactments relating to Wales, and for connected purposes.h>

5. The language used in the national parliament, government and municipal offices, etc. (official language(s))
<English is the only language used in the United Kingdom parliament and in the administration of the state.>

5.1. The main language(s) used in the national parliament, government and municipal offices, etc.
<Both Welsh and English are spoken in The National Assembly of Wales, although the use of English is dominant. There is a simultaneous translation service available during debates, with headphones provided for members who do not speak Welsh. The administrative language of The Assembly is almost exclusively English, but official policy documents and information on their web site is bi-lingual. The language used in local government in Wales varies from area to area, with Welsh being used in debates in some of the most strongly Welsh-speaking areas. Gwynedd, in north west Wales, is the only area in which Welsh is used in the administration of local government.>

5.2. Other languages whose use is accepted. <Not relevant.>

5.3 Language(s) used for expressing the constitution in writing.
<The Government of Wales Act was passed by the U.K. parliament, a body in which English is the only official language.>

5.4 Is there an official translation (or second language version)? <Yes>

5.5 (If Yes to 5.4) Which language is used? <Welsh>

5.6. Problems concerning the language(s) used. 
<All legislation passed by the National Assembly for Wales is rendered bilingually@(English and Welsh) although all the original drafting takes place in English.>

5.7. Language(s) used by the police and law court ( including lawsuits and judgements, etc.)
<The language utilised in the internal administration of both the police and courts is English. Defendants have the right to have their cases held in Welsh although, in reality, this provision is rarely used. One of the results of devolution (the forming of The Welsh Assembly) is, however, that a Welsh legal (sub) system is now developing. It remains to be seen what place the Welsh language will find within it.>

6. Language(s) used in the classroom
<Both the Welsh and English language are used in the classroom.>

6.1. The main languages used in elementary and secondary education For primary education.
<All pupils (even in schools that teach through the medium of English) are required to study some Welsh up to the age of 16.>
6.2. Is the use of other languages accepted in elementary/secondary education?
6.3. (If Yes to 6.2.) Which language(s)?
6.4. The main languages used in high education/university
<English is the main language in both further and higher education. Some Welsh medium instruction takes place. The official estimate of the amount of Welsh medium teaching that takes place within the University of Wales is 4%.>
6.5. Languages used for writing textbooks for elementary/secondary education
<English and Welsh>
6.6. Languages used for writing textbooks for high/university education
<English (with the exception of texts on Welsh language and literature which are available in Welsh as well as English).>
6.7. The problems concerning the languages used in education
<While Welsh medium provision at the elementary and secondary levels is relatively well-developed, no serious efforts have been made to develop Welsh medium provisions at the further education and higher education levels. Doubts exist over the effectiveness of the compulsory teaching of Welsh up to the age of 16, especially in the most Anglicised parts of Wales (for example in the North East). Some parents (particularly English incomers to Wales) may feel that they would prefer to have their children learn other mainstream European languages, for instance French or German, rather than Welsh. These parents, not speaking Welsh themselves, may feel alienated from the language and culture, and have no desire to have their children speak Welsh. Some young people leave school with very little Welsh, which they will not use again in their English-speaking workplaces, or with their English-speaking friends, and so will rapidly lose the little Welsh they learnt in school. Welsh is also a comparatively difficult language to learn, and this can be discouraging to young people in Wales who learn it as a second language.>
6.8. Description of the educational system
<English (all U.K. national networks)>

7. Languages used for broadcasting 
[broadcast on a national network]
7.1. Main language for news programs. <English>
7.2. Secondary languages for news programs. <English>
7.3. Language(s) used in dramas, songs, etc., in TV programs.
<English. If a Welsh language film rises to prominence (e.g. Solomon & Gaynor and Hedd Wyn) it may be shown on national British television with subtitles. Similarly if a Welsh pop band (usually well established) has some of its lyrics in Welsh, Welsh language songs may be heard very occasionally on national radio. Some pop bands from Wales, e.g. Catatonia, who are very well known in the U.K. may have some Welsh language songs on their album, and their compact discs will be widely available throughout the U.K. Most Welsh-speaking bands will usually decide to use the English language for most of their songs, in order to court a wider audience. Welsh language dramas are never performed in England.>
mlocal networkn 
7.4. Main language for news programs.
<Local networks in Wales include the English language channels BBC Wales and HTV. Both channels are part of larger British corporations. They provide most news coverage in Wales, exclusively in English when making programs which are to be broadcast on their own channels. BBC Wales also provides 24-hour radio coverage, which includes news items. Local radio news programmes are often broadcast in the language which reflects the area they cover, for instance Cardiff's Red Dragon radio station broadcasts its news in English only, whereas Aberystwyth's Radio Ceredigion uses both languages. Another commercial radio station has recently been created in North Wales, and is also bi-lingual. English is, however, almost always predominant.>

7.5. Secondary languages for news programs. 
<Welsh. There is only one Welsh language television channel in Wales, S4C (Channel Four Wales), formed by the Broadcast Acts 1980/1. Although 70% of its programming is a re-scheduling of (the English language) Channel Four, it is also committed to broadcasting 32 hours a week of Welsh language programs. S4C does not make its own programmes, but relies on independent suppliers. BBC Wales produces a Welsh language news programme, shown on S4C at 6pm and at 7.30pm. The channel also broadcasts political documentaries, discussion programmes, election coverage, etc. In addition to this, S4C broadcasts an hour-long political analysis program on Sundays. Due to limited resources, and the fact that it does not make their own programmes, S4C cannot provide live coverage of any major news event.>

7.6. Languages used in dramas, songs, etc., in TV programs. 
<Most dramas shown in Wales on local networks will be through the medium English. Channels other than S4C do not broadcast programmes in Welsh. S4C does produce a range of entertainment, including drama, sport, music, game shows and children's programmes. S4C has a statutory duty to broadcast only in Welsh during the peak times of 18.00-22.00, and so some viewers will switch to watch high budget English dramas on other channels during this time. The channel claims that 711,000 viewers watched a Welsh language programme during one sample week in 2001. They have a long running soap opera (Pobl-y-Cwm), although viewing figures have dropped significantly over recent years. Many of their drama series have been highly popular, though, and the channel has concentrated on catering more for young people's taste and doubling the hours of programming for children.>
mproblems & descriptionn 
7.7. Problems arising from using more than one language for broadcasting.
<Problems: One of the problems in broadcasting in Wales is the imbalance in the number of channels operating in both languages. As there is only one Welsh language channel, S4C faces the almost impossible challenge of catering for all the diverse tastes of its audience-- a little bit for everyone. As a result S4C has been accused of failing to satisfy anyone. Following market research, it became evident that the people of Wales have an extremely strong attachment to S4C, and see it as a valuable part of Welsh life, language and culture. Unfortunately, this is not reflected in viewing patterns. Other channels have higher budgets and glossier programs. They are promoted in national, not just local T.V. magazines, where S4C listings, if they appear at all, are kept as brief as possible, with no programme descriptions. Although 77.1% of S4C's Welsh-language programmes are subtitled (in English), very few English speakers are aware of this facility, despite a huge advertising campaign by S4C. It is crucial for S4C to attract non-Welsh speakers too, in order to boost advertising revenue.>

8. Census
8.1. Whether details of which mother tongue/language is used is asked in the census
<The census does ask respondents to respond to questions on language.>
8.2. How is it asked? (Selection from a choice or other means?)
<The part of the census (in Wales) which deals with language issue asks:
(9) Can you understand, speak, read, or write Welsh?
Tick all the boxes that apply:
[ ] Understand spoken Welsh
[ ] Speak Welsh
[ ] Read Welsh
[ ] Write Welsh
[ ] None of the above   >
8.3. What kinds of options are proposed?
<See above>
8.4. Other types of questions concerning language in the census
<There are no other questions on the Welsh language in the census.>
8.5. What language(s) is/are used for the census?
<Respondents could request forms in English or Welsh.>
8.6. What language(s) is/are used to publish the census results?
<The census results will be published in both languages in Wales.>
8.7. Other information about the census and languages.
<See point 3.>

9. Publications.
9.1. Language(s) used in newspapers (with popularity rank and percentage if possible).
<Here are the circulation figures for publications available in Wales (there are no Welsh language publications available in the rest of the U.K.):
Daily Post: 45,000 (circulation in Wales)
Western Mail: 60,000
South Wales Echo: 70,000
Wales on Sunday: 60,000
Wrexham Leader: 48,000
South Wales Argus: 31,000
Golwg: 4,000
Y Cymro: 5,000
Only the last two publications are entirely in Welsh, although the Western Mail has a Welsh language column. Golwg and Y Cymro are weekly publications, and are closer to magazine format than newspapers.>
9.2. Language(s) used in magazines and journals (with popularity rank and percentage if possible). (The kind of publications should be suitably classified according to the situation of the country concerned.)
<There is no daily newspaper in Welsh. Several other publications exist in Welsh, but have far smaller circulation figures. These consist of magazines like Barn, which analyses aspects of Welsh language, culture and politics. There are also a variety of news sheets, particular to local areas, covering small geographical areas and distributed only within that area.>
9.3. Language(s) used in novels and poetry, dramas and plays, and films (with popularity rank and percentage if possible).
<There are no Welsh language novels or editions of poetry written in Welsh readily available outside Wales. The same is true of films, and there are no plays or dramas shown in Welsh outside Wales either. Within Wales, the vast majority of publications in Welsh are aimed towards children, for instance there were a total of 219 different books published for children in 2001 (fiction and non-fiction), 47 books (novels and short stories for children and young people), but only 20 novels and books of short stories for adults.
  Welsh language films are sometimes shown in Wales at various cinemas, but this is not a regular occurrence, and it might be easier to find a film shown in French, or Spanish, for instance. There are various film festivals, where Welsh language films are promoted. It is easier to see a drama in Welsh in Wales. These are performed in theatres, and also informal avenues. Although epoetry slamsf have gained popularity --a public poetry writing competition, where writers read their own work to an audience, often in pubs (during the evening, with a lot of beer drunk)-- these are usually done through the medium of English. Some, however, are held in Welsh, often as people gather for an Eisteddfod (a huge Welsh language traditional festival).>

10. Other information about language use (include the prohibition of the use of particular language(s)).
10.1. Language(s) used in religion. (Christians: Bible, liturgy, catechism etc.)
<In Wales, the language usually associated with the chapels (Methodist) is Welsh, and the language in the Churches (Protestant and Catholic, mostly) is English. There are exceptions to the rule, and there is no formal policy on this matter. It usually depends on the area of Wales in which the place of worship is set. Christian texts, and the Bible itself has been available in Welsh for over a century.>
10.2. Language(s) used in feasts, festivals, songs, and oral tradition, and at theatres.
<There is a very ancient Welsh tradition of the Eisteddfod, a festival which celebrates music, poetry, literature, art, acting and singing. This is held entirely in Welsh, and it promotes the Welsh language and culture. Learners of the Welsh Language can compete for the Learner of the Year award. The Eisteddfod is something which happens at local and national level in Wales, and there is a separate series of competitions for both children and adults. Often accompanying the Eisteddfod is a series of fringe events, such as performances, poetry competitions, songs and dances. These are also to be found all year round.>
10.3. Language(s) used in trade, stock exchange and insurance, etc.
<English is the language used in trade, stock exchange and insurance. Welsh is rarely demanded for such occupations. However, employees of such organisations as the Welsh Development Agency (a body which promotes the Welsh economy) may be expected to communicate in Welsh at times. Some people may favour the services of welsh speaking accountants, lawyers etc, and some employers in welsh speaking areas may prefer to employ welsh speaking staff.>
10.4. Language(s) used in signs showing roads, buildings, and others, outdoor advertisements, movies.
<Road signs in some parts of Wales are bi-lingual. Some will only be in the English language. Welsh language protestors have campaigned for bi-lingual signs throughout Wales, and some mono-lingual English signs are defaced by angry protestors. Some British and International corporations will use bilingual signs and notices when operating in Wales, for instance some supermarkets and banks. The Welsh Language Board is funded by the government to encourage businesses to take account of the Welsh language, but there is no legal requirement for companies to respond. There are European grants available for businesses who wish to, for example, paint a bi-lingual sign on one of their work vehicles.>

yThis database is compiled by Mrs. Sara Jones Padget, under the supervision of H. Takachio, and revised by H. Takachio. z