3 *aṁśabhōgin— ‘sharing’. [áṁśa—, bhṓga—] Ku. ãsoī m. ‘partner’.
12 *akālasasya— ‘harvest out of time’. [akāla—, sasyá—] OSi. akalahasa ‘lesser of the two rice harvests’ Geiger GS 32, mod. yala (or < akāla—).
13 *akulanīya— ‘without family’. [kúla—] Paš. aulanı̄́ m., °nkı̄́ f. ‘sonless’ Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 9 with (?). Formation is obscure.
15 *akka— ‘vexed, bewildered’. S. akaṇu ‘to be bothered’; L. akkaṇ ‘to be vexed’, P. akkṇā; Or. akā ‘foolish, bewildered’; — redup. Ku. akabaka ‘nonsense’, akabakiṇo ‘to be puzzled’, N. akabakka, °makka ‘perplexed’.
17 *akkha— ‘sacking, bag, net’. [Perh. conn. Sk. ákṣi—, if Pa. akkhika— n. ‘mesh of a net’ < ‘*having eyes’] S. akho m. ‘mesh of a net’; L. P. akkhā m. ‘one end of a bag or sack thrown over a beast of burden’; Or. akhā ‘gunny bag’; Bi. ākhā, ā̃khā ‘grain bag carried by pack animal’; H. ākhā m. ‘one of a pair of grain bags used as panniers’; M. ā̃khā m. ‘netting in which coco—nuts, &c., are carried’, ā̆khẽ n. ‘half a bullock—load’. *jālākkha—.
20 *aklitta— ‘not wetted’. [*klitta—] K. ak°tu ‘unmoistened’.
25 *akṣakīla— cf. akṣāgrakīla—, °aka— m. ‘lynch—pin’ lex. [ákṣa—1, kīla—] Bi. (Patna) akhailā ‘axle of brick—crusher’.
27 *akṣaṇā— f. ‘lightning’. [akṣaṇa— sc. vidyút— f.] Pa. akkhaṇā— f. ‘lightning’; Si. akaṇa, akuṇa ‘lightning, thunder’.
30 *akṣadāruka— ‘a partic. tree’. [akṣá—2, dā́ru2] Dm. aṣkürṓ ‘pine’ (Morgenstierne NTS xii 128, 157 with metathesis of kṣ), Phal. ac̣hā́ru.
32 *akṣapaṭṭa— ‘notched board’. [akṣa—3, paṭṭa1] N. akhaṭo ‘notch, step cut in a tree for climbing’; M. akhoṭā m. ‘grooved or notched channel’. akṣapāṭa— see akṣavāṭa—.
33 *akṣapuṭa— ‘collar—bone’. [ákṣa—1, puṭa—] Paš. āṣūṛā ‘collar-bone’ (Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 20 < akṣa—puṭaka— or —kuṭaka—: kuṭi— ‘curve’).
38a *akṣalita— Add. 14192.
40 *akṣākāra— ‘shaped like a die’. [akṣá—2, ākāra—] H. akhār m. ‘a small lump of clay placed in the centre of a potter's wheel’.
41 *akṣānta— ‘unbearable’. [Cf. kṣānta— ‘patient’ Mn., ‘pardoned’ MBh.: √kṣam] N. akhānu ‘intolerable, unpleasant’.
41a *akṣāpita— Add. 14194.
42 *akṣāmita— ‘unbearable’. [Cf. kṣāmayatē: √kṣam] N. akhāyo ‘intolerable’.
45 *akṣirujā— f. ‘eye—disease’. [Cf. akṣiruj— f. VarBr̥S., Pa. akkhirōga— m.: ákṣi—, rujā—] Si. āsrudāva ‘ophthalmia’.
47 *akṣēma— ‘unpeaceful’. [kṣḗma—] Sh. (Lor.) ac̣hēmo ‘unruly, mischievous, malignant, dishonest’.
53 *agāhya— ‘unfathomable’. [Cf. durgāhya— Suśr. (to be separated fr. agādha— ‘deep’ R. < ‘*having no ford’): √gāh] S. ajhāǥu ‘deep’. But see *gādhya—.
62 *agnirujā— ‘a disease with burning sensation’. [agní—1, rujā—] H. āgrū m. ‘eruption on the lips from heat’; G. āgru m. ‘disease causing burning sensation in the mouth’; M. āgrū̃, ag°, ā̆gerū̃ n. ‘heat eruptions on lips and tongue’; for gender poss. cf. *rujas— n. in rujaskara—. — Doubtful, but less likely < agnírūpa—.
66 *agnisthāna— n. ‘fireplace’. [Cf. Pa. aggiṭṭhāna n. - agní—1, sthā́na—] Wg. ā̃ı̄̃te, gambīrī aṅatä̃ř; Paš. eṅgatáı̃, Shum. ā̃than; — perh. < *aṅgri—sthānā—, see agniṣṭhá—; — less likely < *aṅgārasthāna—.
69 *agragaṇḍa— ‘top of sugar—cane’. [ágra—, gaṇḍa2] Bi. agẽṛ, geṛ ‘leaves at the top of sugar—cane’. *prāgragaṇḍa—.
70 *agragamaṇa— ‘going in front’. [ágra—, gamana—] Or. agauṇa ‘chief, primary’, H. agaunī f. ‘going for- ward to meet a visitor’.
74 *agratōjāta— ‘born earlier’. [Cf. agrajā́— ‘first—born’ RV., Pk. aggajāya—: agratás, jātá—] S. aguāo m. ‘stepson’, aǥuāī f. ‘stepdaughter’. *agrapārśva— see *agravāsa—. [ágra—, pārśvá—]
75 *agrapāli— ‘front, point’. [ágra—, *pāḍi—] Or. āguāḷi ‘sharp end of an axe’.
79 *agravarṣā— f. ‘the end rain’. [ágra—, varṣā́—] M. āgos f. ‘the beginning of the dry weather’.
80 *agravāṭa— m. ‘enclosed space in front’. [ágra—, vāṭa1] P. agvāṛā m., °ṛī f. ‘the space in front of a house’, Bi. aguār, °rā, H. agwāṛā m., G. agvāṛũ n.
81 *agravāsa— m. ‘front of a house’. [ágra—, vāsá2] Bi. agwās ‘space in front of a house’. — Or poss. < *agra- pārśva—.
82 *agravāha— ‘leading in front’. [ágra—, vāhá—] P. agwāhā m. ‘guide’, Ku. agwā, N. aguwā (both only with —ā, not —o: see agrēgū́—).
83 *agravr̥ddhi— f. [ágra—, vŕ̥ddhi2] Bhoj. agawaṛhi ‘something given in advance’.
84 *agravr̥ṣṭi— f. ‘initial rain’. [ágra—, vr̥ṣṭí—] M. agoṭh, °oṭ f. ‘period just before or after the beginning of the rains’.
87 *agrasasya— n. ‘first—fruits’. [ágra—, sasyá—] Pa. aggasassa— n., Si. agasas, agahas, agas (ac. to Geiger GS 18 a recent shortening < *agās).
89 *agrānta— ‘front or near end’. [ágra—, ánta—] L. aggānde ‘in future’; M. agāt, agā̃t adv. ‘early (of sowing or ripening)’, agāt n. ‘the early grains’.
90 *agrāmin— ‘not rustic’. [grāmín—] Si. agämi ‘urbane’.
93 *agriyapāṭa— ‘front expanse’. [agriyá—, pāṭa—] S. aǥyāṛī f. ‘front part of the head above the forehead, forepart of any interval’.
96 *agrōpasthāka— ‘chief servitor’. [ágra—, upasthāka—] Pa. aggupaṭṭhāka— m., Si. aguvaṭā, akvaṭā (prob. ← Pa.).
98 *agryapaṇa— ‘chief price or payment in first—fruits.’ [agryá—, paṇa—] Bi. agwan ‘interest in kind on seed—corn’.
99 *aghr̥ṣṭa— ‘not rubbed out’. [√ghr̥ṣ] G. aghāṭ m. ‘a document (on stone, metal plate, or paper) recording a permanent gift, esp. of land’ T. N. Dave. — Doubtful.
101 *aṅkakāra— m. ‘act of marking’ [aṅká—, kāra1] H. ãkār m. ‘mark, spot’. — Deriv. S. ãgāraṇu ‘to sketch out before engraving or painting’. — Or poss. < *aṅkākāra—.
105 *aṅkāśrita— ‘attached to a hook’. [aṅká—, āśrita—] L. mult. ãgāsī f. ‘gear for raising a Persian wheel off the ground’.
107 *aṅku— ‘hook’ in ankuṭa—, aṅkurá—, aṅkuśá—. [Cf. Av. anku— in cmpd. ‘hook’: √añc]
110 *aṅkurayati ‘sprouts’, aṅkurita— Kālid. [aṅkurá—] Pk. aṁkuriya—, L. uṅgaraṇ ‘to sprout’, P. uṅgarnā, uṅgurnā, Ku. ãgurṇo, Bhoj. ãkural, M. ãkurṇẽ.
115 *aṅgakr̥ṣṭi— f. ‘stretching the body’. [áṅga—1, kr̥ṣṭí- or poss. *vikr̥ṣṭi—] Mth. ãgaiṭhī ‘yawn’.
120 *aṅgarakṣa— ‘garment’. [Cf. aṅgarakṣaṇī— f. ‘coat of mail’: áṅga—1, rakṣá—] Pk. aṁgarakkha—, °aga— ‘protecting the body’; S. ãgrakho m. ‘upper garment’, B. āṅrākhā, Or. aṅgarakhā, Bi. H. ãgarkhā m., °khī f., G. ãgarkhũ n., °khī f., M. ā̃garkhā, ãg°, ā̃grākhā m. — X antarīya—: L. andrakkhā m.
122 *aṅgavikala— ‘deformed in limbs’. [áṅga—1, vikala—] Pa. aṅgavikala— ‘mutilated’; Si. an̆gaväl ‘maimed, deformed’.
124 *aṅgahōla— ‘washing the body’. [áṅga—1, *hōl—] Pk. aṁgōhali— f. ‘bathing all the body except the head’; G. ãghoḷ n. ‘ablution’, ãghoḷvũ ‘to bathe’; M. ãghoḷ, ãghūḷ, ā̃gh° f. ‘washing the body’. — Deriv. G. ãghoḷiyũ n. ‘pot for warming bath water’, ãghoḷṛī f. ‘song sung during ceremonial wedding bath’.
128 *aṅgāravarta— m. ‘fire stone’. [áṅgāra—, *varta3] Ash. aṅalawaṭ (r — r > l — r).
129 *aṅgārasthāna— n. ‘fireplace’. [áṅgāra—, sthā́na—] Dm. aṅgarthäı̃ (perh. a Dm. cmpd.). — See *agni- sthāna—.
140 *acaṣṭa— ‘untasted’. [*caṣṭa—: √*cakṣ 2] G. e ṭh f. ‘refuse of food’.
141 *acca— ‘sudden shock’. 2. *accakka—. 1. G. acɔ m. ‘obstacle, crowd’. 2. G. āckɔ m. ‘shock, push’, acakvũ ‘to stop’ intr.; M. ā̃ċkā m. ‘sudden pull’, aċkī f. ‘convulsive gasp’, ā̃ċakṇẽ ‘to jolt, strike’.
143 *acchādana— ‘without covering’. [chādana—] Kho. čhan (or čan?) ‘naked’.
146 *ajakaṭa— m. ‘flock of goats’. [Ext. with —ṭa— of ajaka—, cf. avikaṭá—: ajá—] S. ajaṛu m. ‘flock of goats’ (< *ayyaṛu ?); L. eiyuṛ, (Jukes) aiyyaṛ m. ‘flock of sheep or goats’, P. ayyaṛ m. — Or < avikaṭá—.
149 *ajanikā— ‘she—goat’, or *ajānī—? [ajá—] Gaw. hḗnī f. (NOGaw 37 < *ajanikā—, but perh. < ḗkahāyana—), Shum. ū̃ī (or < ajá— or ávi—).
150 *ajapaṣṭha— ‘young goat’. [ajá—, *paṣṭha—] S. aiṭha f. ‘she—goat 10 or 12 months old’. — Or < *avipaṣṭha—.
154 *ajavāṭa— m. ‘goat—pen’. [ajá—, vāṭa1: with EH. —r- < —— rather than < —vāra—] H. aiwārā m. ‘shed for sheep, goats or cattle in jungle’. — Or < *avivāṭa—.
159 *ajr̥ta— ‘undigested’. [Cf. jīryatē ‘is digested’ Yājñ., ajīrṇa— ‘undigested’ Mn., ajīrti— f. ‘indigestibleness’: √jr̥̄] Or. ajaṛa ‘indigestion’.
163 *ajya— ‘flock of goats’. [ajá—] L. ajjaṛ m., P. ajjaṛ, ijjaṛ m. — Deriv. L. ājaṛī m. ‘shepherd’, P. ājṛī m. *kaṭṭājya—.
164 *ajvara— ‘free from fever’. [jvará—] A. āzar ‘free from fever, freedom from fever’. AÑC ‘bend’: aṅká—, aṅkana—, aṅkáyati, aṅkuṭa—, aṅkurá—, aṅkuśá—, aṅkūrá—, *añca—, áñcati, añcana—, añcala—; *atiyañcati, ápāñc—, ā́ñcati, údañc—, údañc- ati, *upāñcati, níyañc—, nīca—, nyakkāra—, nyag- rṓdha—, nyàñc—, parākā́t, paryaṅka—, palyaṅka—, *pratyaka—, *prācayati, prācı̄́na—, prācyà—, *vīcya—, samyák, sākám; ghr̥tā́cī—; — √āñch.
165 *añca— ‘curve’. [Cf. rōmāñca— m. ‘thrill of the hair’: √añc] A. ā̃s ‘a line’; ext. with —ṭa—: ā̃sor ‘scratch’.
173 *añjita— ‘anointed’. [Cf. añjayati ĀśvŚr.: √añj] Pa. añjita— ‘smeared’; Pk. aṁjiya— ‘oiled’; Si. än̆di ‘painted, marked’.
178 *aṭṭ— 1 ‘contain, be contained, fit into’. [Poss. < ā́rta1 ‘*brought’, cf. ā́—r̥ṇvati ‘brings, reaches, obtains’ RV., despite ă of P.: √] Phal. aṭ— ‘to send, bring’ NOPhal 28, Sh. aṭoiki; P. aṭṭṇā ‘to be filled up, be contained in’; Ku. āṭṇo ‘to bury, fill up with earth and stones’, aṭāṇo ‘to contain, hold’, aṭṭo ‘brimful’; N. aṭāunu ‘to be con- tained, fit into’; A. āṭiba ‘to tighten’, ā̃ṭiba ‘to suffice’; B. ā̃ṭā ‘to be contained, close tightly’, ā̃ṭā ‘closely fitted, insufficient’; H. āṭnā, aṭānā ‘to fit into, join’; āṭnā, aṭ°, ā̃ṭ°, ãṭ° ‘to be contained, be fitted into’, ãṭwānā, ãṭh° ‘to cram in’.
179 *aṭṭ— 2 ‘obstruct, stop’. [Cf. *aṭṭha—2, *aḍ—, *aḍḍ—: prob. ← Drav. see *aḍ—] S. aṭaru ‘obstinate’; L. aṭṭ m. ‘sediment in a well, silt’; Or. aṭāi ‘enclosure for cattle’; G. āṭɔ m. ‘pounding’ (?), aṭvāmaṇ f. ‘obstacle’; M. aṭ f. ‘obstruction’, āṭ f. ‘obstinacy’, aṭṇẽ ‘to thicken, inspissate’. *aṭṭakk—. aṭṭa— 1 ‘boiled rice’ see *ārta2.
181 *aṭṭa— 3 ‘bundle’. 2. *aṇṭa—. 3. *aṭṭha— 1. 4. *aṇṭha—. 1. K. üṭü , dat. acĕ f. ‘bundle, skein’; L. aṭṭī f. ‘skein’, P. aṭṭā m., °ṭī f.; A. āṭi ‘sheaf’; B. āṭi ‘sheaf, faggot’; Or. āṭi ‘sheaf, bundle’; H. āṭī, aṭṭī f. ‘twist, bundle, skein.’ 2. B. ā̃ṭi ‘bundle’; Bi. ā̃ṭī ‘bundle of straw’; Mth. ā̃ṭī ‘bundle of grain divided between reaper and master’; H. ā̃ṭī, aṇṭī f. ‘bundle, skein, sheaf’; G. ā̃ṭī f. ‘skein of thread’. 3. Pk. aṭṭhā— f. ‘handful’. 4. Ku. N. ā̃ṭho, ā̃ṭhi ‘bundle, sheaf, plait of hair’.
182 *aṭṭakk— ‘obstruct, stop’. [*aṭṭ2] S. aṭkaṇu ‘to be stopped’, aṭak f. ‘hindrance’; L. aṭkaṇ ‘to stop, stick’, P. aṭakṇā; aṭkā m. ‘stoppage’; Ku. aṭakṇo ‘to stop, wait’; N. aṛkanu intr. ‘to stick in, stop’; A. āṭak ‘obstacle’, °kiyā ‘scarce’; B. āṭkāna ‘to obstruct’, āṭak ‘barrier’; Or. aṭakibā ‘to come to a stop’, °kāibā, akaṭāibā ‘to hinder’, aṭakā, akaṭā ‘hindrance’; Mth. aṭakab ‘to stay, cease’, aṭakāb ‘to prevent’; H. aṭaknā intr. ‘to stick’, aṭak f. ‘obstacle’; Marw. aṭakṇo ‘to remain’; G. aṭakvũ ‘to be detained’, aṭak f. ‘stoppage’, aṭakṛī f. ‘hiccough’; M. aṭakṇẽ ‘to be stopped’, aṭkẽ n. ‘obstacle’. Addenda: *aṭṭakk—: S.kcch. aṭkā(y)ṇū ‘to stop, prevent’.
183 *aṭṭakkalā— ‘guess’. [Poss. contains kalā́—: for first part cf. L. aṭṭā—saṭṭā m. ‘rough guess’ and *aṇṭ—] H. aṭkal, aṭkar f. ‘guess’ (prob. → K. aṭkal, aṭhk° f., S. aṭkala f.; L. aṭkal f. ‘knowledge, skill, guess’; P. aṭkal f. ‘guess’, Ku. aṭgal, gng. aṭgaw, N. aṛkal); A. ā̃ṭkāl ‘conjecture’, B. āṭkāl, Or. aṭakaḷa, G. M. aṭkaḷ f.
186 *aṭṭha— 2 ‘gum’. 2. *attha—. 1. A. āṭhā, eṭhā ‘gum’, eṭhā—eṭhi ‘gummy, slimy’; B. āṭhā ‘gum, birdlime, paste’, āṭhāl, āṭāl ‘viscid’; Or. aṭhā ‘gum’; Si. aṭṭuwa ‘any glutinous substance’. 2. G. āthɔ m. ‘paste’.
187 *aḍ— ‘obstruct, stop’. [Cf. *aḍḍ—, *aṭṭ2, poss. *aṭṭha2; — ← Drav. cf. Tam. aṭai ‘to be obstructed’, Kan. aḍ()a ‘obstructing, transverse’, Tu. aṭaka, aḍaka ‘obstacle’, Kui aḍa ‘screen’, Brah. aṛ ‘obstruction’: T. Burrow TPS 1945, 79.] L. aṛaṇ ‘to jib, be entangled’, aṛā m. ‘constipation’; P. aṛnā ‘to stop, stick fast’, aṛ f. ‘stoppage’; Ku. aṛṇo ‘to persist, be strong’, aṛiyo ‘fat’, aṛo ‘prop’; H. aṛnā, arnā ‘to come to a stop’, aṛ f. ‘dam’; G. aṛvũ ‘to touch’, aṛ f. ‘obstinacy’; M. aḍṇẽ ‘to be stopped’, aḍ f. ‘obstruc- tion’. — Ext. with —kk—: L. aṛak m. ‘untrained bullock’; P. aṛkaṇā ‘to be stopped’; G. aṛakvũ ‘to touch’, aṛak f. ‘obstruction’; M. aḍakṇẽ intr. ‘to stick fast’. *aḍi— ‘heel’ see *aḍḍi—.
188 *aḍḍ— ‘obstruct, stop’. [← Drav., see *aḍ—] K. aḍun ‘to persevere, be intent on’, aḍāv m. ‘the wooden beam supporting a log when being sawn’; S. aḍ̱aṇu ‘to build’, aḍ̱a f. ‘watercourse’; L. aḍḍ, pl. aḍḍã f. ‘small irrigation channel’, aḍḍī f. ‘iron rest for support- ing tools in turning’; P. aḍḍā m. ‘perch for birds’; WPah. bhal. aḍḍo m. ‘support for a log being sawn’; Ku. āṛo ‘support, bolt of door’; N. āṛ ‘cover, shelter’, aṛinu ‘to stop, halt’; A. ā̃r ‘screen’; Or. āṛibā ‘to ward off’, āṛi ‘hide—out for hunters’; Mth. aṛāeb ‘to restrain’; H. āṛ f. ‘interruption, covering’, āṛnā ‘to cause to stop’ (perh. rather der. aṛnā < *aḍ—); G. āḍi f. ‘obstacle’, aḍvũ ‘to stop’, āḍṇī f. ‘a stand’; M. aḍṇẽ ‘to be stopped’ (or < *aḍ—), ā̆ḍaċ ‘tightly’; Si. aḍaya ‘prop, stopper’ (perh. direct ← Tam. aṭai). *aḍḍa—, aḍḍana—.
189 *aḍḍa— ‘transverse’. [Same as prec.? — ← Drav., see *aḍ—] S. aḍ̱o m. ‘edge of a boat, thwart’, aḍ̱ī f. ‘rail across bottom of a lathe’, āḍ̱o ‘transverse’; L. aḍḍā m. ‘thwart of a boat’; P. āḍḍā ‘crooked’; B. āṛ ‘aslant’, āṛā ‘beam’; Or. āṛa ‘width’, āṛā ‘cross—beam’, Mth. āṛ, āṛi ‘boundary between fields’; H. āṛ f ‘horizontal line painted across forehead’, āṛā ‘transverse’; OMarw. āḍo ‘transverse’; G. āḍũ ‘slanting’, āḍ f. ‘curved piece of mica worn as orna- ment by women on forehead’; M. āḍẽ n. ‘ridgepole, cross—bar, keel’, aḍvā ‘transverse’; Ko. āḍa ‘crosswise’; — compounded with an IA. word of same meaning: Or. āṛa—bā̃ka ‘oblique’; H. aṛbaṅgā ‘crooked’, m. ‘obstruc- tion’ (→ N. aṛb(h)aṅge ‘crosswise, obstacle’). Addenda: *aḍḍa—: S.kcch. āḍī f. ‘crossbeam’; WPah.kṭg. (kc.) aṛi f. ‘plough—handle, plough—stick with handle’, J. āṛī.
191 *aḍḍi— ‘heel’. 2. *aḍi—. 3. *ēḍḍi—. 4. *ēḍi—. [J. Bloch BSOS v 738 ← Drav., cf. Tam. Kan. aḍi, Tel. aḍugu ‘foot, footstep’] 1. L. P. aḍḍī f. ‘heel’; H. aḍḍā m. ‘heel of shoe’; — Si. aḍiya ‘foot, footstep’ (with a, not ä) ← Tam. 2. Marw. aṛi ‘heel.’ 3. P. eḍ f. ‘heel’, N.B. Or. eṛi, Bhoj. eṛī; H. eṛ f. ‘spur’, eṛī f. ‘heel’; M. eḍ f. ‘urging with the heel’; — N.B.Or.H. perh. < 4 below. 4. G. eṛi f. ‘spur’, eṛī f. ‘heel’. X *lattā—. aṇi— ‘linch—pin’ see āṇí—. Addenda: *aḍḍi—. 3. *ēḍḍi—: WPah. kṭg. eḍi f. ‘heel when used in spurring, spur’.
195 *aṇuni— ‘millet’. [Cf. áṇu1 NTS xii 156] NiDoc. aḍ́iṁni prob. ‘millet’ H. W. Bailey BSOAS xii 332; Ḍ. árīn ‘millet’, Kt. awŕı̄̃, Dm. äŕín, Paš. aṛı̄́n, Gaw. éṛin, Kal. aṛín, Kho. oḷīn; — all < *aḍin— with same dissimilation of n as in ajñānin— rather than < *arjana— — More doubtful is Sh. (Lorimer) āno ‘Indian millet’.
196 *aṇuvaṁśa— ‘small share’. [aṇu—2, áṁśa—] H. anwā̃sī f. ‘a very small measure of land’, anwā̃sā m. ‘as much corn as grows on an ’.
197 *aṇṭ— ‘presume, be bold’. [Cf. *aṭṭakkalā—] Ku. ā̃ṭṇo ‘to guess’; ā̃ṭ ‘guess’; N. ā̃ṭnu ‘to dare, be about to’, ā̃ṭ ‘presumption, decision, courage’; Or. āṇṭa ‘pride’; G. ā̃ṭvũ ‘to aim at’. *aṇṭa— ‘bundle’, see *aṭṭa3. *aṇṭha— ‘bundle’, see *aṭṭa3. áṇṭhatē, see *haṇṭ—. aṇḍá— see āṇḍá—. aṇḍakōśa— see āṇḍakōśa—. aṇḍaja— see *āṇḍajāta—. átati see √aṭ. atasá— see atası̄́—.
199 *atārita— ‘unrescued’. [Cf. tārá— m. ‘rescuer’ VS., tārita— ‘ferried across’ MBh.: √tr̥̄] P. ārī ‘helpless’?
206 *atipāra— m. ‘bringing across’. [Cf. átipārayati ‘leads across’ RV.: √pr̥;— or *atipāra— ‘fulfilment’, cf. pāráyati ‘fulfils’ RV., atipūryati ‘becomes full’ MBh.:√ pr̥̄] Si. ivara ‘accomplishment, end, leisure’.
207 *atipuṣṭa— ‘very fat’. [√puṣ] K. pog. yüṭh ‘fat (of an animal)’.
209 *atimahānt— ‘very great’. [mahat—] Pa. atimahant—, Si. imahat ‘very large’. — Prob. ← Pa.
210 *atiyañcati ‘pulls across’. [For áti with a verb ‘to pull’ cf. atikarṣati ‘pulls (ploughshare)’ Kauś.: √añc] Pk. aïṁcaï ‘overpasses, goes away’, with ch (cf. ā́nchati ~ áñcati) ayaṁchaï ‘pulls, ploughs, draws a line’, aïṁchaï ‘surpasses’, aïṁchaṇa— n. ‘pulling, trans- gressing’ (poss. connexion or confusion with *khiñc—, *khañc— ‘pull’ is suggested by āiṁchaï, āaṁchaï ‘pulls, ploughs’); Ku. aı̃c ‘pressure’; N. aı̃cnu ‘to press’, aı̃cinu ‘to be pressed or pulled’, aı̃cyāunu ‘to pull up (a horse)’; H. aı̃cnā, ı̄̃cnā ‘to pull’, G. e_ cvũ. — J. Bloch BullEFEO xliv 48 separates the Pk. words from the modern, Ku. aı̃c, &c., which he derives from *adhi—gicc— in Aś. bh. adhi- gicya ‘rejecting’. *átiyēti see átyēti. *atirikṇa— see átirikta—.
213 *ativr̥tta— ‘passed beyond’. [Cf. ativivartayati ‘separates too far’ RV.Prāt., ativr̥tti— f. ‘excess’ Pāṇ.Kāś.: √vr̥t 1] Pa. ativatta— ‘passed beyond’; Si. ivat ‘off, out of the way’ Geiger GS 81, but with t, not , prob. ← Pa.
214 *atiśōdhanī— ‘broom’. [Cf. śōdhanī— f. ‘broom’, °naka- m. ‘sweeper’ Mr̥cch.: √śudh] Kho. rišun, rušun ‘brush made of an animal's tail for clearing up flour in a mill’.
215 *atiśōdhi— ‘cleaning’. [Cf. *śōdhi—: √śudh] Paš. ẽšı̄́, išı̄́ ‘broom’ Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 12. *atiṣkadati see *utskadati.
218 *atiṣphāyatē ‘swells, is complete, arrives’. [For semantic development cf. sphā́yatē, *niṣphāyatē, pūryatē, prábhūta—: √sphāy] Sh. ifayoiki ‘to arrive’ (1st sg. pres. ifā́yam). — Deriv. ifayaroiki ‘to conduct’.
221 *atta— 2 ‘father, grandfather’. 2. *adda—. [Cf. attā—] 1. A. ātā ‘address to a respectable old man’; G. ātāji m. ‘grandfather’; Si. ātā ‘grandfather’. 2. S. ado m. ‘brother’; L. addā m. ‘father’.
224 *atyākhēṭyati ‘hunts’ [ākhēṭa—] Bhoj. caheṭal ‘to pursue’; — doubtful.
225 *atyāgata— ‘entered’. [√gam] K. ċāv: see átyēti.
229 *atrastha— ‘situated here’, cf. tatrastha—. [átra, stha—] Bshk. athā̃ ‘this (half—distant)’, with early contraction Morgenstierne AO xviii 225; but perh. < *atthattha- or *atthaka—, cf. Pk. tatthaya— s.v. tatrastha—.
232 *adati ‘eats’. [átti RV., ādáyati ‘feeds’ ŚBr., adayati ĀpŚr.: √ad] Pa. adēti ‘eats’, Pk. adaï; — Paš. ay—, 1 sg. pres. ayam Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 24 < ad— with (?). Perh. rather < *aśati.
234 *adapara— ‘devoted to eating’. [ada—, para—] G. āvro, e vro m. ‘desire to be eating constantly’. - Cf. *khādanapara—.
235 *adinna— ‘not given’. [Cf. ádatta— ‘not having given’ AV., ‘not given’ Mn.: *dinna—] Pa. adinna—, Pk. adiṇṇa—; Si. ayin ‘stolen’.
244 *adyāhnaḥ ‘this very day’. [Cf. idā́nīm and idā́ áhnaḥ RV.: adyá, áhar—] Pa. ajjaṇhō, ajjuṇhō ‘only this day’ (with u from *ajju, cf. Ap. s.v. adyá, CPDI 44); L. ajjaṇ ‘till today’; M. ā̆j̄huṇi (poet.) ‘even now’, aj̈ūn, āj̈ūṇ, aj̈o; — doubtful.
247 *adhamāṁśa— ‘worst portion’. [adhamá—, áṁśa—] Bi. ãwā̃sī ‘the smallest sheaf’ or < *avamāṁśa—.
251 *adhikatara— ‘higher’. [ádhika—] Pa. adhikataraṁ ‘extraordinarily’; Pr. Əléra ‘above, on the top’, līr ‘above’; Kho. aihro ‘a little up’. — Or poss. < *adhira— (cf. úpara—, ávara—) or *adhitara— (cf. nitarā́m).
254 *adhigrahati ‘takes’. [√grah] Pr. ilgyi— ‘to take, buy’ (NTS xv 286 < krī— with prefix il— ?). ádhitiṣṭhati see *adhiṣṭhāti.
256 *ádhiyardha—, ádhyardha— ‘one and a half’ ŚBr., ádhyardhaka— ‘worth one and a half’ Pāṇ. [ardhá2] Si. yēḷa, ye°, yela ‘one and a half’ with abnormal for in a numeral. Addenda: *adhiyardha—: Md. doḷu ‘one and a half’.
256a *adhiyasta— Add. 14210.
257 *adhiyasyati, adhyasyati ‘throws over’ KātyŚr. [√as 2] Pr. lis— ‘to let loose upwards, fling off, lose’.
258 *ádhiyēti ‘goes to’. [Cf. ádhyēti ‘turns the mind to’ RV. and ádhigacchati ‘approaches’: √i 2] Ash. dīm ‘I go’ < *ádhiyēmi, Wg. di— ‘to go’ (both with pret. gōm < gatá—), Kt. —. But ac. to Morgen- stierne NTS ii 253 prob. < ati—i—, see átyēti.
259 *adhilambatē ‘approaches’. [Cf. adhyālambatē ‘reaches’ BHS: √lamb] Si. elam̆banavā ‘to come near, approach, arrive’.
260 *adhivāsayati ‘causes to remain’, adhivāsa— m. ‘sitting obstinately before a debtor's door’. [adhivasati ‘dwells’ Mn., Pk. ahivasaï ‘stays’: √vas 2] Pa. adhivāsēti ‘endures’; Si. ivasanavā ‘to bear, en- dure’. *adhiṣṭāt see adhástāt.
261 *adhiṣṭhāti, ádhitiṣṭhati ‘stands up’ RV. [√sthā] Pa. adhiṭṭhāti, adhiṭṭhahati ‘stands on, arranges, determines, concentrates on’; Pk. ahiṭṭhēi ‘goes up, controls’; Si. iṭanavā ‘to make up one's mind’.
264 *adhiṣṭhi— f. ‘standing firm’. [√sthā] P. hiṭh f. ‘firmness of mind, pertinacity, courage, hope’ (but H. haṭh f. ‘pertinacity’ ~ haṭh m. ‘violence’ ← haṭha—).
269 *adhunāhāra— ‘food for now’. [adhunā́, āhāra—] Kho. aunār ‘thick bread prepared by cow— and goat- herds for consumption the same day’.
272 *adhyakavaṁśa— ‘accessory beam’. [Cf. adhika- ‘secondary’ (Pk. ajjhaya— ‘neighbour’ ?): vaṁśá—] Dm. ažṓs, ažṓš ‘small beam’ (NTS xii 158 < adhy—ā- vaṁśa— with ?).
273 *adhyaṅgaka— ‘upper garment’. [áṅga—] H. jhaṅgā, jhagā m. ‘upper garment’: very doubtful.
275 *adhyadhyaka— ‘abundant’. [adhyadhi] S. jhajho ‘many, abundant’; OG. jhājhaüṁ ‘many’, G. jhājhũ, °jũ ‘more, greater’; — doubtful. Addenda: *adhyadhyaka—: S.kcch. jajo ‘much’.
277 *adhyaya— ‘going towards’. [√i 2] S. ajho m. ‘protection, refuge’; G. ājhɔ m. ‘confidence’. — Doubtful. ádhyardha— see *ádhiyardha—. adhyasyati see *adhiyasyati.
282 *adhvavāha— ‘carrier’. [Cf. pathivāhaka— m. ‘burden- carrier’ lex.: ádhvan—, vāhá—] G. adhvāyɔ m. ‘carrier who carts traders' goods, cattle—dealer’. AN ‘breathe’: ánila—; apāná—, prāṇá—, prāṇaka—, prāṇín—, sámaniti.
296 *anāviṣṭa— ‘not entered’. [Cf. *praviṣṭi—: āviṣṭa—] H. anaiṭh m. ‘a day on which the market is closed’.
297 *anāvr̥ṣa— ‘lack of rain’. [*āvr̥ṣa—] L. aṇāī f. ‘drought, failure of the river to rise, famine’.
300 *anikta— ‘unwashed’. [niktá—] Ku. alīt ‘dirty, lazy, shameless’ or < ālipta—.
304 *aniyāya—, anyāya— m. ‘injustice’ R., anyāyya—, anyāyin- ‘unjust’. [nyāyá—] Pk. aṇṇāa— ‘unjust’, m. ‘injustice’; OSi. aniyā ‘in- justice’; Si. ännä ‘unlawful’ < *aniyāyin—, ännäva ‘nuisance’. Addenda: *aniyāya—: Brj. aneū m. ‘injustice’. †;*anirya— ‘sleepless’. [niryā́—, see nidrā́—] †;*aniryōdgata—. †;*aniryōdgata— see †;*anidrōdgata—.
307 *aniṣṭi— ‘dislike’. [iṣṭí2] H. nīṭh, °ṭhi f. ‘dislike’.
308a *anīkya or *anīca— Add. 14213. †;anukará— m. ‘helper’ AV. [√kr̥ 1] see anucará—.
309 *anukarya— ‘imitation’. [anukará— m. ‘assistant’ AV., ‘imitating’ ŚBr.: √kr̥ 1] Kho. oṅgoḷik ‘to imitate, mimic’ Morgenstierne BelvalkarVol 86; — cf. Sk. Pa. anukarōti ‘imitates’ Mn., Pk. aṇugarēi.
313 *anugr̥bhāyati, anugr̥hṇāti ‘follows in taking’ MBh. 2. *anughr̥pta—. [√grah] 1. Ash. waṅgā́— ‘to seize’; Kt. wuṅa— ‘to take, buy’; Bashg. ngā ‘to take’; Kho. aṅgik ‘to bring’ (or < ā́nayati). 2. Preterites: Ash. åṅgetƏ, Kt. ōṅtye f., Bashg. ngūta. Forms with w— perhaps due to contamination with forms < *upagr̥bhāyati, Ash. wagā́—, Kt. waga—; or poss. < *upānugr̥bhāyati. In Ind. semantic development of anu—grah— is ‘lift up — support — help — favour’: anugr̥hṇāti, Pa. anuggaṇhāti, Pk. aṇuggeṇhaï.
317 *anujñapta— ‘permitted’. [Cf. anujñapti— f. ‘permission’] Si. anudat < *anunat with d from anudananavā, see ánujānāti.
318 *anutr̥tīyam ‘on the third day’. [For formation cf. anurātram ‘in the night’ AitBr.: see also s.v. tr̥tı̄́ya1] Savi nu l ia ‘day before yesterday’.
321 *anudrāvayati caus. of ánudravatē ‘runs after’ TS. [Cf. drāváyati: √dru] Wg. andrāl— ‘to throw, pour out’ Morgenstierne NTS xvii 226, but whence l ?
325 *anupānaha— ‘shoeless’. [Cf. anupānatka— KātyŚr.: upānáh—] Pa. anupāhana—, Pk. aṇōvāhaṇaya—, OG. aṇūhāṇa; G. aṛvāṇũ ‘barefoot, unadorned’; M. anvāṇā, anhvāṇī, aṇvāṇī, aṇvāī ‘barefoot’.
334 *anulabdha— pp. of ánulabhatē ‘takes hold of from behind’ ŚBr. [√labh] Pa. anuladdha— ‘grasped from behind’, Pk. aṇuladdha—; Si. nuludu ‘stolen goods’.
335 *anuvara— ‘following the bridegroom’. [For formation cf. ánupatha— ‘following the road’ RV., anupati ‘after the husband’: vará2] OG. aṇuṁara m.f., G. aṇvar m. ‘relative or friend of a newly married couple’. Addenda: *anuvara— see †;anucará—.
336 *anuvāta— ‘woven after’. [√] Pa. anuvāta— m. ‘seam, hem or binding of a monk's robe’; Si. nuvāva ‘hem of a monk's robe’ Geiger BSOS viii 556.
337 *anuvāha— ‘driving after’. [√vah] Mth. (NETirhut) anwāh ‘the boy who looks after unemployed bullocks while ploughing’; — doubtful; perh. rather an—wāh ‘not ploughing’.
340 *anusmara— ‘memory’. [Cf. ánusmarati ‘remembers’ RV., Pa. anussarati, Pk. aṇussaraï: √smr̥] Si. nusaraya ‘memory, thought’.
348 *antaḥpathya— ‘in the road’. [antár, pathya—] Pr. tūčū ‘traveller’ (Morgenstierne NTS xv 216 perh. < *tuwūt—č/šū).
349 *antaḥpanthā—. [antár, pánthā—] Pr. tūt ‘on the road’ Morgenstierne.
352 *antaḥsthāna— ‘interior organ’. [Cf. antaḥsthá— ‘in- terior’ ŚBr.: antár, sthā́na—] Paš. chil. andastṓn ‘liver’ Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 12. — See antastya—.
353 *antadāmanī— ‘end cord’. [ánta—, dāman 1—] P. advāiṇ, advāṇ f. ‘cord inserted in foot of bed to tighten the bottom’ (→ H. adwāin, adwān f.)
359 *antarapaṭṭa— ‘inner garment’. [Cf. Pa. antara—sāṭaka—, —vāsaka— m.: ántara—1, paṭṭa2] H. ãtrauṭā m. ‘the garment worn beneath a fine sāṛī’.
360 *antaravīthi— f. ‘street between houses’. [ántara—1, vīthi—] Pa. antaravīthi— f. ‘street’, Si. aturaveya.
363 *antarāgaṅga— ‘between rivers’. [antarā́, gáṅgā—] Si. brāhmī inscr. ataragaga ‘land between two rivers’ Geiger GS 41.
364 *antarānta— ‘inside’. [ántara—1, ánta—] Gaw. āterānt, atran postp. ‘inside’.
365 *antarābāṇa— ‘the inside reeds’. [antarā́, bāṇá—] Bi. atrāwan, tarāwan ‘a set of three reeds to keep two sets of the warp—thread apart’, Mth. (NETirhut) atrāwan bhā̃j.
366 *antarāmārga— ‘midway’ [antarā́, mārga—] Pa. antarāmaggē ‘midway’; Si. ataramaga, °man̆ga ‘on the road’.
368 *antarāśa— ‘choking’. [antarā́, āśa—] G. ãtrāse adv. ‘in such a way that when drunk in haste a liquid comes out of the nose’.
369 *antarāśana— ‘choking’. [antarā́, áśana—] G. ãtrāsaṇ n. ‘food getting in the windpipe’. antarı̄́ya— n. ‘an inner garment’ Daś. [ántara1] X *aṅgarakṣa—.
371 *antarōdaka— ‘being in the water’. [antarā́, udaká—] Kho. andro g ‘diving’.
375 *antarvarṣa— ‘between rain’. [antár, varṣá—] Pa. antōvassa— m. ‘the rainy season’, OSi. inscr. 4th cent. atovasahi, Si. atavasa, ä°, atä°.
380 *antra— 1 ‘inner’. 2. *antrima—. [antár] 1. Paš. a l iniṅ ‘marrow’, Gaw. e l eṇḍı̄́k (IIFL iii 3, 10 + ?); 2. WPah. bhiḍ. ɛ̄̃tḷõ; ‘inner’. antrá— 2 see āntrá—. *antrima— ‘inner’: see *antra1. AND ‘bind’: *anda—1, *andana—, andū́—.
381 *anda—1, *andana— ‘binding’. [ándati ‘binds’ Dhātup.: √and] H. ā̃d, ãdā, ā̃dan m. ‘mud, quagmire’; — very doubtful. *anda— 2 ‘food’ see ánna-
383 *andōla— ‘swinging’. Pk. aṁdōlaya— m. ‘swing, cradle’; Ku. ãdolo ‘doubt’; Or. ādoḷā ‘sedan chair, litter’; G. ãdoḷ ‘swinging’. - X hindōla—: Or. hāndoḷā ‘litter’.
386a *andhakāratamasikā— Add. 14221.
387 *andhatamisrikā—, andhatamisra— n. ‘complete dark- ness of the soul’ VP., °tā° Mn. [Cf. andhatamasá— n. ‘thick darkness’ Pāṇ., Pa. andhatamō n., Pk. aṁdhatamasa- n.: andhá—, támisrā—] Savi anamúši ‘darkness’ (for š cf. Kal. trōmiš s.v. támisrā—); — or poss. < *andhatamiṣī—, cf. támiṣīcī— RV.
388 *andhapaṭṭa— ‘cloth for covering the eyes’. [andhá—, paṭṭa2] H. ãdhoṭī f. ‘a piece of cloth tied over a horse's or bullock's eyes to blindfold it’.
389 *andharātrya— ‘night blindness’. [Cf. rātryāndhya—: andhá—, rā́tri—] P. nharāttā m., adhrātā ‘night blind’.
391 *andhikāvāta— [andhikā—, vā́ta—] H. ãdhiyāw m. ‘duststorm, whirlwind’.
392 *andhita— ‘blinded’. [andháyati ‘becomes blind’ Dhā- tup., ‘makes blind’ Śiś.: andhá—] Pa. andhita— ‘blind’; B. ā̃di ‘blindfolded’.
396 *anna—uṭṭha— ‘strange’. S. anoṭho ‘perverse’; N. anauṭho ‘strange, queer’, H. anoṭhā, anū°, M. anoṭhā.
397 *annapānīya— [Cf. Pa. annapāna— n., annāpa— ‘food and drink’: ánna—, pānı̄́ya—] Ku. anwāṇī ‘concoction of grain, gruel’.
403 *anyaparaśvas ‘fourth day hence’. [anyá—, paraśvas] P. narsõ; adv. ‘fourth day before or after today’. Addenda: *anyaparaśvas: H. narsõ; ‘fourth day before or after today’, Brj. narō.
404 *anyākāra— ‘of different form’. [Cf. anyathākāram ‘differently’ Pāṇ.: anyá—, ākāra—]. S. niāro ‘separate’, P. neārā, Or. niārā; H. niyārā, nyā° ‘different, separate’, G. nyārũ, M. nyārā.
409 *apakaṣa— ‘scraper’. [Cf. ápakaṣati ‘scrapes off’ AV., used in conjunction with takṣ—: √kaṣ] Or. uṣā ‘mason's plane’.
417 *apaghaṭya— ‘to be screened’. [√ghaṭ] Pk. ōhaṭṭa— m. ‘curtain, screen’, ōhaṭṭa—, °aya— ‘ward- ing off’; H. ohaṭ f. ‘screen, shelter’. — See *apaghāṭa—, apaghāṭayati and cf. *ōṭṭā— which is prob. separate.
418 *apaghāṭa— ‘cover’. [√ghaṭ] Pk. ōhāḍaṇa— n. ‘covering’, °ṇī— f. ‘lid’, ōhaḍaṇī— f. ‘bolt, door—bar’; Or. uhāṛa ‘shelter, cover, shade, screen’; Bi. ohār ‘litter—curtain, lid of brazier's crucible’; Bhoj. ohār ‘cover’; H. ohāṛ, m. ‘cover, wrap, litter—curtain’.
420 *apacitta— ‘without thought’. 2. *apacinta—. [cittá—1, cintā́—: √cit] 1. S. ocito ‘sudden, suddenly’. 2. G. ɔcı̄̃tũ ‘suddenly’.
421 *apacchaṭṭ— ‘separate’. [*chaṭṭ—] P. auchaṭṇā ‘to be separated’.
423 *apatāna—, apatānaka— m. ‘spasmodic contraction of body or stomach’ Suśr. [√tan] *dantāpatāna—.
425 *apatyatara— ‘young of animal’. [Cf. vatsatará—: ápatya—] N. bacero ‘young of a bird’. apatrapatē see *avatrapatē. ápatrasati see uttrasati.
426 *apadāha— ‘burning’. [Cf. ápadahati ‘drives away by burning’ RV., ‘burns up’ MBh.: √dah] N. auṛāhā ‘feverishness, restlessness’ with MIA. ana- logical —ḍḍ—, cf. Pk. avaḍāhēi ‘weeps in a loud voice’, avaddāhaṇā— f. ‘cauterizing’.
427 *apadēśya— ‘foreign’. [dēśá—] Sh. õmacr;śŭ m. ‘guest’ (Rep1 60 < vidēśyà— with a query; but v— > Sh. b—).
431 *apanthaka— ‘pathless’. [Cf. ápatha— n. ‘pathlessness’ AV.: pánthā—.] Paš. awaṅgā́n ‘desolate, e.g. of a hill’ Morgenstierne IIFL iii. 3, 23. ápabharati see ápaharati.
432 *apamarśati ‘wipes off’. [From mr̥j— cf. ápamārṣṭi ‘wipes off, removes’ AV.: √mr̥ś] Kal. umbrā́śim ‘I dismiss’.
437 *apararāṣṭra— ‘foreign country’. [ápara—, rāṣṭrá—] Si. varaṭayā ‘foreigner’ Geiger EGS 157.
438a *aparahīyas— Add. 14227.
442 *aparānna— [ápara—, ánna—] Pa. aparaṇṇa— n. ‘vegetables’ (opp. to grain pubbaṇṇa—) CPD 271; M. varaṇ n. ‘tasty dish of pulse’ P. H. Gode, Jain Antiquary xii 1—8; — very doubtful: Pa. ṇṇ and M. are not explained.
444 *aparēndra— [ápara— or a—para— ‘unrivalled’, indrá—] Kal. rumb. warı̄́n, gen. —dras ‘name of a god’.
447 *apalīyatē ‘is hidden’. 2. *apalāyayati ‘hides’. [Cf. avalīyatē ‘hides oneself’ R.: √ 2] 1. Phal. suri palı̄́ti ‘the sun is eclipsed’; G. ɔḷvāvũ ‘to be hidden’. 2. Phal. ma palayā́nu ‘I hide’, imper. palā́, Morgen- stierne NOPhal 44.
448 *apalyāṇika— ‘without a saddle’. [palyāṇa—] L. awāṇ. alāṇī.
449 *apavara— ‘cover’. [Cf. apavaraṇa— n. ‘covering gar- ment’ lex.: √vr̥ 1] K. wūrü f. ‘washable cover to a wadded quilt’.
457 *apavārayati ‘wards off, protects’, apavārita— ‘covered’ Mr̥cch. [√vr̥ 1] Pk. ōvārēi ‘covers’; G. ovārvũ ‘to wish protection from evil, to bless’, ovārṇā̃ n. pl., OG. ūāraṇauṁ n. ‘a bene- dictory service to remove evils’.
458 *apavāsyatē ‘smells bad’. [√vās] H. ausnā ‘to become musty’.
460 *apavāhānta— ‘end of water—channel’. [apavāhá—, ánta—] L. avāndhā, avan° m. ‘opening of a watercourse into a field’, (Jukes) avā̃dhā m. ‘head of a watercourse’.
463 *apaśrāpayati ‘makes retire from’. 2. *apaśrāpaṇa—. [Cf. ápaśrita— ‘retired from’ RV.: √śri] 1. Bi. osāeb ‘to winnow’, H. osānā, us° ‘to winnow, to pour off’; G. ɔsā̆vvũ, asā° ‘to take water off boiled rice, to skim’. 2. Bi. osaunī ‘winnowing’; G. ɔsāmaṇ, as° n. ‘rice- water’.
464 *apasakta— ‘detached from’. [√sañj] Kho. ausát ‘ruined, destroyed’, Sh. ausāt; — doubtful.
469 *apahaṭṭ— ‘move away’. [*haṭṭ—] Pk. ōhaṭṭa— ‘gone away’, m. ‘one who drives away’; Bhoj. ohaṭā ‘far away’.
477 *apākāṁśa—, ‘unripe portion’. [apāka— áṁśa—] H. awā̃sī f. ‘unripe corn cut for use’ (or < *āmāṁśa—). apāktáḥ see *patta2.
483 *apārdha— ‘less than half’. [ardhá2] Pk. avaḍḍha— ‘half, less than half’; — G. avaḍh, avaḍ ‘unused’ very doubtful.
484 *apāvarati ‘opens’. [ápavr̥ṇōti RV., apāv° RVPrāt.: √vr̥ 1] Pa. apāpurati, pp. apāruta—; Pk. avāuḍa— ‘uncovered, naked’ < apāvr̥ta—; Gy. hung. var— ‘to open, draw’, vardo ‘open’, eng. pūv—vardo ‘plough (‘earth—opener’)’ — doubtful.
495 *apr̥ta— ‘unfilled, uncompleted’. [√pr̥̄] P. appaṛ ‘untilled’ ? — Dm. Savi auḍā́ ‘thirst’ Morgen- stierne NOPhal 26 < apūrti—, but neither accounts for ḍ.
496 *apr̥ti— ‘deficiency’. [√pr̥̄] P. auṛ f. ‘deficiency of rain, lack, famine’, ḍog. aoṛ f. ‘scarcity’. apēkṣā— see ánapēkṣa—. apēta— see ápaiti. *apēṣayati ‘sends away’. [√iṣ 1] see *upēṣayati.
499 *apōṣṇa— ‘not hot’. [uṣṇá—] Kal. rumb. ɔ̄žnḗ ‘cool’.
500 *appa— ‘father’. 2. *appā— f. ‘elder sister’. 1. Pk. appa—, °aya— m. ‘father’, A. āp ‘address by lower classes for father, grandfather, or old man’, āpaṭi ‘father’; G. (used by shepherds) āpɔ m. ‘father’; M. āpā ‘term of respect for an elder or of endearment for a son or junior’. 2. Or. apā ‘elder sister’; H. āpā f. ‘id., term of address to an older woman’.
509 *abhāriya— ‘not to be borne’. [Cf. bhāryà— ‘to be borne’ TS.: √bhr̥] Si. bāri ‘impossible’ (Geiger ES 63 < apārya— and EGS 120 < bhārika—).
511 *abhigharati ‘drips’. [Cf. abhíghārayati ‘sprinkles’ TS.: √ghr̥ 1] G. eharvũ ‘to be wet with sweat, to be liquefied’.
514 *abhicchardati ‘ejects on’. [√chr̥d] A. esāriba ‘to throw, cast off’.
515 *abhijjharati, abhíkṣarati ‘flows round’ RV., ‘pours down’ AV. [√*jhar] G. ijhrāvũ ‘to pine away’.
520 *abhinābhi— ‘up to the navel’ [For abhi— cf. abhijñú ‘up to the knee’ RV.: nā́bhi—] A. enāi adj. ‘coming up to the navel’.
526 *abhimlāyati ‘withers’. 2. *abhimlāpayati ‘causes to wither’. [Cf. mlā́yati ‘withers’ ŚBr., caus. mlāpáyati AV., án—abhimlāta—varṇa— ‘of unfaded colour’ RV.: √mlai] 1. Ku. wahalīṇo ‘to fade, wither’, N. oilinu. 2. Ku. uhalyāṇo, wahalyauṇo ‘to let wither, to dry’; N. oilāunu ‘to let fade’. *abhiyajyatē ‘is led to’, see *bhējj—.
527 *abhiyávaharati, abhyá° ‘throws down (into water)’ VS. 2. *abhiyavaharaṇa—, abhyavahá° n. ‘throwing down’ ŚBr. 3. *abhiyavahāra—, abhya° m. ‘taking food’ Mn. [√hr̥] 1. M. vairṇẽ, oyãrṇẽ, orṇẽ ‘to pour gradually from hand or vessel (rice &c. into water, grain into mill)’. 2. M. vairaṇ, oyãraṇ, oraṇ n.f. ‘grist thrown at one time into the mill, a feed’, vairṇẽ n. ‘the hopper into which grist is poured’. 3. M. vairā, oyrā, orā m. ‘the portion of rice &c. taken out for the day's food’; — in sense ‘kitchen, centre of house’ Bloch LM 302, but rather < apavaraka—. *abhiyavahāra— see *abhiyávaharati. *abhiyāśa— see abhyāśa—. *abhiyāsayati see abhyàsyati.
528 *abhilagyati ‘adheres to’. [√lag] P. ilgaṇ, °ṇī, ilaṅgaṇ, °ṇī f. ‘line to hang clothes on’ (see also *ālagyati); OAw. hilagaï ‘gets entangled’; H. hilagnā ‘to be suspended, hang’, M. hilagṇẽ (l for after lagṇẽ).
530 *abhilōḍati ‘shakes’. [Cf. abhilulita— ‘agitated’ Kālid.: √luḍ] WPah. cam. hiḷoḷṇā ‘to shake’. abhívartatē see *bhēṭṭ—.
533a *abhihasati Add. 14235. abhyàkta— see *bhiyajyatē Add2.
535 *abhīkṣaṇa— ‘looking towards’. [Cf. abhı̄́kṣatē ‘looks toward’ RV.: √īkṣ] Pk. ahikkhaṇa— n. ‘reproach’; Si. ebikana ‘peeping’; — doubtful, cf. ebenavā ‘to peep’ s.v. ā́bhāti. abhı̄́kṣatē see *ācikhyati. [√īkṣ]
539 *abhīṣṭa— ‘sent to’. [Cf. iṣitá— ‘sent’, iṣṭí— f. ‘despatch’ RV.: √iṣ 1] Kho. (Lor.) yōṣṭ ‘envoy’; — rather than < abhiṣṭí— m. ‘helper’ RV.
543 *abhyaṭati ‘approaches’. [√aṭ] G. ābhaṛvũ ‘to touch’, abhṛāvũ ‘to be made impure by contact’. abhyànakti see *bhiyañjati. Addenda: *abhyaṭati see also *ābhiṭ— Add2.
548 *abhyutta— ‘wetted’. [Cf. abhyundánt— pres. part. ‘wet- ting’ RV.: √ud 2] Pk. abbhuttaï ‘bathes’.
551 *abhrakāla— ‘cloudy weather’. [abhrá—1, kālá2] H. abhāl m. ‘cloud’, M. abhāḷ, ābh° n. ‘cloudiness’.
552 *abhratala— ‘sky’. [abhrá—1, tala—] H. abhāl m. ‘sky’, M. abheḷ n. ‘sky’. — See also *abhrakāla—.
553 *abhrabhūta— ‘cloudy’. [abhrá—1, bhūtá—] OG. ābhūuṁ n. ‘cloud’.
578 *amma— ‘breast, teat’. M. āmā m. ‘breast, bubby’.
580 *amlagandha— ‘sour smell’. [amlá—, gandhá—] K. āmalunu m. ‘musty smelliness’.
582 *amlapauli— ‘a sour cake’. [amlá—, pauli—] M. ãboḷī f. ‘flour soured by exposure to air and then slightly parched on a girdle’.
584 *amlārta— ‘sour flour’. [amlá—, *ārta2] WPah. bhad. amlaṭṭu n. ‘yeast’; M. ā̃batẽ n. ‘soured flour’; — poss. G. āmṭī f. ‘a sour dish of gram flour boiled with tamarind’, M. ãbaṭī f. amlikā— see āmlā—.
592 *ayaskūṭa— ‘iron hammer’. [áyas—, kū́ṭa1] Pa. ayōkūṭa—, ayak° m.; Si. yakuḷa ‘sledge—hammer’, yavuḷa (< ayōkūṭa—).
601 *araṇyēśa— ‘lord of the forest’. [áraṇya—, īśa—] Si. raṇis ‘hunter, a Vedda’.
613 *arukta— ‘disliked’. [*rukta—: √ruc] K. ar°tu , f. arüċ ü ‘bad, no good, useless’; Si. aruta ‘disgust, loathing, aversion to food’.
617 *aruṇatara— ‘reddish’. [aruṇá—] H. arunārā ‘tawny’.
623 *arōcya— ‘displeasing’. [Cf. arṓcaka— ‘not shining’ Kauś., ‘disgusting’ Suśr., arōcuká— ‘displeasing’: √ruc] K. arūċu , dat. pl. arōċen ‘unpleasing, disagreeable’. — See arucya—.
628 *arkavarta— ‘a sort of ornament’. [Cf. arkapuṭikā— f. ‘a silver ornament consisting of a round disk like the sun’ lex.: arká—1, *varta3] G. akɔṭī f. ‘earring’.
629 *argaḍa—, argala— m.n. ‘bolt’, irgala— m.n. Pāṇ., argalikā— f. ‘small bolt’ lex. [Cf. sā́rgaḍa— ‘barred’ ŚBr. Poss. Muṇḍa origin and further connexions in IA. Kuiper PMWS 14.] Pa. aggaḷa— m., °ḷā— f. ‘cross—bar of a door, bolt’, Pk. aggala— m., °lā— f., Ku. āglo, °liyā, N. āglo; B. āgaṛ, °oṛ ‘mat—door, hurdle’; Or. āgaṛa ‘gate’, āguḷa ‘obstacle’, °ḷā ‘small iron keeper—ring’; Bi. āgar, agrī, āgal ‘wooden bar of door’, OAw. āgari (r < ), H. āgal, aggal m.f., G. āgḷɔ m., °ḷī f., °ḷīɔ m., M. āgaḷ, ag°, āgh° m.f., Ko. agaḷu, Si. aguḷa, °la; — M. agḍā m. ‘tie connecting yoke and pole of cart’ (?). — Der. B. aglāna ‘to restrain, watch’; Or. aguḷibā ‘to lie in wait for’. Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 16 places here Dm. argali ‘throat’, Gaw. hargal; Paš. orgól ‘jaw’; — doubtful. argala— see *argaḍa—. Addenda: *argaḍa—: WPah.kṭg. aggƏḷ f. ‘wooden bolt’. †;*bhujārgaḍā—.
631 *arghaṇa— ‘costing’. [árghati] Pa. agghana— n. ‘price’, in cmpd. —agghanaka— ‘having the value of’; Si. aganā ‘precious’.
636 *arjana— ‘millet’. [Cf. Pers. arzan, Orm. ažan Morgen- stierne IIFL i 388, Psht. ẓ̌dan, Khot. éysä H. W. Bailey BSOS viii 122] Ash. aẓū̃ ‘millet’, Wg anj̈ǖ́, anzǖ́ NTS xvii 226 (anǰū̃ NTS xv 247), Pr. üǰǖ̃. — See *aṇuni—.
639 *arthakathā— ‘commentary’. [ártha—, kathā—] Pa. aṭṭhakathā— f., Si. aṭuvāva Geiger GS 58, but prob. ← Pa.
645 *ardhakapāla— ‘migraine’. [Cf. *ardhaśīrṣa—: ardhá—2, kapā́la—] Ku. adhālī ‘neuralgia’.
646 *ardhakuḍava— ‘half a kuḍava’. [Cf. ā̆rdhakauḍavika- ‘equal to half a ku°’ Kāś.: ardhá—2, kuḍava—] Pk. addhakuḍava—, °kulava— m. ‘a measure of grain’; Ku. aduṛī ‘a wooden measure containing a quarter ser’.
648 *ardhaguṇa— ‘increased by a half’. [ardhá—2, guṇá—] S. aḍhū̃ṇo ‘1 1/2 times greater’, adhū̃ṇi f. ‘adding 1 1/2’.
650 *ardhajjhāma— ‘half—burnt’. [Cf. ardhadagdha— MW.: ardhá—2, *jhāma1] Pa. aḍḍhajjhāma—, °aka— ‘half—roasted’; Si. aḍadamu ‘half—burnt’, coll. aḍadam̆bu;; aḍadamba ‘half—burnt piece of wood or stump’ DSL 118.
652 *ardhatr̥tīyaguṇa— ‘two and a half times’. [ardha- tr̥tīya—, guṇá—] S. aḍhāūṇo ‘2 1/2 times greater’; P. ḍhauṇā ‘2 1/2 times’.
653 *ardhatōla— ‘one half tolaka’. [ardhá—2, tōlaka—] G. adhɔḷ ‘weighing about one ounce’, adhɔḷī f. ‘a measure of that capacity’.
655 *ardhapakṣa— ‘having half a side’. [ardhá—2 pakṣá—] S. adhokho ‘incomplete’; — deriv. adhokhāro.
656 *ardhapañcama— ‘four and a half’. [ardhá—2, pañ- camá—] Pk. addhapaṁcama—; Bhoj. ḍhãgucā, H. ḍhaũcā, ḍhõ;cā (rarrow; P. ḍhaũcā).
657 *ardhapanthaka—, cf. ardhapathē ‘halfway’ Yājñ. [ardhá—2, pánthā—] Paš. aḍḍhawaṅ ‘halfway’.
658 *ardhapala— ‘half a pala’. [ardhá—2, pala1] K. adwal m. ‘weight of two tolās’.
659 *ardhapalya— ‘a half sack’. [ardhá—2, palya—] G. adhvālī f. ‘a corn measure equal to half a pālī’.
660 *ardhapāṭa— ‘a half expanse’. [ardhá—2, pāṭa—] L. adhvāṛ m. ‘half a sheep's skin’; P. adhvāṛ, adhuāṛ m. ‘half of anything, one side of leather or piece of cloth’; H. adhwāṛ f. ‘half of anything, half a roll of cloth’.
661 *ardhapiṅga— ‘half—yellow’. [ardhá—2, piṅga—] H. adhẽgā m. ‘a brown bird with red throat and head and yellow wings and legs’ (= adhā̃gā < ardhāṅga—).
662 *ardhapuṭa— ‘a half fold’. [ardhá—2, puṭa—] S. adhoṛa f. ‘a skin of leather’; L. adhôṛī f. ‘half a skin of cow, buffalo, or camel when being tanned’; H. adhauṛī f. ‘a half hide’, M. adhoḍ, adhvaḍ f.; — doubtful.
663 *ardhapurāṇa— ‘half used up’. [ardhá—2, purāṇá—] S. adhorāṇo ‘half worn out’; P. addhorānā ‘half—used (of cloth)’, N. adharnu.
664 *ardhapūraka— ‘half—full’. [ardhá—2, pūraka—] S. adhoro ‘incomplete’; L. P. adhūrā ‘half—done’, Ku. N. adhuro, A. ādharuwā, H. adhūrā, G. adhurũ, M. adhurā, adhorā.
665 *ardhaphāla— ‘having half a ploughshare’. [ardhá—2, phā́la1] H. adhahrā m. ‘a plough with a small share’ or < *ardhahala—.
667 *ardhamaṇa— ‘half a maṇa’. [ardhá—2, maṇa—] P. addhaṇ, dhauṇ m. ‘half a maund’; H. adhwan, adhaun, dhaun m. ‘half a maund, half of anything’.
668 *ardhamāna— ‘a half measure’. [ardhá—2, mā́na2] Pa. addhamāna— n. ‘a partic. measure equivalent to half a māna’; OSi. aḍmanā, Si. aḍamanāva ‘a partic. measure of liquids or grain’.
669 *ardhamāṣaka— ‘half the weight māṣaka’. [ardhá—2, māṣaka—] Pa. aḍḍhamāsaka— m. ‘half a bean as a measure of value or weight’; Si. aḍumahu, °massa ‘a coin worth half a massa’.
672 *ardhavayasa— ‘middle age’. [Cf. pūrvavayasá— n. ‘first age’, madhyamavayasá— n. ‘middle age’ ŚBr.: ardhá—2, váyas3] A. ādaha ‘middle age’, ādahiyā ‘middle—aged’. Addenda: *ardhavayasa—. — Read A. ādah (AFD 208).
673 *ardhavr̥tta— ‘half—completed’. [ardhá—2, vr̥ttá—] G. adhoṭ ‘past middle age’; — or poss. < adhɔḍ see ardhavr̥ddha—.
675 *ardhavēḍa— ‘middle—aged’. [ardhá—2, vḗlā— which is perh. < *vēḍā—] P. Ku. H. adheṛ ‘middle—aged’, G. ādheṛ, ; — doubt- ful.
676 *ardhaśīrṣa— ‘migraine’. [Cf. ardhaśiras— n. ‘half a head’ ĀpŚr.: ardhá—2, śīrṣá—] Ku. adsisi ‘neuralgia’.
677 *ardhasatēra— ‘half a ser’. [ardhá—2, *satēra—] A. ādher ‘consisting of half a ser’. *ardhahala— see *ardhaphāla—. [ardhá—2, halá—]
680 *ardhāpūrta— ‘half—filled’. [ardhá—2, āpūrta—] Gaw. aḍā́waḍ ‘half—full’ Morgenstierne NOGaw 27.
681 *ardhāvr̥tta— ‘half—melted’. [ardhá—2, āvr̥tta—] H. adhāwaṭ ‘half—boiled’; G. adhoṭī f. ‘sugar—cane juice boiled but not allowed to coagulate’.
683 *ardhōttara— ‘increasing by half’. [ardhá—2, úttara—] S. adhotiro ‘carrying interest rate of 1/2% per month’.
704 *alambaka— ‘not long’. [lamba—] K. alomu ‘not pulled out straight (of a rope)’.
706 *alala— ‘cheerful noise’. [Cf. alalābhávant— ‘sounding cheerfully’ RV.] H. alal—bacheṛā m. ‘frisky colt’, alalle—talalle ‘feasting, merriment’.
709 *alasiṣṭha— ‘most lazy’. [alasá—] K. alsēṭh, alsrēṭh, arsrēṭh, gen. °ēṭas ‘very stout, foolish’; — doubtful bec. of for ṭh. alāka— see arká2.
713 *alikhant— ‘not writing’. [líkhati] G. alehtũ ‘ignorant, careless’; — very doubtful, cf. alheṛ s.v. *allaḍa—. aligarda—, °dha— see alagardá—.
714 *aliṅkāra— ‘hornet’. [Cf. alin—] WPah. l. rudh. raṅghāl ‘hornet’, h. rudh. aṅgāl, Ku. alaṅār, N. arı̃gāl, °gal, ariṅāl.
724 *allaḍa— ‘childish’. S. alaṛu ‘ignorant’, m. ‘stripling’; P. allhaṛ ‘childish’, ḍog. allaṛ ‘inexperienced’; N. allare ‘childish’; H. allaṛ, alaṛ, allaṛh ‘boyish, ignorant’; G. alheṛ ‘ignorant, care- less’; M. allaḍ, alaḍ, alhaḍ ‘raw, inexperienced’: - redup. or + bālá—: H. alaṛ—balaṛ f. ‘childish talk’.
725 *allā— ‘name of a tree or plant’. P. all f. ‘a partic. kind of vegetable’; H. M. āl f. ‘the tree Morinda citrifolia from the root of which a red dye is prepared’.
726a *avakaḍḍhati Add. 14245.
727a *avakalati Add. 14246.
727b *avakasati Add. 14247.
730 *avakāśana— ‘shining, being visible’. [√kāś] With anal. MIA. —kk—: S. okāṇaṇu ‘to clear (of the sky)’; — doubtful.
733 *avakṣara— ‘flowing down’. [~ *avajjhara—: √kṣar] Or. okhara ‘cow's milk’; — doubtful.
734 *avakṣala— ‘washing’ or *avakṣālya— ‘to be washed off’. [Cf. Pa. avakkhalita— ‘washed off’: √kṣal] A. okhal ‘dirt of body or clothes’. avakṣā́ṇa— see *avajjhāyati.
735 *avakṣāra— ‘downward flow’. 2. *avakṣāla—. [√kṣar] 1. Kal. uc̣hár ‘waterfall’; WPah. bhal. ɔ̄ċhār m. ‘trickling’. 2. Gaw. woc̣hā́l ‘waterfall’.
737 *avakṣōdati ‘crushes’. [Cf. avakṣudya ‘having rubbed or pounded to pieces’ Suśr.: √kṣud] WPah. bhad. ɔċċhnu ‘to crush and clean rice’.
738 *avakṣōpa— ‘scratching’. [√kṣup] Dm. oc̣hū́ ‘itch’, Phal. očhṓ.
740 *avagara— ‘swallowing’. [Cf. avagarat ‘swallows’ AV.: √gr̥̄ 2] Si. ugura ‘throat’ (or < udgāra—).
741 *avagarati ‘pours out’. [~avagalati: √gal1, √*gr̥̄ 1] With anal. gg: Bhoj. ogaral ‘milk to come into the udder of a cow before giving milk’; G. ogrāḷɔ m. ‘a large brass or copper ladle for serving liquid food’; M. ogarṇẽ ‘to dish or ladle out’, ogar m. ‘a mass (esp. of boiled rice) ladled out’. — Or < *udgarati 1.
744 *avagāra— ‘swallowing’. 2. *avagāla—. [Cf. Pk. oggālaï ‘chews the cud’: √gr̥̄ 2] 1. G. ɔgār n. ‘residue of cattle fodder’: semant. cf. ɔgaṭh < *avagrasta—. 2. Pk. oggālira— ‘chewing the cud’; G. ɔgāḷ m. ‘chew- ing the cud, cud, quid’. *avagāla— see *avagāra—. *avagālayati see avagalati.
745 *avagirati ‘falls down’. [Cf. avagalati ‘falls or slips down’ Śiś.: √*gr̥̄ 1] N. oirinu ‘to drop (as corn into mill), fall headlong’; - more prob. < avakirati.
747 *avagrasta— ‘eaten’. [√gras] G. ɔgaṭh, ɔgāṭ n. ‘residue of cattle fodder’: for ṭh in place of th cf. S. ǥaṭho s.v. grasta—; semant. cf. ɔgār < *avagāra—.
748 *avaghaṭṭati ‘decreases, recedes’. [√ghaṭṭ 2] Pk. ōhaṭṭa— ‘withdrawn’, ōhaṭṭaï ‘decreases, with- draws’; Ku. ugaṭṇo ‘to abate, be ruined’; M. ohaṭṇẽ, auṭhṇẽ ‘to abate, ebb, flow down’ (Bloch LM 303 < apahr̥ta—).
750 *avaghara— ‘flowing down’. 2. *avaghala—. [√ghr̥ 1] 1. Pk. deśīn. vōhara— n. (v— from vaha— ‘current’) ‘water—channel’; L. ohrī f. ‘small water—channel from well’; M. ohar m. ‘channel worn into land by irruptions from the sea’. 2. M. ohaḷ m. ‘oozing, streamlet’; — oḷ, oḷī f. ‘stream- let, gutter’ (rather than < avali—); — with anal. ggh: oghaḷ, vagh° m.f. ‘streamlet’.
751 *avagharati ‘flows down, drops’. 2. *avaghalati. 3. *avaghālayati. [√ghr̥ 1] 1. Pk. ōharaï ‘throws down, upsets’. 2. M. ohaḷṇẽ, vah° ‘to ooze, trickle’; — with anal. ggh: M. oghaḷṇẽ, vagh° ‘to trickle, fall off’. 3. M. ohaḷṇẽ, vah° ‘to upset’; — with anal. ggh: M. oghaḷṇẽ, vagh° tr. ‘to slip off, make run or slip, reject’.
752 *avagharṣa— ‘rubbing’. [Cf. avagharṣaṇa— n. ‘rubbing off’ Yājñ.: √ghr̥ṣ] Pk. ōhaṁsa— m. ‘stone for rubbing sandal, sandal’ (J. Charpentier IL ii 45 < avadhvaṁsá—), ōharisa— m.; G. orsiyɔ m. ‘stone for rubbing sandal on’, orasṛī f. ‘small ditto’. *avaghala— see *avaghara—. *avaghalati see *avagharati.
754 *avaghātana— ‘instrument for crushing’. [Cf. avaghāta- m. ‘threshing corn in a mortar’ Jaim.: √han 1] M. vāhaṇ, vāyaṇ, vāīṇ n. ‘stone mortar fixed in the ground’.
756 *avaghāla— ‘trickling down’. [√ghr̥ 1] Mth. ohārī ‘end of a thatched roof’, ohālī ABORI xxi 107; G. ohāḷ m., oḷi f. ‘silt at the mouth of a river’. *avaghālayati see *avagharati.
757 *avaghrāyati ‘smells at’. [Cf. ávaghrāpayati ‘causes to smell at’ ŚBr.: √ghrā] See *upaghrāyati.
761 *avacchadana— ‘covering’. [√chad 1] S. ochaṇu m. ‘covering, dress’.
762 *avacchadman— ‘covering’. [Cf. chadman—: √chad 1] M. osad, °at f. ‘shade with an evil influence, shade, shadow in general’.
763 *avacchāda— ‘cover’. [√chad 1] Gy. eur. (Sofia) učhál, wel. učal m. ‘shade’; G. ɔchāyɔ m. ‘shadow’.
764 *avacchādana— ‘covering’. [√chad 1] Pk. occhāyaṇa—; N. ochyān ‘bedding’; Mth. ŏchāŏn, ŏchaunā ‘bed covering’.
767 *avacchr̥ndati ‘abandons’. [√chr̥d] M. osãḍṇẽ tr. ‘to abandon, cast off, throw away’, intr. ‘to be shed, to spill, drop, fall’.
768 *avacchyati ‘cuts off’. 2. *avacchāyayati caus. [Cf. ávacchita— ‘reaped’ ŚBr., °chāta— KātyŚr., chāyayati Pāṇ.: √chō] 1. Kho. ōčhik ‘to break into’; M. õ;sṇẽ ‘to strip off (bark, &c.)’. 2. Or. uchāibā ‘to prune, lop’, or < *ucchyati.
769 *avajjhara— ‘trickling’. [~ *avakṣara—: √*jhar] Pk. ojjhara—, uj° m. ‘stream coming down a mountain- side’; M. oj̈har m. ‘trickling, stream’.
770 *avajjharati ‘drips down, falls, throws down or away’. [√*jhar] Pk. ojjharia— ‘thrown aside’; S. ojhiraṇu ‘to nod from drowsing’; Mth. ojharab ‘to be put in disorder, be dis- hevelled’; G. ojhartũ ‘sweeping along, passing with a slight touch’; M. oj̈harṇẽ ‘to trickle, ooze, run in streamlets, graze, just touch’. — Cf. *ujjharati.
771 *avajjhāyati ‘extinguishes’. [Cf. avakṣā́ṇa— ‘burnt down, extinguished’ MaitrS., aṅgārāvakṣáyaṇa— n. ‘instrument for extinguishing coals’ ŚBr.: √*jhai] N. ojhāunu ‘to extinguish a torch, pull a log from the fire and extinguish it’. — MIA. *ojjhāi X vijjhāyati q.v.
771a *avajjhālayati ‘pours down’. [√*jhal] Or. ojhāḷibā ‘to clean out a well or tank, repair a house’. — Cf. *ujjhālayati. avaṭá— ‘pit’: see avatá—.
772 *avaṭṭhiṅga— ‘prop’. [*ṭhiṅga1] G. ɔṭhı̃gvũ, aṭh° ‘to lean’, ɔṭhı̃gaṇ n. ‘a prop’.
773 *avaḍḍhāla— ‘falling down’. [√*ḍhal] Bshk. ōḍā́l ‘flood’, Phal. oḍhāl, °ōl.
778 *avatudyatē ‘is pushed off’. [Cf. avatunna— ‘pushed off’ Car.: √tud] H. ojnā tr. ‘to stop’.
779 *avatrapatē ‘is ashamed’. [Cf. apatrapatē MBh.: √trap] Pa. ottapati ‘feels a sense of guilt’, Aś. shah. avatrapeyu ‘be ashamed’; NiDoc. otrava ‘shame’; Kho. ortréik ‘to shy’ Morgenstierne BelvalkarVol 86 < *avatrapaya—.
780 *avatrapya— ‘shame’ .[Cf. apatrapā— f. ‘shame’ lex., nirapatrapa— ‘shameless’ MBh.: √trap] Pa. ottappa— n. ‘remorse’, Si. otap ‘fear to commit sin, shame’; — G. atrūp ‘shameless’ < *utrāp ‘shameful’?
787 *avanamaka— ‘bending’. [√nam] Pa. ōnamaka—; M. oṇvā, vaṇ°, onvā ‘stooping’.
789 *avanahati ‘covers. [Cf. avanahya KātyŚr., ávanaddha- AV., Pa. ōnaddha—, Pk. ōṇaddha—: √nah] Aw. onahā ‘overcast’ pp. of *onah— Baburam Saksena NIA i 397. avanāmayati see avanamati.
791 *avanijyati ‘washes’. [ávanēniktē ‘washes oneself’, ávanējayati ‘causes to wash’ ŚBr.: √nij] Paš. lauṛ. ōnǰ— ‘to wash (clothes, hands)’, ar. äı̃ž—: the latter poss. < *ānijyati (for prep. cf. āsnāna— beside snā́na—); — cf. Pa. ōṇōjēti J. Charpentier IL ii 55 cannot explain ō < ē.
793 *avapuṣya— ‘bud’. [Cf. Pa. ōpuppha— m. ‘bud’ < *ava- puṣpa—: púṣya1] Kal. ušik ‘flower’. avabaddha— see avabandhati.
800 *avamakrama— ‘lower row’. [avamá—, kráma—] Wg. ū̃křem dū̃t ‘the lower teeth’; — more prob., like oı̃nkřem dū̃t ‘the upper teeth’, a Wg. cmpd. *avamardati, avamr̥dnāti ‘rubs’ MBh. [√mr̥d] See *ādhūṇḍh—.
802 *avamalaka— ‘partially impure’. [mála—] M. õ;vḷā, ov°, oḷā ‘impure only in a secondary degree’; — cf. Pk. ōmaïlla— ‘dirty’. *avamāṁśa— ‘worst portion’. [avamá—, áṁśa—.] See *adhamāṁśa—. avamāna— see apamāna—.
808 *avaratya— ‘sleep’. [For formation cf. *ātatya— ~ *ātati—: avarati—] Pasš. ōráč m. ‘sleep’.
809 *avarandhati ‘hurts, destroys’. [√randh] Pr. orod— ‘to beat’.
810 *avarapāra— ‘the near bank’. [ávara—, pārá—] Pa. ōrapāra— in anōrapāra— ‘boundless (of the ocean)’; L. urvār ‘on this side of a river’.
811 *avarampati or °phati ‘cuts, scrapes off’. [Cf. raphitá- ‘wretched’ RV., raphati, ramph° ‘injures’ Vop.: √*ramp] Pk. ōraṁpia— ‘scraped, made thin’ (cf. raṁpia— and raṁphia—); M. orapṇẽ, orbaḍṇẽ, orphaḍṇẽ ‘to scrape, scratch, strip off leaves’.
814 *avarīyatē ‘flows down’. 2. *avarīṇa—. 3. *avarē- payati. [Cf. rı̄́yatē ‘flows’ RV., rīṇa— lex., rēpayati Gr.: √] 1. Pk. ōlīaï ‘comes down’; Si. erenavā ‘to flow into the udder (of milk), to sink in the mud’. 2. Si. eruṇā pret. of preceding. 3. G. oravvũ ‘to irrigate with well water’; Si. erava- navā ‘to cause to flow down’. *avarīṇa— see *avarīyatē. *avarēpayati see *avarīyatē. Addenda: *avarīyatē: Md. varanī ‘pours’, fen v° ‘bathes’, verum ‘pouring’.
816 *avarōṣa— ‘anger’. [√ruṣ] Wg. urū́ṣ ‘anger’ (or < *ārōṣa—), Si. erehiya (< *ava- rōṣita—?). avarōha— see avarōdha—.
818a *avartmaka— Add. 14250.
819 *avala— ‘contrary’. 2. *avalla—. 1. Pk. avila— ‘difficult’; S. auro ‘ill dispositioned’, aurī f. ‘difficulty, calamity’; G. avḷũ ‘contrary, obstinate’. 2. S. avalo ‘contrary, perverse, unpropitious’.
820 *avalagati ‘fastens to, touches’. [Cf. avalagayati KātyŚr. com.: √lag] Pk. ōlaïa— ‘touching’; S. oraṇu ‘to talk over one's mis- fortunes’ semant. cf. avalagna—.
821 *avalagana— ‘something hanging’. [√lag] H. olan m. ‘plummet’; M. oḷaṇ, olāṇī f. ‘clothes line, string of an iron lamp’, oḷāṇẽ, olā° n. ‘string of an iron lamp, cloth worn during ablution’ (cf. Pk. ōlaïa— ‘put on, worn’).
823 *avalagyati ‘clings to, hangs from’. [√lag] Pa. ōlaggēti ‘makes cling to’; Pk. ōlaggaï ‘follows, serves’; Ash. uluṅa— intr. ‘to hang’, Kt. wuluṅ— ‘to seize’ (NTS ii 241 < avalaṅghayati?); G. oḷaguũ ‘to frequent’; M. oḷãgṇẽ, vaḷ°, vaḷag°, vaḷagh°, vaḷãgh° ‘to hang from, cling to, grasp’, oḷãgh° ‘to cling to, grasp’: nasalized forms perh. X avalambatē, forms with gh perh. X avalaṅghayati, but in M. may be simple variations of spelling.
824 *avalaṅghati °ghita— ‘passed (of time)’ Kathās. [Cf. *avalaṅghayati in Pa. ōlaṅghēti ‘makes jump down’: √laṅgh] S. orā̃ghaṇu ‘to step over’, oraṅgha f. ‘stepping over’; G. oḷãghvũ, °ãguũ ‘to cross, violate’, orãgɔ m. ‘act of crossing, a wrestling trick’.
825 *avalaṇḍayati ‘crosses’. [Cf. ōlaṇḍati ‘throws out’ Dhātup.? — √laṇḍ] Pk. ōlaṇḍēi ‘crosses, transgresses’; M. olā̃ḍṇẽ, olã°, olhā̃ḍṇe ‘to cross or pass over’.
828 *avalaya— ‘refuge’. [√ 1] L. olā m. ‘screen, shelter’; H. olā m. ‘screen’; G. oḷɔ m. ‘shelter, protection’. Addenda: *avalaya—: WPah.kṭg. ōl f. ‘cave’; H. ol m.f. ‘screen, shelter’. — OP. olhā m. ‘screen, shelter’ X *ōḍḍh—?
829 *avalalati ‘descends’. 2. *avalālayati. 3. *avalāla—. [√lal, and cf. √*laḍ 2] 1. Pk. ollaria— ‘asleep’; Ku. ularṇo ‘to descend, be degraded’; N. orlanu ‘to descend’; Or. uluribā ‘to fall from its proper place, to be pulled down (of thatch)’. 2. Ku. ulārṇo ‘to bring down’, N. orālnu, orhā°; Or. ulāribā ‘to take down thatch off a roof’. 3. Ku. ulār, °ro m. ‘downward slope, descent’, N. orālo. Addenda: avalalati. 1. WPah.kṭg. ɔḷnõ; ‘to fall down’. 3. *avalāla—: WPah.kṭg. rwaḷi f. ‘downward slope, descent’.
830 *avalavati ‘cuts off’. [Cf. avalūna— ‘cut off’ lex.: √] Sh. valōnu̯ ‘to shave (the beard)’; G. ɔḷavvũ ‘to mis- appropriate’ (or < *avalōpayati).
831 *avalasati ‘slips down’. 2. *avalasita—. [√*las 2] 1. Pk. ōrasaï ‘descends’; S. ulahaṇu ‘to descend, set (sun, moon, &c.)’, ulahando m. ‘the West’. 2. S. olahyo ‘western’. *avalāla— see *avalalati. *avalālayati see *avalalati. *avali— ‘line, row’ see āvali—. Addenda: *avalasati. 3. *avalasta— (cf. *lasta— id.): OP. ulatthā ‘descended’. *avalāla— see *avalalati Add2.
832 *avalipya— ‘to be smeared’. [Cf. avalipta— ‘smeared’ MBh., Pa. ullittāvalitta— ‘plastered inside and out’, Pk. ōliṁpaï, ōlitta—: √lip] G. oḷap, kāṭh. orpɔ m. ‘line made in plastering with cowdung’.
834 *avaluṇḍati ‘spills’. [√luḍ] Pk. ōluṁḍaï ‘falls, drips’; — M. olãḍṇẽ, ul° tr. and intr. ‘to turn over, spill’ bec. of —l— < MIA. ll rather < *ulluṇḍati.
835 *avalēpayati ‘smears’. [avalimpati KauṣBr., avalēpana- n. ‘ointment’ Suśr., Pk. ōliṁpaï: √lip See upalēpayati.
838 *avalōḍayati ‘stirs up’. [√luḍ] Paš. oroṛ— ‘to mix’.
839 *avalōpayati ‘has cut off’. [avalumpati ‘takes off, cuts off’ TS., Pa. ōlumpēti ‘wrests off’, Pk. ōluṁpa— m. ‘crush- ing’: √lup] G. oḷavvũ ‘to misappropriate’ or < *avalavati. *avavartana— see *avavartayati.
840 *avavartayati ‘turns round’. 2. *avavartana— n. 3. *avavṛttra— ‘instrument for twirling’. [√vr̥t 1] 1. Pk. ōvattēi ‘twirls round’; Ku. auṭṇo ‘to card cotton’, N. oı̃ṭnu, uı̃ṭnu, Bi. oṭab, õ;ṭab, Mth. aũṭab; H. oṭnā ‘to thrum’. 2. H. oṭnī f. ‘instrument for separating seed from cotton’; M. vaṭṇẽ n. ‘instrument for rolling cotton to separate seed’. 3. S. aiṭru m. ‘spinning wheel’, aiṭriṛī f. ‘small do., cotton cleaning machine’; Ku. wẽṭo ‘cotton gin’, auṭo ‘spindle, cotton gin’; N. oı̃ṭo, uı̃ṭo, aı̃ṭo ‘cotton gin’.
841 *avavahati ‘carries down’. [√vah] Pa. ōvahati, pass. ōvuyhati ‘is carried down (a river)’, Pk. ōvahaï ‘flows, sinks’; Bshk. — ‘to flow’ (ū wāant ‘the water is flowing’: Morgenstierne AO xviii 255 < upavah—?); Phal. wahā́ndu ‘streaming, running (of water)’.
843 *avavālayati ‘waves round’. [√val] G. ovāḷvũ ‘to wave a platter with lighted wicks, coins, &c., round the head of a person or idol to remove ill-luck’, M. õ;vāḷṇẽ Bloch LM 303. *avavr̥ta— ‘covered’ see *ōṭṭā—. *avavr̥ttra— see *avavartayati.
844 *avavr̥ddha— or *apa° ‘cut off’. [For prep. cf. ávakr̥ntati ŚBr., apak° Kauś.: √vardh] P. auḍhā, oḍhā m. ‘a strip of leather (esp. for holding the butt of a horseman's spear), stirrup, part of girth’.
845 *avavr̥ṣṭi— ‘rainfall’. [Cf. avavarṣati ‘rains on’ VS., Pa. ōvassati; ávavr̥ṣṭa— TBr., Pk. ōvaṭṭha— ‘rained on’; m. ‘rain’: √vr̥ṣ] S. oṭhi f. ‘falling of rain, plenty of rain, fallen rain’. ávavyayati see ápavyayati.
846 *avaśaṅkatē ‘hesitates’. 2. *avaśaṅkā— f. [√śaṅk] 1. G. ośãkvũ ‘to feel bashful’. 2. G. ośãk f. ‘bashfulness’. Both with ś due to Sk. śaṅkā—?
847 *avaśapati ‘curses’, *avaśapa— m. [Cf. avaśapta- ‘cursed’ MBh., śapa— m. lex.: √śap] K. wŏhawun ‘to curse’, wŏhav m. ‘curse’. Phonet. these may also represent *apa—śap, ut—, upa—, vi— (cf. viśápta— ‘abjured’ MaitrS.).
848 *avaśara— ‘protection, shelter’. 2. *avaśāra—. [For semantic change to ‘roof, veranda, porch’ cf. esp. śaraṇá—. G. ɔ— points to initial apa—. In view of Pa. Pk. words derivation from apasā̆ra— (Bloch LM 303, ND 63 b 10) is semantically unsatisfactory; these words also rule out conn. with upaśāla— n. ‘courtyard before a house’ Kauś. —√śar] 1. Pa. ōsaraka— ‘affording shelter, overhanging (of eaves)’; Pk. ōsariā— f. ‘part round the outside of the door, terrace’; Bi. ŏsrā, (Gaya) usrā ‘veranda’, Mth. (SBha- galpur) ŏsro, Bhoj. ōsarā; G. ɔsrī f. ‘steps at entrance door, front portion of house’; M. osrī f. ‘veranda or unwalled space in front of or behind central part of house’. 2. Pa. ōsāraka— m. ‘outbuilding, shed’; Pk. ōsāra— m. ‘cow shed’; Mth. osārā, osara ‘outer veranda of house’, Bi. osārā, °rī, H. osārā, us° m. ‘veranda, porch’ (→ P. usārā m. ‘porch, vestibule, room on the roof of a house’). *avaśāra— ‘protection’ see *avaśara—. [√śar] Addenda: *avaśara—: S.kcch. ausrī f. ‘front portion of house, verandah’.
851 *avaśīyatē 2 ‘is cold’. 2. *avaśyāpayati caus. 3. *avaśyāpana—. [Cf. śīyatē ‘is cold, congeals’ TS., avaśīta— ‘cooled’ Pāṇ., śyāpayati ‘causes to congeal’ Gr.: √śyai]. 1. N. osinu ‘to be damp’. 2. N. osāunu ‘to make damp’; Bhoj. osāil ‘to pour out a liquid to cool it’. 3. Bi. osaunī ‘flat wooden pan for cooling syrup’.
852a *avaśuṣka— ‘dried up’. [Cf. avaśuṣyati ‘becomes dry’ VāyuP., Pa. avasussati ‘withers’: √śuṣ 1] Pk. ōsukka— ‘dried’, ōsukkhaï ‘makes dry’; Kho. (Lor.) osukik, us° ‘to wither, cease suckling (a child), come to an end’ with dissimilation of ś to s before rather than direct < pre—IA. *suṣ—? If u— is earlier than o—, prob. < *ut—śuṣka— or *upaśuṣka—.
853 *avaśūyatē ‘subsides (of a swelling)’. [For this use of ava in compd. cf. avasavya— ‘not left’: √śvi] M. vasuj̄ṇẽ ‘(a swelling) to subside’.
854 *avaścandati ‘jumps down’. [< IE. *skend—, see *ścandati: cf. avaskandati ‘jumps down’ BhP.: √skand] Kal. učhúndim ‘I dismount, descend’; — semant. Pk. occhaṁdia— ‘carried off, hurt’, occhanna— ‘attacked, seized’ is difficult, but perh. < ‘jumped upon’.
856 *avaśrayati ‘leans from’. [Cf. avaśrayaṇa— n. ‘act of taking off the fire’ lex.: √śri] Pk. avassiya— ‘hanging from, resting on’; Wg. uṣō- ‘to fall’; Paš. uṣ— ‘to fall down, collapse’ (IIFL iii 3, 20 < avaśr̥̄—); Kal. uṣím tr. ‘I hang’ (or poss. < úpaśrayati: for śr > see śŕ̥ṅga—, śīrṣá—, > str see áśru—, śrṓṇi—); - Kho. (Lor.) ušik ‘to become dissolved, to melt’ if š represents ; if not, then < avaśīyatē 1.
857 *avaślakṣṇayati ‘smooths out’. [Cf. ślakṣṇayati ‘smooths, softens’ KātyŚr.: ślakṣṇá—] Pa. ōsaṇhēti ‘smooths out, combs out’; H. osannā ‘to knead dough’. avasá— see apūpá—.
859 *avasalati ‘jumps down’. [√sal] Wg. ūsal— ‘to fall’.
861 *avasāra— ‘moving aside’. [Cf. avasārayati: √sr̥] Pk. ōsāra— m. ‘going away’; B. osār ‘width, wide’, Or. osār, usār, H. osār m. and adj.; M. osār, vasār, usār m. ‘space left vacant, room for passing’, osārā m. ‘inter- mission of work’.
863 *avasupta— ‘asleep’. [Cf. Pk. ōsōvaṇī— f. ‘hypnotic power’: √svap] Pr. ostom— ‘to fall asleep’ Morgenstierne NTS xv 287 without being able to account for —m—. Rather < *ava- stumbhatē. avaskara— ‘faeces’ see apaskara—.
865 *avastara— ‘strewing, covering’. [√str̥] Pa. ottharaka— n. ‘a kind of strainer’; N. othro ‘nest’. avastaraṇa— see *avastarati.
866 *avastarati, ávastr̥ṇāti ‘strews’ VS., ‘covers’ MBh. 2. avastaraṇa— n. ‘strewing’ KātyŚr., ‘bed—cover’ Āp. [√str̥] 1. Pa. ottharati ‘covers’; Pk. ottharaï, ut° ‘covers, overcomes’, (X chad—: occharaï ‘covers’); K. wŏtharun ‘to wipe’; N. othranu ‘to hatch (eggs)’; Mth. otharab ‘to spread (esp. kuśa grass)’; — G. ɔtharvũ ‘to be possessed by anger’? 2. Pa. ottharaṇa— n. ‘spreading over’; Pk. ottharaṇa- n. ‘coverlet’; K. wǒ;tharunu m. ‘towel’.
868 *avastumbhatē ‘becomes still’. [√stubh 2] Pr. ostom— ‘to fall asleep’, absol. ostomı̄́ (Morgenstierne NTS xv 287 suggests *avasupta—).
869 *avastr̥ti— ‘spreading’. [Cf. stŕ̥ti— f. TS. and *avastr̥ta— in Pa. otthaṭa— ‘spread over’, Pk. otthaa— ‘scattered’: √str̥] S. othaṛi, °ṛa f. ‘any epidemic or contagious disease, pestilence’.
870 *avastēpa— ‘dripping down’. [√stip] G. uthevɔ m. ‘leak in a roof’; M. othivḷā, othiḷā, othḷā m. ‘drippings from a tree after a shower’.
876 *avasnāyati ‘bathes’, cf. avasnāpayati ‘washes’ Kauś. 2. avasnāta— ‘bathed in’ MBh. 3. *avasnāna— ‘bathing’. [√snā] 1. Kho. usnéik ‘to swim’ Morgenstierne Belvalkar Vol 86 (rather than < útsnāti ‘emerges from water’ which would have > uṣ—). 2. S. ūnho ‘deep’: doubtful but cf. next. 3. Pk. avaṇhāṇa— n. ‘washing’; Kho. usnānu ‘deep water where it is necessary to swim’; S. ūnhāṛu m. (< *ūnhāṇu with dissimilation of n?), ūnhāṇī f. ‘depth’.
878 *avasravaṇa— ‘flowing down’. [Cf. avasrāvayati ‘makes flow down’ KātyŚr.: √sru] Pa. ossavana— n. ‘outflow, running water’; M. vasaṇ n. ‘alluvium’.
886 *avālu— ‘mucus membrane of mouth (?)’. Pk. avāluā— f. ‘part adjoining the lips’; G. avāḷu n. ‘gums of the teeth’.
891 *avidhavātva— n. ‘the state of a woman whose husband is living’. 2. *avidhavātvana—. [avidhavā́—] 1. B. āiot, OAw. ahivāta, lakh. auhāt, H. ahiwāt, ahī° f. — Deriv. Ku. awaitī ‘a woman whose husband is living’, Or. uhāti, Bi. ahiwātī, ehw°, H. ahiwātī f. 2. G. e h e vātraṇ, e vātaṇ, h e vātan, e vā° n.
892 *avipaṣṭha— ‘lamb’. [ávi—, *paṣṭha—] S. aiṭha f. ‘she-goat 10 or 12 months old’. — Or < *ajapaṣṭha—.
894 *avibhīta— ‘fearless’. [Cf. vibhīta— ‘afraid’ MārkP., Pk. vīhiya— ‘frightened’ < *vihīya—; vibibhēti ‘fears’ MBh.: √bhī] H. poet. awīh ‘fearless’ rather than < abhīta—.
895 *avimaya— ‘consisting of sheep’. [ávi—, maya—: cf. gōmáya— ‘consisting of cattle’ RV.] Kt. ‘sheep’, Wg. wamḗ, Pr. wamī (poss. Morgen- stierne NTS xvii 310).
896 *avivāṭa— m. ‘sheep-pen’. [ávi—, vāṭa1] H. aiwārā m. ‘shed for sheep, goats or cattle in jungle’: with EH. —r— < —— rather than < —vāra—. — Or < *ajavāṭa—.
898 *avīdhriya— ‘cloudy sky’. [*vīdhriya—] Paš. nir. abili ‘dust cloud’, weg. avelı̄́ ‘shade (?)’: —b- from an unrecorded positive with b— < v—. — Doubt- ful.
901 *avōṅghati ‘sleeps’. 2. *avōṅghā— ‘sleep’. [For ava- cf. avasupta— ‘asleep’ R.: √*uṅgh] 1. P. ū̃ghṇā ‘to doze’; Mth. aũghāeb ‘to be sleepy’, H. aũghnā, °ghānā. 2. S. ū̃gha f. ‘sleep’, P. ū̃gh f., H. õ;gh f. *avōṇḍa— ‘deep’: see *ūṇḍa—.
902 *avōtta— ‘flowed down’. [Cf. avōda—, utta— ‘wet’ lex., unátti ‘wets, flows’ RV.: √ud 2] S. otaṇu ‘to pour’, ota f. ‘pouring’; G. otvũ ‘to pour, form by melting and pouring into a mould, cast’, M. otṇẽ, vat°; OM. vota m. ‘overflow of a stream’. — Or phonet. as well, but semant. less likely < úpōtta- ‘moistened’ TS., úpōnatti ‘wets’ ŚBr. avōda— see úpōdaka—.
903 *avyūḍha— ‘unmarried’. [Cf. vyūḍha— ‘married’ Kathās.: √vah] B. āibuṛa, Or. āibuṛhā.
904 *avvā— ‘mother’. Pk. avvā— f. ‘mother’; M. avā, avāji f. ‘term of courtesy in addressing a Śūdra woman’. 1 ‘reach’: áṁśa—, *aśyatē; abhyāśa—, *vyaṣṭa—. 2 ‘eat’: *aśati, áśana—, ā́śa, āśá—; prāśa—, prāśanīya—.
908 *aśati ‘eats’, aśnā́ti RV., aor. subj. aśīt, past part. aśitá—. 2. Perf. ā́śa. [√ 2] 1. Aś. gen sg. pres. part. shah. aśamanasa, man. aśatasa; Paš. ay— ‘to eat’, I sg. pres. ayam (IIFL iii 3, 24 < ad—, see *adati). 2. Kal. āšis, urt. ažuis ‘I ate’.
916 *aśyatē ‘is obtained’. [Cf. aśnṓti ‘obtains’ RV.: √ 1] Sh. koh. hăšōnu̯ ‘to be obtained’.
917 *aśravaṇaka— ‘deaf’. [Cf. aśravaṇa— n. ‘not hearing’, Pa. assavanatā— f. ‘inattention’: śrávaṇa—] Kt. asƏṅa ‘deaf’.
934 *aṣṭapakṣa— [aṣṭā́, pakṣá—] Si. aṭavaka, coll. aṭōka ‘the eighth day after new or full moon’ Geiger GS 88.
936 *aṣṭabhōgya— ‘eighth share’. [aṣṭā́, bhṓgya—] L. aṭhōg m. ‘an eighth share, esp. of land’.
939 *aṣṭamāsya— ‘of eight months’. 2. *aṣṭamāsiya—. [aṣṭā́, māsya—] 1. Bi. aṭhwā̃s ‘eight months’ child’, Mth. aṭhmās, (SBhagalpur) aṭhmasuā; H. aṭhwā̃sā m. ‘land ploughed for sugar—cane for eight months’. 2. B. aṭāse ‘eight months’ child’, Or. aṭhāsiā, Bi. (S of Ganges) aṭhwā̃sī.
940 *aṣṭavāra— ‘period of eight days’. [aṣṭā́, vāra2] P. ḍog. ṭhuār m. ‘eight days’; WPah. cam. aṭhwārā ‘week’; Or. āṭhuāri ‘happening once a week’; H. aṭhwārā m. ‘week’. Addenda: *aṣṭavāra—. — X cmpds. with vāṭa1: H. aṭhwāṛā m., G. aṭhvāḍiyũ n., M. āṭhavḍā m. (pandravḍā m. ‘fortnight’).
942 *aṣṭāguṇa— ‘eightfold’. [aṣṭaguṇa— Mn.: aṣṭā́, guṇá—] S. aṭhū̃ṇo, P. aṭhāuṇā.
947 *aṣṭādhika— ‘eight above’. [aṣṭā́, ádhika—] S. aṭhyo ‘eight above’ (used as a prefix to 100's).
956 *aṣṭōttara— ‘increased by eight’. [aṣṭā́, úttara—] Pk. aṭṭhuttara— ‘plus eight’, Si. aṭaturu. *aṣṭōttaraśata—.
957 *aṣṭōttaraśata— ‘one hundred and eight’. [aṣṭōttara—, śatá—] Pa. aṭṭhuttarasata— n. ‘the lucky number 108’; Pk. aṭṭhuttarasaya— n. ‘108’; Si. aṭaturusiya ‘108’ prob., like aṭaturāsiya despite DSL 103, a Si. cmpd.
961 *asaghra— ‘not strong’. [*saghra—: √sagh] S. agho ‘weak’ < *ahagho?. — Deriv. aghāī f. ‘weak- ness’, aghāijaṇu ‘to become weak’.
965 *asamabhara— ‘uneven load’. [ásama—, bhára—] L. ā̃hvar f. ‘an uneven one—sided load’.
970 *asigrāha— ‘sword—bearer’. [así—, grāhá—] Pa. asiggāha—, °aka— m. ‘sword—bearer’, Si. (SigGr) asigi.
981 *asthāghya— ‘unfordable’. [sthāgha—] Pk. atthaggha— ‘deep’; G. athāg, °āk ‘bottomless’, M. athā̃g, athāk. Addenda: *asthāghya—. 2. †;*asthāghiya—: A. âthāi ‘fathomless’ AFD 224.
995 *ahirūpa— ‘snake’. [áhi—, rūpá—] G. h e ru m.n., e ru m. ‘snake’, Ko. hairũ.
997 *āī— ‘mother, aunt’. [Prob. a nursery word] Dm. ‘mother’, yai ‘grandmother’; Paš. āı̄́ ‘mother’ (→ Par. āi IIFL iii 3, 1), Kal. ā́y *l, Bshk. īēī; S. āī f. ‘mother, aunt, respectful address for any senior female relative’; N. āi—māi ‘wife, woman’; A. āi ‘mother, smallpox’, āiṭi ‘affectionate address for a girl’; B. āī ‘mother's mother, mother's aunt’; Or. āī ‘mother's mother’; G. āi f. ‘mother, grandmother’; M. āī f. ‘mother, term of endearment for an infant’, āī—bāī f. ‘motherly old woman’, āī—māī f. ‘mother, motherly person’. — The Dard. words poss. < āryikā—. Addenda: *āī—: S.kcch. āī f. ‘mother’; WPah.kc. ai.
998 *ākaḍḍhati ‘pulls’. [Cf. ākarṣati: √*kaḍḍh] Pa. ākaḍḍhati ‘draws out or up or to’; Pk. āyaḍḍhaï ‘pulls’; — S. āḍhaṇu ‘to smear with oil’, L. āḍhaṇ ‘to rub, shampoo with oil, &c.’ (< ‘*manipulate’?).
999 *ākattha— ‘talk’. [ākatthana— ‘boasting’ R.: √katth] Paš. ā g āt m. ‘word, tale’ (← Sk. Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 7.)
1009 *ākāśiya—, ākāśyà— ‘of the sky’ Pāṇ. Kāś., ākāśīya- Suśr. [ākāśá—] Pk. āgāsiya— ‘having reached the sky’; Sh. gil. ăgái f. ‘sky’, gur. aṅáï (earlier *agāši → Ḍ. *l gōṣ f. ‘sky’ if recorded for š, Bur. aiy *l š, Par. ā g ḗš IIFL i 232).
1011 *ākucyatē ‘is contracted’. [Cf. ākuñcayati ‘bends’ Suśr., Pk. āuṁcēi ‘contracts’: √kuc] M. akrusṇẽ, °asṇẽ (X akarasṇẽ ← Sk. ākarṣati).
1013 *ākkaḍa— ‘cramped, stiff’. [Poss. < ā́kr̥ta— ‘arranged, built’ RV., ā́kr̥ti— f. ‘shape’ KātyŚr.: ‘shaped > *mis- shapen’] K. akūru ‘stiff’; S. ākuṛu m. ‘cramp, stiffness’, ākaṛi f. ‘pride’; L. ākiṛ f. ‘stiffness, conceit’, ākaṛaṇ ‘to become stiff, stretch oneself’; P. ākaṛ, ak° f. ‘crookedness, affectation’, ākaṛnā, ak° ‘to writhe, be stiff, be cramped, strut’; Ku. akaṛṇo ‘to be cramped, be cold, be dis- obedient’; N. akkar ‘a difficult place’, akranu ‘to get cramped’; B. ākaṛ ‘difficult’; H. akaṛ f. ‘twist, bend, foppery’, akaṛnā ‘to be numbed’; G. akkaṛ ‘stiff, erect’, m. ‘fop’, akṛāvũ ‘to be stiff, boast’; M. akaḍ f. ‘swagger’, akaḍṇẽ ‘to strut’. — With —r— in place of ——: P. ākar = ākaṛ, ākrā ‘stiff (esp. of flour)’. Addenda: *ākkaḍa—: WPah.kṭg. ɔṅkƏṛnõ; ‘to stretch oneself, strut’; WPah.J. akṛnu ‘to be stiff, strut’.
1014 *ākkira— ‘dear, costly’. [Connexion with ā—krī- (*ākrī—ra—?) very doubtful] S. ākiro ‘risen in price, dear, cross—dispositioned’; B. ākrā ‘high priced’; Or. ākrā ‘costly, urgent’; H. akrā ‘costly’; G. ākrũ ‘costly, difficult, hot—tempered (= ākḷũ)’. ā́kta— see aktá—. Addenda: *ākkira—: OMarw. ākaraü ‘bright (of lamps), sharp (of speech)’.
1020b *ākṣapāṭa— Add. 14264.
1021 *ākṣaya— ‘dwelling place’. [ā́kṣēti ‘dwells’ RV.: √kṣi 1] S. ākheṛo m. ‘a bird's nest’.
1022 *ākṣara— ‘flowing, dripping’. [√kṣar] S. ākharu m. ‘scum of butter which rises when boil- ing to make ghee’.
1023 *ākṣarati ‘drips’. [ākṣārayati ‘besprinkles’; cf. *ākṣa- lati: √kṣar] N. akhranu ‘to become partly dry (usu. of clothes)’.
1024 *ākṣalati ‘flows’. 2. *ākṣālayati ‘causes to flow’ [Cf. *ākṣarati: √kṣal] 1. OM. āsalaṇeṁ ‘to flow (of tide), swell up’. 2. L. akhālaṇ ‘to clear (a watercourse)’. *ākṣālayati see *ākṣalati. Addenda: *ākṣalati. 2. *ākṣālayati: Garh. akhāḷnu ‘to rinse’. *ākṣālayati see *ākṣalati Add2.
1027 *ākṣirati ‘perishes’. [√kṣar] Sh. (Lor.) e c̣iroiki, *l c̣° ‘to become at a loss when looking for a thing’; — doubtful.
1028 *ākṣuṭati ‘puts against’. [√kṣuṭ] S. ākhuṛaṇu ‘to trip’.
1029 *ākṣuṇṇa— ‘pierced’. [√kṣud] Sh. ăc̣hūṇu̯ m. ‘hole’, °ṇi̯ f. ‘small hole’.
1030 *ākṣundati ‘tramples’. [Cf. ākṣōdana— n. ‘hunting’ lex.: √kṣud] Kt. ačune— ‘to run’ (semant. cf. G. khũdṇũ ‘running about’ see *kṣundati). — Or < *ācchundati, cf. ācchōdana— lex. v.l. for ākṣōdana—.
1033 *ākṣōṭayati ‘withdraws’. [ācchōṭita— ‘pulled, torn’ Jain.; semant. cf. ākṣipati ‘takes away, withdraws’, Pk. akkhitta— ‘dragged’: √kṣuṭ] Pk. akkhōḍaï ‘jerks a little, withdraws (sword from sheath) (see also ā́skauti), acchōḍēi ‘dashes about, sprinkles’; Mth. achorab ‘to snathch’; M. āsuḍṇẽ ‘to shake (the winnowing fan)’, asuḍṇẽ, ā̃saḍ°, as° ‘to pull with a jerk, dash forcibly, pluck from’. ākṣōḍa— see akṣōṭa—.
1035 *ākharjati ‘scratches’. [kharju1] Kho. axlik ‘to comb’ or < ā́likhati.
1036 *ākhuṭati ‘trips’ intr. 2. *ākhōṭayati ‘strikes against’ tr. [√*khuṭ 1] 1. Pk. āhuḍaï ‘falls’. 2. Pk. āhōḍaï ‘strikes, beats’; S. ahoṛaṇu, ahuṛ° ‘to roughen a millstone by pricking with a chisel’, ahoṛo m. ‘stonecutter's chisel’; M. ahaḍṇī f. ‘brazier's instrument for smoothing down dints in new—made vessels’.
1039 *ākhēlati ‘plays’. [√khēl] H. poet. helnā ‘to sport, play’; — doubtful. ākhōṭa— see akṣōṭa—. *ākhōṭayati see *ākhuṭati
1042 *ākhyātra— ‘saying’. [Cf. ākhyātr̥— m. ‘one who tells’ AitBr., Pa. akkhātar— m.: √khyā] P. ḍog. ākhtrī f. ‘saying’.
1047 *āgāḍha— [Cf. samāgāḍha— ‘violent’ lex.: √gāh] Pa. āgāḷha— ‘strong, rough’; Pk. āgāḍha— ‘strong, very deep’; S. āṛāhu ‘prodigious’, m. ‘a deep hole in a river where the water rushes in violently, prodigy’.
1049 *āguṅga— ‘rather dumb’. [*guṅga—] H. aũgī f. ‘dumbness’.
1051 *āgrathnāti ‘twines round’. [Cf. āgrantham adv. ‘twining round’ AitBr.: √granth] OM. agāthṇẽ ‘to weave closely’.
1053 *āgrāhayati ‘holds back’. [Cf. ā́gr̥bhṇē ‘I hold in (horses)’ RV., Pk. aggaha— m. ‘obstinacy’: √grah] P. agrāhuṇā ‘to seize, prevent’.
1055 *āghala— ‘overflow, refuse’. [√*ghal] L. āhal m. ‘manure’, ahālī m. ‘bullock which carries the scavenger's muck’; H. āhlā m. ‘overflow, inunda- tion’.
1058 *āghālayati ‘rinses’. [Cf. ā́ghārayati ‘sprinkles’ TS., ŚBr., ā́jigharti ‘sprinkles with fat’ RV.: √*ghal] With anal. MIA. —ggh—; S. āghāraṇu ‘to rinse’, L. aghālaṇ, P. hãghālṇā, hãgā°; M. āghāḷṇẽ, agh°, aghaḷ° ‘to rinse by shaking in water’.
1059 *āghuṭati ‘turns to, comes’. [√ghuṭ] Or. āhuṛā—bāhuṛā ‘coming and going’.
1060 *āghēra— ‘circle’. [√*ghir] Or. aïrā ‘circular mat to put under a waterpot’. āghrāṇa— see āghrāpayati.
1061 *āghrātikā— ‘bouquet’. [Cf. āghrāta— ‘smelt, scented’ Suśr.: √ghrā] Pk. agghāia— ‘smelt’; Si. ägã̤ ‘festoon work, bouquet’ H. Smith JA 1950, 184 (< *āghrāyikā—) or perh. < *arghiya—, see arghya—.
1063 *ācakṣati, ā́caṣṭē ‘looks at’ RV., ‘announces’ TS. [√cakṣ] Pk. āyakkhaï ‘says, relates’; Wg. ā̃čas— ‘to regard’ (or < *ācākaśīti, cf. cā́kaśīti ‘see clearly’ ŚBr.); poss. M. āikṇẽ ‘to hear, attend to’ (more prob. < *ācikhyati). Addenda: *ācakṣati: Woṭ. as— ‘to say, speak’ Buddruss Woṭ 89.
1067 *ācaṣṭa— ‘tasted’. [√cakṣ 2.] S. āṭho ‘defiled’; B. ẽṭo ‘leavings of a meal’, Or. ãiṭhā, Mth. aı̃ṭh; G. e ṭhi f. ‘refuse of a meal’, e ṭhũ ‘left after eating’. — Except for S. poss. < āmṛṣṭa— ‘touched, tasted’, Pa. āmaṭṭha—, Pk. āmuṭṭha— which would account for nasalization. *ācākaśīti ‘sees clearly’. [cā́kaśīti ‘surveys’: √kāś] See *ācakṣati.
1070 *ācāmāmla— ‘sour gruel of rice—water’. [ācāma—, amla—] Pk. āyaṁbila— n. ‘a kind of austerity’; G. ā̃bel n. ‘religious vow observed by Jains to take no food con- taining fatty substances’.
1073 *ācāriyakula— ‘teacher's family’. [ācāríya—, kúla—] Pa. ācariyakula— n. ‘the teacher's clan’; Si. ädurol ‘line of teachers, tradition’. ācāryà— see ācāríya—.
1074 *ācikhyati ‘communicates’. [Redup. pres. or desid. of ākhyāti, cf. cikhyāpayiṣā— f. ‘intention to communicate’ Com. on Nyāyas.: √khyā] Pa. ācikkhati ‘tells, shows’, Pk. āikkhaï; M. āikṇẽ, aik° ‘to hear, attend to’, Ko. āik— ‘to listen’; — or poss., bec. of kh ← Centre, < *ācakṣati. Either of the above, bec. of ā—, rather than abhíkhyat ‘perceive’ RV., Pk. abhikkhā— f. ‘name’ or ávēkṣatē. — Bloch LM 301 < abhīkṣatē ‘looks towards’ RV., Pk. ahikkhaṇa— n. ‘reproach’.
1075 *ācullī— ‘small or secondary stove’. [For ā— cf. ākōpa- ‘a little anger’: cullī—] P. āhulā, auhlā m. ‘second opening in a fireplace on which an extra pot can be placed’. Addenda: *ācullī— see *apacullī— Add2.
1076 *ācchaṭ— ‘scatter, snap’. [√*chaṭ] BHSk. acchaṭā— ‘snap of the fingers’. See *ācchardati.
1078 *ācchabhita— ‘made firm’. [Cf. skabhitá— fixed’ RV.: √*chambh] Ash. ac̣age ‘cold’, Wg. āčēi—.
1079 *ācchambha— ‘rigidity’ > 1. ‘freezing’. 2. ‘astonish- ment’. [Cf. ā́skabhnāti ‘firmly fixes’ RV.: √*chambh] 1. Wg. ačamā́ ‘ice, icicle’ cf. *ācchabhita—. 2. Si. aham̆bayā ‘accident, surprise’, aham̆ben ‘acci- dentally’, aham̆ba ‘sudden’; H. acambhā, °bā ‘wonder- ful’, m. ‘wonder’ → P. acambhā m. and adj.; N. acambha, °ba ‘surprise’, B. ācambā; Mth. acambhā ‘wonderful’; G. acãbɔ, oc° m. ‘wonder’, M. acãbā; - partially sanskritized in A. āsambit ‘astonished’, B. Or. ācambit, H. acambhit, M. acãbīt.
1080 *ācchambhati ‘is stiff’. [Cf. ā́skabhnāti ‘firmly fixes’ RV.: √*chambh] M. āċãbṇẽ ‘to be struck with astonishment’.
1081 *ācchardati, ā́cchr̥ṇatti ‘pours on’ VS. [√chr̥d] A. āsāriba, es° ‘to throw, cast off, āsār ‘the throwing off’, āsāre kani ‘driving rain’; B. āchṛāna ‘to throw down violently’, āchāṛ ‘dashing down’, āchṛā ‘shower’ Chatterji ODBL 888; — or poss. < *ācchaṭ—.
1084 *ācchindati, ā́chinatti ‘cuts off, cuts in pieces’ AV., ‘snatches away’ MBh. [√chid] Pa. acchindati ‘removes forcibly’; NiDoc. achinati ‘appropriates’; Pk. acchiṁdaï ‘cuts in small pieces, removes forcibly’; OSi. asin̆danavā ‘to take away’, caus. asin̆davanavā, mod. ähin̆dinavā ‘to gather up, pick out, sort (e.g. coffee beans)’. — Or phonet., but not perh. semant., as well < sáṁchinatti ‘cuts to pieces’, Pa. saṁchindati.
1085 *ācchir— ‘settle’. [Cf. Pk. ucchiraṇa— ‘spat out, left over’: —chir— ~ —skirati, √kr̥̄ 1?] S. āchiraṇu ‘to settle, subside (as dirt in water)’; G. ācharvũ ‘to settle down (as water), become clear’. ācchuka— see ākṣika—.
1086 *ācchundati ‘tramples’. [√*chud] See *ākṣundati.
1087 *ācchupati ‘takes hold of’. [√chup] See ākṣipati. ā́cchṛṇatti see *ācchardati.
1093 *ājuṣṭa— ‘tasted’. [Cf. juṣátē ‘enjoys’ RV., Pk. āusaï ‘serves < *gives to taste’ < *ājuṣati: √juṣ] S. auṭho ‘impure, unclean’.
1102 *āḍi— 2 ‘row, line, ridge’, āli1 f. ‘row, range, line’ lex., ālī— f. Pañcat. [Connexion with āvali— (Mayrhofer EWA i 81) doubtful] Pa. āḷi—, āli— f. ‘line, dam’; Pk. ālī— f. ‘line, row’, ḍaḍḍhāḍī— f. ‘line of forest—fire’ (< *dagdhāḍi—); L. āṛā m. ‘sandhill, highlying land’, P. āṛī f.; Ku. āl f. ‘tract of land’, āli f. ‘row (of plants), bed (for plants), old measure of land’; N. āli ‘ridge in a field’; A. āli ‘embankment across a rice—field, road’; B. āli, ail ‘dividing ridge in a field’; Or. āṛi ‘ridge in a field’, āḷī ‘a class’; Bi. Mth. ār, ārī, āri, (Gaya) āil, (S. Munger) āl ‘boundary of a field’, H. ārī f., ālī f. ‘row, embank- ment’; M. āḷ, āḷī f. ‘lane, row’; Si. inscr. aḍi ‘canal’, mod. äla, äliya ‘stream, canal’. *kaṇāli—, *ghuṅghurāli—, *chinnāli—, *daṇḍāli—, dantāli—, dīpālī—, *pañjāli—, vātālī—; — *pāḍi—?
1103 *āḍu— ‘peach’. [Perh. < *ā̆rdūda— in Pahl. ālū d, Pers. ālū ‘plum’ → H. ālū] Ash. arū́ ‘peach’, Kt. aŕū̃, Wg. ā́rū̃, Dm. âru, Paš. arū́ (← Ind. IIFL iii 3, 15), Shum. arū́, Gaw. hā́rū, Kal. ā́ru, Tor. ā, Phal. ṓru, K. örü f., L. āṛū—dāṛū, P. āṛū m.; WPah. bhal. āru m. ‘peach—tree’, ārũ n. ‘peach’; Ku. āṛū ‘peach’, N. āru, H. āṛū m. Addenda: *āḍu—: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) aru m. ‘peach’, J. arū m. ‘apricot’.
1104 *āḍḍērikā— ‘a partic. plant’. S. āḍ̱erī f. ‘Solanum jacquinii’; N. aṛeri ‘a partic. thorny bush’; Mth. aṛer ‘the jujube tree’.
1105 *āḍḍhalati ‘falls towards’. 2. *āḍḍharati [√*ḍhal] 1. M. āḍhaḷṇẽ, aḍh° ‘to fall in the way of, to meet’. 2. K. öḍarun ‘to mix up together’.
1113 *āṇḍajāta— ‘egg—born’. [aṇḍaja— m. ‘bird’ Mn., Pk. aṁḍaya— m.: āṇḍá—, jātá—] Si. aṇ̆ḍudāvā ‘bird’ Geiger EGS 5, but rather a Si. cmpd.
1114 *āṇvaka— ‘small coin’. [Connexion with aṇu2 by no means certain: Or. M. indicate MIA. single ——] K. āna m. ‘anna, 16th part of a rupee’, S. āno m., L. ānā m., P. ānnā m., N. ānā, A. anā, B. ānā, āni, Or. aṇā, aṇi, Mth. anā, H. ānā m., G. āno m., ānī f., M. āṇā, aṇā m., aṇī f.
1115 *ātatya— ‘extended’. [Ext. with —a— (cf. *avaratya—) of *ātati—, cf. ā́tata— ‘stretched (as a bow)’ RV., ‘long (as a way)’ ChUp.: √tan] Paš. āč ‘full’ Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 3.
1117 *ātapataila— ‘oil got by heating’. [ātapá—, tailá—] M. āvel n. ‘oil obtained from heated scrapings of young coconuts’.
1119 *ātapala— ‘hot’ [ātapá—] N. aul ‘low hot place, malarial fever’; H. poet. aūlanā ‘to become hot, (heat) to be oppressive’.
1120 *ātapasyati ‘is hot’. [tapasyà— ‘produced by heat’ KātyŚr., tápasyati ‘undergoes austerities’ ŚBr.: √tap] H. ausnā ‘to be hot’.
1123 *ātāḍayati ‘beats’. [For ā— cf. ā́tudati ‘strikes’ RV.: √taḍ 1] Kal. rumb. alā́ŕim ‘I beat’, urt. (in which —t— > r, with dissimilation r — ŕ > l — ŕ) lāŕim.
1126 *ātārayati ‘wins over’. [Cf. ā́tirati ‘overcomes, praises’ RV.: √tr̥̄] With anal. —tt—: S. ātāraṇu ‘to wheedle, cajole’.
1128 *ātudyatē ‘is pushed against’. [ā́tudati ‘strikes against’ RV.: √tud] Or. āujibā intr. ‘to lean against’, caus. āujāibā. — See *āstudati and āvarjayati.
1129 *āturati ‘crosses over, completes’. [ā́tirati ‘overcomes’ RV.: √tr̥̄] H. orānā ‘to be completed’; — doubtful: perh. < ā́pūrayati.
1130 *ātr̥tīyam ‘on the third (day) back or forwards’. [For ā—, cf. ācaturam ‘to the fourth generation’ MaitrS., and a similar formation in Par. ašö—ruč ‘the day before yesterday’ < *āq ri— Morgenstierne IIFL i 61: tr̥tı̄́ya1] Ash. átrı̃ ‘the day after tomorrow’, Kt. átrī, Wg. átƏŕ, atriäm; Dm. itrī ‘the day before yesterday’, Woṭ. yēwṛei, Kal. atrīli, Kho. ortiri, Bshk. ā́ l ī, ā l eug dōs, Phal. e_ tríli, Sh. ĭc̣ı̄́; L. poṭh. atreũ ‘two days off (past or future)’, awāṇ. atrõmacr; ‘the day after tomorrow’; P. ḍog. attrũ ‘two days off’; WPah. khaś. e ṭḷu ‘the day before yesterday’, h. rudh. aṭḷu, 1. rudh. atru: see also s.v. tr̥tı̄́ya1 See *ātriśvas.
1131 *ātr̥ptika— ‘satisfied’. [Cf. ā́tr̥pati ‘is satisfied’ RV., ātarpaṇa— n. ‘satisfaction’; ‘whitening walls on festive occasions, pigment therefor’ lex., Pk. āippaṇa— n. - √tr̥p] Kho. arti, arthi, (Lor.) *l rti, *l hrti or arthi ‘satisfying, satiated, plenteous’, artiéik, arthi° ‘to fill, satisfy with food’ (< *arirti < *a d irti).
1134 *ātmadhanika— ‘master of oneself’ [ātmán—, dhanin—] OG. āpahaṇī adv. ‘by oneself’, G. āphaṇie ‘auto- matically’.
1137 *ātrasa— ‘fear’. [For ā— cf. ābhīla— ‘fearful’ MBh.: √tras] N. ātas ‘fear, anxiety’.
1138 *ātriśvas ‘the day after tomorrow’. [For ā— see *ātr̥tīyam: trí—, śvás] L. attarsũ ‘three days ago’; P. tarsõ; ‘the day before yesterday or after tomorrow’; H. atarsõ; ‘the day after tomorrow’; — —tar— for —t(r)i— after parsõ; < paraśvas. —ādá— ‘taking’ in cmpds. [√ 1] dā́yādya—.
1139 *ādagdha— ‘burnt up’. [See *ādahati: √dah] A. ādharā ‘fire—brand’ < *āṛādha— < *āḍaddha—? - B. āṇgul hāṛā ‘whitlow’, Or. aṛhā āṅguṭhi? — Ku. āṛo ‘bonfire’ < *ādaḍḍha— or more prob. < *ādaha—.
1141 *ādabb— ‘press down’. [√*dabb] M. adabṇẽ ‘to be oppressed, be overwhelmed’ with MIA. anal. —dd— or < —drabb— see *drapp—; — Pk. āavvaï ‘shakes, trembles’?
1144 *ādalati ‘crushes’. [Cf. ā́darti RV.: √dal 1] With MIA. —dd—: M. adaḷṇẽ tr. ‘to dash down or against’, intr. ‘to rush against’, ādaḷṇẽ ‘to be brought to nought, to fail’. *ādaha— see *ādāha—.
1145 *ādahati ‘burns up’. [ādāhyēta ChUp.: √dah] Pa. ādahati ‘sets fire’; Pk. āḍahaï ‘burns all round’; Ku. aṛyā ‘heaps of grass and thorns collected to be burnt’ < * āḍahia— (whence aṛyūṇo ‘to burn grass and stubble on a field’).
1150 *ādāha— or *ādaha— ‘burning’. [√dah] Ku. āṛo ‘heap of grass and thorns gathered in a field to burn and use as fertilizer’ (or < *ādagdha—); Bi. (Patna) alāh ‘weeds burnt as manure’ (but why —l—, not —r—, < MIA. ——?); — Si. āṛ—haṛu m. ‘hot season’ < *āḍā̆ha—ḍa— or perh. *ādāgha—, cf. nidāghá—.
1151 *ādāhayati ‘burns up’. [ādāhyēta ChUp.: √dah] Ku. ayoṇo ‘to collect dry stalks and grass in a heap for burning’; — Gy. eur. alav— ‘to set on fire’ Sampson DGW iv 7, but perh. like as. alaw ‘flame’ ← Pers.
1154 *ādityavāra— ‘Sunday’. [ādityá—, vāra2] Pk. āiṁcavāra— m., S. ācaru m.
1155 *ādiyá—, ādyá2 ‘at the beginning’ Pāṇ. [ādí—] Pa. ādiya—, °ika— ‘first’, Pk. āīya—; Si. ã̤ ‘first, fore- most’ (Geiger EGS 19 < ādí—).
1156 *ādr̥ṁhaṇa— ‘making coagulate’. [Cf. dŕ̥ṁhaṇa— n. ‘making firm’ AV., ‘means of strengthening’ TBr.: √dr̥ṁh] G. ādhraṇ, adh° n. ‘lime juice or other acid added to milk to curdle it’, ādhrakvũ ‘so to curdle’; — doubtful.
1160 *ādyūta— ‘gambling’. [Cf. dyūtá— and ādēvana— n. ‘place for playing’ ĀśvGr̥.: √div 2] Si. adu ‘gambling’.
1168 *ādhūṇḍh— ‘search for’. [*dhūṇḍh—] Or. āuṇḍibā, uṇḍ°, uṇḍālibā ‘to grope for, search for’; — or poss. āuṇḍ— < *āmardati, uṇḍ— < *avamardati or upam°.
1176 *ānavana— ‘roar’. [Cf. ā́nūṣata ‘they roared’, ā́navīnōt ‘he kept on roaring’ RV., ānuvāna— pres. part. Bhaṭṭ.: √nu 2] L. aṇūṇī f. ‘long—drawn howl of dog or jackal’.
1180 *ā nūnam ‘up to now’. [nūnám] Ash. yanū̃ ‘today’, Wg. önū́, anǖ́.
1183 *āntraguṇa— ‘gut—string’. [āntrá—, guṇá—] Pa. antaguṇa— m. ‘lower intestine, bowel, mesentery’; Si. atuṇa, pl. °ṇu, ‘bowel’ (Geiger EGS 6 < n. pl. āntrā́ṇi). — Cf. Gaw. atƏraṅgīn s.v. ántara1.
1184 *āntrapuṭa— ‘gut—fold’. [āntrá—, puṭa—] Ku. anoṛo, pl. anyūṛā, ‘entrail’.
1185 *āntrarasa—. [āntrá—, rása—] B. ā̃tarasā ‘natural juice of meat’; — doubtful.
1190 *āpaṭhati ‘reads’. [Cf. āpapráthan 3rd pl. aor. subj. ‘spread’ RV., *āprāthayati in Pk. appāhēi ‘teaches’, °haï ‘announces’ Pischel GrPk § 286: √paṭh] A. āurāiba ‘to repeat frequently so as to learn by heart’; B. āoṛāna ‘to read, recite’ (Chatterji ODBL 423 < ā—vr̥t—); Or. āuṛibā, °ṛāibā ‘to read, repeat’.
1201 *āpastr̥ṣṇa— ‘thirsty for water’. [áp—, tŕ̥ṣṇā—] Kt. avƏtin ‘thirsty’ (Rep1 64 < *āpa—tr̥ṣṇa—).
1205 *āpāna— 2 ‘protection’. [√ 2] See *udvāna—.
1207 *āpārayati ‘fills’. [Cf. pārayati ‘fills’ Dhātup., ā́pūrayati ŚBr., ā́pr̥ṇāti ‘satisfies’ RV.: √pr̥̄] With anal. —pp—: K. āparun ‘to feed another with one's own hand as a sign of hospitality, put food in an infant's or invalid's mouth’, caus. āparāwun ‘to feed another person’.
1208 *āpiya—, ā́pya— ‘belonging to or living in water’ Suśr. [ápya—: áp—] Kho. awí in a° gambùri ‘water—flower’ Morgenstierne BelvalkarVol 87, Āwi ‘name of a village in the Owir valley’.
1211 *āpula— ‘abundant’. 2. *āpura— [Cf. pula— ‘ex- tended, wide’ lex., vipula—: √pr̥̄] 1. Ash. aulú, f. °lı̄́ ‘big’, Kt. al, Wg. Bashg. ōla, Paš. aulá Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 8. 2. Pk. āura— ‘much’, Or. āur, °ri ‘very much, too much’ or poss. < āpūra—. Addenda: āpula—1: †;*vighnāpula—.
1215 *āpṛṣṭha— ‘on the back’. [pr̥ṣṭhá—] See *utpr̥ṣṭha—.
1216 *āpōḍ— ‘burn’. [√*pōḍ] Si. avulanavā ‘to shine’, avulavanavā ‘to kindle, excite’? — But see *saṁvidīpayati.
1218 *āptāyati ‘falls’. [Cf. Pahl. ōftēt < *avaptā̆yati: √pat] Kal. ātim ‘I fall’.
1223 *ābhakta— ‘shared’. [Cf. ā́bhajati ‘causes to share’, ā́bhaga— m. ‘one who is honoured with a share’ RV.: √bhaj] S. āhatu m. ‘the fixed right of an artisan to a share of the harvest in return for mending the husbandman's tools’, āhatī m. ‘a husbandman who so employs an artisan’.
1230 *ābhiṭ— ‘meet’. 2. *ābhēṭ—. [√*bhiṭ] 1. Pk. ābhiḍiya— ‘bent on’, ābhiṭṭa—; abbhiḍaï ‘meets’, pp. abbhiḍia—; abbhiṭṭha— ‘met in battle’; H. poet. abhirnā ‘to meet in battle’. 2. Pk. ābhēḍiya— ‘bent on, bound for’; H. abheṛā, °erā m. ‘fight, quarrel’. Addenda: *ābhiṭ—: OG. ābhiḍaï ‘becomes polluted by touching’ ŚSB, G. ābhaṛvũ (A. Master), abhṛāvvũ (or < *abhyaṭaṭi?).
1237 *āmagandha—, āmagandhi—, °in—, °ika— ‘smelling like raw meat, smelling musty’ lex. [āmá—, gandhá—] Pa. āmagandha— m. ‘smell of rotting corpses, ver- minous odour’; K. āmun m. ‘smell of burning or scorching cloth (esp. cotton)’, āman f. ‘malodorousness (esp. of food going bad)’, āmanun ‘to go bad (of food), to become malodorous’.
1239 *āmaḍ— ‘boil over’. [√*maḍ 2] H. ā̃waṛnā intr. ‘to boil up’.
1244 *āmardati, āmr̥dnāti ‘crushes together’ R. [√mr̥d 1] See *ādhūṇḍh—.
1248 *āmalati ‘rubs’. [√mal 1] M. ā̃vaḷṇẽ, av° ‘to knead the limbs’.
1249 *āmaśaka— ‘dysenteric stool’. [āmá—, śaka1] Or. āũsā jhāṛā ‘dysentery’; — or poss. < āmāśaya- m. ‘stomach’ MBh.
1250 *āmāṁśa— ‘unripe portion’. [āmá—, áṁśa—] See *apākāṁśa—. *āmāta— ‘built’ see amā́. [√ 3]
1252 *āmārayati ‘rubs’. [Cf. *mālayati and, for ā— with verbs of touching, āmr̥j—, āmr̥d—, āmr̥ś—: √mr̥̄] Phal. āmberū́m ‘I rub’.
1253 *āmārta— ‘flour from uncleaned grain’. [Cf. āma— n. ‘grain not yet freed from chaff’ MW, Pa. āmadhañña- n., Pk. āma— ‘uncleaned’; and Wakhi yūmǰ ‘flour < *āmačī, Khot. hāmaa— ‘barley—flour’ < *āmaka- Morgenstierne IIFL ii 554: — āmá—, *ārta2] Bi. Mth. ā̃waṭ ‘barley ground without being first cleaned’.
1255 *āmilati ‘meets together, tangles’. [√mil] Pa. āmilāka— n. ‘a woollen cover into which a floral pattern is woven’; Sh. (Lor.) amuloiki ‘to rival, com- pete with inimically’; G. āmaḷvũ ‘to twist’, āmḷo m. ‘knot formed by twisting’; — doubtful.
1257 *āmiṣagandhika— ‘smelling of raw flesh’. [āmiṣá—, gandhin—] B. ẽsāni ‘smelling of fish or meat’ (Chatterji ODBL 349 < *āmiṣa—pānīya—). *āmiṣapānīya— see *āmiṣagandhika—.
1258 *āmiṣṭa— ‘mixed’. [Cf. ā́miśla— ‘having a tendency to mix’ RV., āmíkṣā— f. ‘mixture of boiled and curdled milk’ AV.: √mikṣ] Kho. amiṣṭ ‘mixed’, amiṣṭieman ‘I mix’. āmukta— see āmuñcati. *āmukna— see āmuñcati.
1262 *āmuhyati ‘is bewildered’. 2. *āmūḍha—. [Cf. āmōhanikā— f. ‘a partic. fragrant odour’ Suśr.: √muh] 1. OG. amūjha ‘perplexed’, G. amũjhāvũ ‘to be per- plexed, to fret’, amũjhaṇi f. ‘perplexity’. 2. P. amūhṛ, amūhuṛ ‘ignorant, reckless’. *āmūḍha— see *āmuhyati.
1267 *āmōdayati ‘pleases’. [Cf. āmṓda— ‘gladdening’ ŚBr.: √mud 1] Pa. āmōdēti ‘pleases’, Pk. āmōēi; A. āmuwāiba ‘to satiate’.
1269 *āmraguḍa— ‘mango and molasses’. [āmrá—, guḍá—] H. ãboṛā m. ‘a dish consisting of mangos and molasses’.
1271 *āmrarasa— ‘mango juice’. [āmrá—, rása—] Pa. ambarasa— m., H. M. āmras, am° m.; — deriv.: G. āmrasī ‘of the colour of mango juice’.
1272 *āmrarāji— ‘mango grove’. [āmrá—, rā́ji—] OAw. aṁbarāī f., H. ambrāī f., G. amrāi f., M. ãbrāī f.; — H. M. āmrāī, am°, reformed after ām.
1274 *āmraṣaṇḍa— ‘mango grove’. [āmrá—, ṣaṇḍá1] Pa. Ambasaṇḍā m. pl. ‘name of a village E. of Rājagaha’; Bi. mag. Aphsãṛ ‘name of a village in the NE. of the Gaya District’.
1276 *āmrāda— ‘rubbing’. [√mrad] P. ambāu m. ‘chafing, inflammation from rubbing’.
1277 *āmrādayati ‘rubs’. [√mrad] Pk. aṁbāḍēi ‘rubs, smears, upbraids’; P. ambāuṇā ‘to chafe, inflame by rubbing’; — deriv. ambāṭ m. ‘chafing’, ambṇā ‘to be chafed’ (rather than < āmr̥jati).
1279 *āmrāṣṭi— ‘mango stone’. [Cf. āmrāsthi— n. Bhpr. - āmrá—, aṣṭi—] Bi. (Gaya) amā̃ṭhī ke roṭī ‘bread of crushed mango stones’. Addenda: *āmrāṣṭi—: Pa. ambaṭṭhi— ‘mango stone’, A. āmaṭhi, āmaṭhu AFD 206.
1281 *āmlāpayati ‘makes fade’. [√mlai] A. āmolāiba ‘to make sorrowful (of the face)’.
1282 *āmlābīja— ‘tamarind seed’. [āmlā—, bı̄́ja—] G. ā̃blīyɔ, ā̃blīlɔ m.
1303 *āraṭṭha— ‘hard, stiff’. N. araṭṭha ‘hard, stiff (of leather)’; Si. araṭuvā ‘heart or hard part of a tree’.
1308 *ārambhati 2 ‘roars, bellows’. 2. *ārambha— 2 ‘roar’. [√rambh] 1. M. ārãbhaḷṇẽ ‘to roar, bawl’. 2. S. ārā̃bho m. ‘volley of musketry’.
1311 *āraśa— ‘shoulder (blade)’. [< IE. *ōlek̂—, cf. Arm. otn ‘shoulder’ Morgenstierne NTS xii 156; — WP i 157] Wg. arašä́ ‘shoulder—blade’, Dm. ârašá.
1312 *ārasa— or *ārasavant— ‘sweetish’. [rása—] Kt. arazwo, aruswå, rƏsīm ‘sweet’, Wg. erostō, Bashg. aruz, Pr. urusú, wur°; — Morgenstierne NTS ii 267 compares Sk. rásavant— ‘tasty’.
1314 *ārātri— or *ārātra— (1) ‘evening’, (2) ‘from after night, i.e. morning’. [rā́tri—]. (1) K. arāth, dat. arātas m. ‘nightfall, evening’. - (2) Bshk. árat ‘morning’ (or poss. ‘one night’ NTS xviii 125), Tor. (Barth) "ẓhāt" ‘morning’. ārātrika—.
1320 *āriṣṭaka— ‘pertaining to the soap—nut tree’. [ariṣṭa2 S. ārīṭho ‘the tree Sapindus saponaria’.
1325 *ārundhati, ā́ruṇaddhi ‘keeps off’ RV., ‘blocks, im- pedes’ MBh. [√rudh 2] H. ārū̃dhnā, arõ;dhnā ‘to throttle’.
1326 *āruhati, aor. ā́ruhat ‘ascends’ RV. 2. ārūḍha— MBh. [See ā́rōhati: √ruh] 1. Pa. āruhati, Pk. āruhaï; OG. āruhaï ‘climbs up’. 2. Pa. ārūḷha—, Pk. ārūḍha—; OM. ārūḍhṇẽ, āruḍh° ‘to ascend’. Addenda: *āruhati: Si. aranavā ‘to climb’ (or < ā́rōhati), Md. aranī ‘rises, climbs’, aruvanī ‘lifts, loads’, erenī ‘is lifted into, enters’. 2. ārūḍha— ‘ascended’, replaced by *ārūṇa— in Si. aruṇu ‘ascended, mounted’. ārūḍha— see *āruhati Add2.
1327 *ārūkṣa— ‘roughish’. [rūkṣá—] Paš. arū́ṣa ‘garlic, leek’ Morgenstierne IIFL iii 3, 16. ārūḍha— see *āruhati.
1332 *ārōṣa— ‘anger’. [Cf. ārōṣayati ‘angers’ Hariv., Pk. ārōsia—: √ruṣ] Wg. urū́ṣ ‘anger’ (or < *avarōṣa—; Morgenstierne NTS ii 199 prob. ← Ind. rōṣa—); Si. arova ‘dispute’. Addenda: *ārōṣa—: Si. aru ‘anger’, arova (st. arō—) ‘quarrel, dispute’.
1338 *ārta— 2 ‘flour’, aṭṭa— n. ‘food’ MBh., ‘boiled rice’ lex. [Cf. Ir. *ārta— > Psht. ōṛƏ ‘flour’, Yghn. ārt, Pers. ārd, beside *r̥ta— > Av. aša—. Either vr̥ddhi—form of *r̥ta—, i.e. ‘consisting of what is ground’ or *ā—r̥ta— with Morgen- stierne EVP 12. Wackernagel AiGr i 170 wrongly aṭṭa— < *alta— since Dm. P. L. and perh. Kal. point to ā] NiDoc. aṭa (← Ind. with , not rt); Gy. eur. aro, varo, vanro, wel. vārdō m., arm. arav, pal. ătṓs (ătō with 3 sg. enclitic pron. —s?), as. ata, Ḍ. ōṭ m., Dm. Tir. āṭ, Shum. Kal. āt, Bshk. āṭ, Phal. hāṭ m., Sh. ā̃ṭe̯ m. pl. (← Ind.), K. ôṭu , abl. āṭi; S. aṭo m. ‘meal’, āṭaṇu m. ‘dry flour laid over and under dough when it is rolled’ (?); L. āṭā m. ‘flour’, khet. aṭṭā, P. āṭṭā, WPah. bhad. bhiḍ. āṭṭu n., Ku. āṭo, N. āṭo, ā̃ṭo, A. B. āṭā, Or. aṭā, Bi. āṭā, ā̃ṭā, Mth. ā̃ṭā, Bhoj. H. āṭā m., G. āṭɔ m.; M. āṭ f. ‘grit of rice boiled and mixed with flour’, āṭā—pāṇī n. ‘food and water’; — Si. aṭuva ‘rice—store’ rather < aṭṭa2. *amlārta—, *āmārta—. Addenda: *ārta—2: S.kcch. aṭo m. ‘flour’, WPah.kṭg. aṭṭɔ m. †;ā́rtnī— see aṭani— Add2.
1342 *ārdrakavaṭikā— ‘ginger—ball’. [ārdraka—, vaṭaka—] N. adauri ‘small lumps of pulse and condiments fried in ghee’, H. adauṛī, °rī f.
1346 *ārdhikakāra— ‘work of a co—partner’, or ardh°. [ārdhika—, kāra1] P. addhyārā m. ‘the arrangement by which profits of agriculture or stockbreeding are shared between land- lord and labourer’; N. adhiyā̃r ‘co—partner’; A. ādhiyār ‘one who cultivates in return for half the crop’; Or. adhiāri ‘keeping a goat or calf with a half share of profit to the owner’; H. adhiyār m. ‘cultivator who receives a half—share’, adhiyārī f. ‘this system’; G. adhiyārũ n. ‘keeping cattle in return for half the calves’, adhiyārī f. ‘forced labour’.
1350 *āryakula—, or *āryakakula— ‘grandfather's house’. [ā́rya—, kúla—] M. āj̈oḷ, aj̈°, āj̈ūḷ, aj̈°, āj̈vaḷ n., aj̈oḷā m. ‘mother's father's house’.
1353 *āla— 2 ‘hole for water’. [Cf. ālavāla— m. ‘basin for water round a tree’ Kālid., āvāla— m. lex. (not with Tedesco JAOS 67, 97), Pk. ālavāla— n., āvāla—, °aya- n. ‘place near water’] Pk. āla— n. ‘small stream or pond’; H. ālā m. ‘basin for water round a tree’; G. āḷiyɔ m. ‘large cavity in a wall’ Bloch LM 290; M. āḷẽ, aḷẽ n., aḷī f. ‘basin for water round a tree, any pool made to receive water’.
1355 *ālagana— ‘hanging up’. [√lag] N. alinu ‘clothes—line, clothes—net’; A. ālān ‘a pen- dent’; Or. ālaṇā ‘clothes—rack’; — WPah. bhal. āl e f. ‘network at the bottom of a cot’ or < *ālayana—. ālagna— see *ālagyati.
1356 *ālagyati ‘adheres to’. 2. ālagna— ‘fastened to’ lex. [Cf. ālagati ‘adheres’ Kāvyād.: √lag] 1. Pa. ālaggēti ‘makes hang on to’; Pr. aleg— ‘to hit’; M. alagṇẽ ‘to hang (esp. of clustering fruit), to be over- ripe (of fruit)’ with l after lagṇẽ, caus. aḷgāvṇẽ ‘to be on the point of parturition (of animals)’; — deriv. MIA. *ālaggaṇa— in P. algaṇ, °ṇī f. ‘line or stick to hang clothes on’ (see also *abhilagyati), Or. alaguṇi, Bi. Mth. arganī, Bi. (Shahabad) regnī, H. alagnī, alãgnī f. 2. Pk. ālagga— ‘fastened’; M. aḷãgẽ n. ‘loop on either side of grain sack’ (ã from ālamba—?); — poss. Si. alan̆ga ‘kissing’ (Geiger EGS 11 < āliṅga—).
1357 *ālaghayati ‘makes soft’. [laghayati ‘makes soft, tender or smooth’ Kālid.: laghú—] H. alwāyā ‘light, soft, tender’ pp. of 2nd caus. *alwānā?
1359 *ālapitraka— ‘talkative’. [Cf. *lapitṛ— replaced by Pk. lavira— ‘talkative’: √lap] G. aḷvitrũ ‘talkative, tiresome, mischievous’.
1360 *ālapp— ‘wrap round’. [√*lapp] M. aḷapṇẽ ‘to bind round by wrapping’, aḷpā m. ‘wrapping round , aḷpaṇ n. ‘anything to wrap with’.
1361 *ālapyati ‘speaks’. [Cf. lapyati Ep.: √lap] G. alāpvũ ‘to sing, talk’, alāp m. ‘humming a tune’; — < *allappaï, cf. Pk. allaviya— < *ālapita—. — See ālāpya—.
1367 *ālayana— ‘resting place’. [Cf. ālaya—, layana— n. ‘place of rest’ Śiś.: √ 1] Pk. ālayaṇa— n. ‘rest house, sleeping room’; NiDoc. alena ‘epithet of a rug’ Burrow KharDoc 77; — with anal. —ll—: L. ālhṇā m. ‘nest’, P. āhlaṇā m., H. ālnā m.; — WPah. bhal. āl e f. ‘network at the bottom of a cot’ or < *ālagana—.
1368 *ālardayati ‘loads up’. [√lard] G. aḷdāvũ ‘to be overworked, be tired’ pass. of *ā̆ḷadvũ.
1370 *ālavana— ‘reaping’. [√] H. arwan m. ‘the first cuttings of corn presented to the household gods’. ālavāla— see *āla2. ālasa— see alasá—.
1375 *ālāpana— 2 ‘causing to come together’. [√ 1] Pk. ālāvaṇa— n. ‘material for binding or tying’; M. āḷvaṇ, aḷ° n. ‘flour used for thickening’; H. ālan m. ‘straw and mud mixed for brickmaking, mixture of boiled lentils and dough’. — See *ālāpayati2, ālīyatē.
1376 *ālāpayati 1 ‘speaks’. [√lap] L. alāvaṇ ‘to speak, utter’; Ku. alāṇo ‘to cry, bleat’; M. āḷaviṇẽ, aḷ° ‘to coax, conciliate, implore, sing with tremulous modulation, warble (of birds)’. — See ālāpana1. Addenda: *ālāpayati1: Brj. alāwno ‘to speak, sing’.
1377 *ālāpayati 2 ‘brings close, makes stick’. [ālīyatē ‘comes close to’ MBh., lāpayatē Pāṇ.: √ 1] Pk. ālāvaṇa— n. ‘rope for binding’; K. ālawun ‘to bring (a boat) to or near the shore’; M. āḷaviṇẽ, aḷ° ‘to inspissate’; — Si. alavanavā ‘to affix’ or < *saṁlā- payati.
1379 *ālāsayati ‘causes to stick to’. [√*las 2] Ku. alāsiṇo ‘to stick to, take refuge’. āli— 1 ‘row’ see *āḍi2. āli— 2 see alin—.
1381 *ālikha— ‘painter’. [√likh] Si. äli ‘painter’. — See ālēkha—.
1390 *āluḍati ‘moves to and fro’. 2. ālōḍayati ‘stirs up’ Suśr. [Cf. ālulita— ‘agitated’ Mālatīm., ālōlita— ‘shaken’ MW.: √luḍ]. 1. Pa. āluḷati ‘moves here and there’, āluḷēti ‘sets in motion’; S. āluṛaṇu ‘to ebb (of the tide)’; — Si. älalīma ‘unrest, confusion’ Geiger ES 19, but rather der. (h)alalanavā < saṁlālayati. 2. Pa. ālōḷēti ‘stirs up, agitates’; Pk. ālōḍēi ‘stirs up, churns’, pp. ālōḍia—, ālōlia—; S. āroṛaṇu ‘to plough a rice—field after flooding’; Or. āloṛibā ‘to stir’; Aw. lakh. arōrab ‘to stir grain in the winnowing basket’; H. āloṛnā ‘to churn’; M. āloḍṇẽ, āloḍh° ‘to stir’. ālulita— see *āluḍati.
1391 *ālulla— ‘maimed’. [*lulla—] Wg. (Lumsden) "allúl" ‘bald’.
1392 *ālūta— ‘cut off’. [ālūna— Kālid., ālunāti MW: √] G. āḷũ ‘lately stripped (of skin), painful’.
1395 *ālēṭati ‘reclines on’. 2. *ālēṭyati. [√lēṭ] 1. G. aleḍvũ, aleḍh° ‘to lean against’. 2. G. aleṭvũ ‘id.’. *ālēṭyati see *ālēṭati.
1399 *ālēha— ‘licking’. [ālihati ‘licks’ BhP., pp. ālīḍha- MBh., Pk. ālihaï ‘touches’: √lih] Kho. (Lor.) ālih ‘salts in the earth’ < ‘*salt—lick’?
1402 *ālōḍa— ‘movement to and fro’, ālōla— m. ‘trembling, rocking’ Kālid. [√luḍ] Pa. ālōḷa— m. ‘confusion, uproar’; Wg. alṓl ‘song, singing’ (NTS xvii 224 compares Sk. lal—); L. alol m. ‘affection (esp. of a child)’; H. alol m. ‘caper’. ālōḍayati see *āludati.
1404 *ālōptra— ‘that which cuts off’. [√lup] H. alotā m. ‘screen’.
1405 *ālōpya— ‘that which is to be cut off’. [√lup] Si. alupa ‘small piece’.
1406 *ālōpyatē ‘is cut off’ [ā́lumpati ‘tears out, separates’ AV., Pa. ālumpati ‘breaks off’, Pk. āluṁpaï ‘takes away’, ālōviya— ‘covered’: √lup] With MIA. —ll—: G. alopvũ ‘to disappear’, alpāvũ ‘to be hidden’.
1407 *ālōrtati ‘rolls’. [√*lōrt] H. aluṭnā ‘to fall, stagger’; G. āḷoṭvũ ‘to wallow’, āloṭaṇ n. ‘a pillow to lean against’; — M. aloṭṇẽ ‘to transact, do, be conversant with’ < tr. ‘*to roll about’? ālōla— see *ālōḍa—. ālōlita— see *āluḍati. *ālla— ‘wet’: see ārdrá—. *āllaka— ‘fresh ginger’: see ārdraka—.
1408 *āllabhr̥ṣṭa— ‘moist cob of maize’. [*ālla—, bhr̥ṣṭa1] N. alauṭo ‘fresh cob of maize’.
1414 *āvarati ‘covers’. [āvr̥ṇōti ‘covers, shuts in’ MBh.: √vr̥ 1] Pa. āvarati ‘shuts out, obstructs’; Pk. āvaraï ‘covers’; Kho. awerik ‘to shut up (cattle or their pen), to tie up (an animal)’; G. āvarvũ ‘to cover, spread, scatter’, avrāvũ ‘to be covered’; M. āvarṇẽ ‘to cover, restrain, gather together’.
1415 *āvarā— ‘covering’, āvaraka— Sāh. [√vr̥ 1] Pa. —āvara— in cmpd. ‘obstructing’; K. āwürü f. ‘covering, surrounding’ < *āvarikā—, or < āvr̥ti—. *skandhāvarā—.
1422 *āvalana— ‘turning’. [√val] Pk. āvalaṇa— n.; K. āwalun, °nu m. ‘whirlpool’.
1426 *āvāṭa— 2 ‘enclosure’. [For ā— cf. āvāra—, āvr̥ti—: vāṭa1] M. āvāḍ, av° n. ‘an enclosure round a house, court- yard’, āḍā m. ‘fence of quick trees’.
1427 *āvāta— ‘blown up’. [ā́vāti ‘blows upon’ RV.: √ 2] Ext. with —ḍa—: P. avāṛī f. ‘blaze of fire’. *āvāda— see apavāda—.
1429 *āvāma— ‘being on the left’. [vā́ma1] Wg. awā́m dōš ‘left arm’ (Morgenstierne NTS xvii 235 loc. a—+vāma—).
1438 *āviṣṭi— f. ‘demoniacal possession’. [Cf. āvēśa— ‘id.’ Bālar.: √viś] K. āvēṭh, āwaṭh, dat. °ṭhi, f. ‘demoniacal possession’. ā́viṣṭita— see ā́vēṣṭatē.
1439 *āvunāti ‘strings together’. [ā́vayati ‘interweaves, strings’: see *vināti: √vē] Pa. āvuṇāti ‘strings on, fixes on, impales’; Si. (SigGr) avuṇa— ‘to string together’, ävinum ‘linking together’, amunanavā ‘to string together’ (Geiger BSOS viii 555 wrongly < āvr̥ṇāti): forms with —m— poss. < *samūna—, cf. sáṁvayati ‘interweaves’ RV., —samuta— ŚBr. Addenda: *āvunāti: Md. amunanī ‘strings together’ rather < *samūna— (for am— < ām— or sam— cf. Si. amutu < †;āgantu—?).
1444 *āvr̥ttikara— ‘twisting’. 2. *āvr̥ttikaraṇa— ‘instru- ment for twisting’. [ā́vr̥tti—, kará1 and káraṇa—] 1. L. aṭeraṇ ‘to wind yarn’; P. aṭerṇā, uṭ° ‘to reel, make up into skeins’; H. aṭernā ‘to wind’; G. aṭervũ ‘to form skeins of thread (usu. on the fingers)’. 2. L. aṭeruṇ m. ‘bat, yarn—twister’; P. aṭeraṇ, uṭ° m. ‘reel’; H. aṭeran m. ‘distaff, winder’.
1444a *āvr̥ddha— Add. 14286.
1445 *āvr̥ṣa— ‘rain, pertaining to the rains’. [Cf. prāvŕ̥ṣ- and ā́varṣatē RV.: √vr̥ṣ] B. āus (with or without dhān) ‘rainy season rice-crop’ Chatterji ODBL 320; Or. āus ‘rice harvested in autumn’; H. āūs m. ‘rice sown in April—May’. āvr̥ṣṭi— ‘rain’ in anāvr̥ṣṭi—. [√vr̥ṣ]
1455 *āśara— ‘protection’. [Cf. āśāra— in āśāraiṣín— ‘seeking protection’ AV.: √śar] Ku. N. āsro m. ‘refuge’; Mth. āsa ‘retreat, refuge’; H. āsrā m. ‘refuge’, āsarnā ‘to take refuge’; OMarw. ā̃saro m. ‘protection’, G. āsrɔ m., M. āsrā m. (Bloch LM 293 < āśraya—); — bec. of —s— S. āsiro m. ‘refuge’, L. āsrā m., P. āsrā m., ḍog. āssarā m. either ← H. or MIA. analogical form *āssara—.
1461 *āśōka— 1, āśōkēya— ‘belonging to the aśoka tree’ Pāṇ. [aśōka—] Pk. āsōa—; G. āso—pālɔ m. ‘leaves of the tree Jonesia asoka’.
1462 *āśōka— 2 ‘shining’. [Cf. āśōkā— f. ‘woman's name’ Pāṇ. gaṇa śubhrādi: √śuc] WPah. jaun. āśō ‘brightness, light’.
1463 *āśaucya— ‘impurity’. [Cf. aśauca—, āś° n. Mn., Pk. asōya— n.; aśuci— ‘impure’ Mn.: śuci—] K. hõmacr;ċh, st. hõmacr;ċ— m. ‘ceremonial impurity’; — or perh. ← ā̆śauca—.
1481 *āsatta— ‘sitting’. [Cf. āsanna—: √sad] Ash. ásta ‘chair’? — Morgenstierne NTS ii 244 < āsthā— with?
1489 *āsāṭa— ‘maggot’, āśātikā— f. ‘egg of fly or other insect, nit’ BHS II 109. Pa. āsāṭikā— f. ‘fly's egg, nit’; M. āsāḍī, as°, ãs°, āsḍī, as°, ãs° ‘spawn of flies settling on a wound, fly—blow, maggots’.
1492 *āsāra— 2 ‘firm’. [sā́ra2] Kho. asár ‘high solid wall, revetment of a field terrace’ Morgenstierne Belvalkar Vol 86.
1495 *āsupati ‘goes to sleep’. 2. āsupta— BHSk. [√svap 1] 1. Tor. hūb— ‘to sleep’. 2. Tor. hut ‘he slept’. (Grier- son Tor. 157 < suptá—, Morgenstierne AO viii 303 with ?)
1497 *āsr̥kvika— ‘near the corner of the mouth’. [sŕ̥kvan—]. Kho. aṣki, iṣ° ‘jaw’, iṣkío don ‘back—tooth’.
1502 *āskr̥ta— ‘brought near’. [Cf. ā́kr̥ṇōti ‘brings near’ RV., ‘drives near’ AV.: √skr̥] Pk. akkhaḍaï ‘attacks’; G. ākhaṛvũ ‘to ramble, roam’; — very doubtful.
1504 *āstambhati ‘stands firm’. [√stambh] P. āthamṇā ‘to stop, be supported; (of the sun) to set’; — in last sense see ástam ēti.
1508 *āstariman— ‘spreading out, covering’. [Cf. inf. stárimani RV., stariman— m. ‘bed’ lex.: √str̥] Ash. astrƏmә́ ‘ice’ (but NTS ii 244 with ?).
1510 *āstudati ‘strikes against’. [Cf. ā́tudati RV.: √*stud] Cf. S. āthuṛaṇu ‘to trip, stumble’ (cf. ākhuṛaṇu s.v. *ākṣuṭati); G. āthaṛvũ, ath° ‘to come into collision with’, athṛāvũ ‘to be tired’; M. āthaḍṇẽ ‘to catch with a jerk’.
1513 *āsthāti ‘remains’. [ā́tiṣṭhati ‘resorts to, remains on’ RV.: √sthā] Pk. atthaï ‘sits’; Gy. wel. ast— ‘to remain, stop’; Or. aṇṭhibā ‘to last, hold out, suffice’.
1517 *āsthāman— ‘meeting place’. [√sthā] Sh. astóm f. ‘judgement’ (→ Bur. *l stām Morgen- stierne NTS xiii 92); H. athāı̃ f. ‘place of meeting’ (see also āsthāyikā—).
1520 *āsthira— ‘firm’. [sthirá—] S. āthiraṇu ‘to settle (of muddy water)’; P. āṭharṇā ‘to become partially dry’, ḍog. āṭṭharnā ‘to become dry’; M. aṭharṇẽ ‘to shrink, contract’; — all very doubtful.
1522 *āsthūla— ‘fat’. [sthūlá—] N. athulāunu ‘to grow fat’; OM. āṭhulaṇeṁ ‘to thicken’.
1524 *āsnāpayati ‘causes to bathe’. [√snā] Aw. anhāwab ‘to cause to bathe’. Addenda: *āsnāpayati: Brj. anhwāno ‘to bathe’.
1525 *āsnāva— m. ‘wetting’. [√snu] Mth. anhāw ‘flooding a field before planting with rice’.
1526 *āsphara— ‘swelling, bellows’. [√sphar] S. āphirī f. ‘swelling of the body from wind’; L. āphar ‘swelled by putrefaction &c.’; G. āphrɔ m. ‘wind in belly, fit of passion’; Ku. āphar ‘blacksmith's bellows’; A. āphar, aphâri ‘mouth of a bellows’. Addenda: *āsphara—: S.kcch. āphro m. ‘wind in the stomach’.
1527 *āspharati ‘swells’. 2. *āsphārayati ‘causes to swell’. [√sphar] 1. S. āphirjaṇu ‘to be swollen with wind’; L. āpharaṇ intr. ‘to swell’, awāṇ. āphruṇ ‘to be stuffed’; P. āpharnā, apph° ‘to swell, (esp. of the belly)’; H. apharnā ‘to swell out, be satiated’; G. āpharvũ ‘to be swollen of body’. - Deriv. P. H. aphrāī f. ‘surfeit’; Ku. apharai ‘flatulence’; — N. aphare ‘suffering from hydrocele’. 2. P. aphārnā ‘to cause to swell’.
1528 *āsphāyatē ‘swells’. [√sphāy] Deriv. H. apheṇḍā ‘very conceited’; — very doubtful.
1529 *āsphāra— ‘swelling’. [√sphar] P. aphārā m. ‘swelling of the belly from wind’; M. aphārī f. ‘food which swells out but does not satisfy for long’. *āsphārayati see *āspharati.
1536 *āsvarita— ‘sunny’. [svàr—] Ash. áspƏrƏ ‘sunny, sunny side of a valley’ Morgen- stierne NTS ii 244 with much doubt, bec. of sp < sv, but for this cf. same development in *āsvēda—.
1537 *āsvēda— ‘sweat’. [āsiṣvidāná— ‘sweating profusely’ RV.: √svid] Ash. uspә́ ‘sweat’, Kt. ašpe, °pu, Wg. ašpә́ Morgen- stierne NTS xvii 229; Ku. asyau ‘sweat, exhaustion’.
1539 *āhana— ‘striking, blow’. [√han 1] OG. āhaṇa m. ‘blow’; OM. āhāṇā ‘harmful’. Addenda: *āhana—: †;*āhanaśālā—.
1539a *āhanaśālā— ‘blacksmith's forge’? [*āhana—, śā́lā—] Garh. aṇsāḷ ‘blacksmith's workshop’.
1542 *āhallati ‘moves’. [√*hall] Pk. āhallaï intr. ‘shakes, moves’; Wg. ālƏ ‘moving’ Morgenstierne NTS xvii 224; S. ahalaṇu ‘to lean against’; H. ahalnā intr. ‘to shake, move’.
1551 *ikṣuvāṭa— ‘sugar—cane enclosure’. [ikṣú—, vāṭa1] Bi. ukhāri ‘land planted with sugar—cane’, H. ukhāṛī f. IṄKH ‘move’: see √īṅkh. [Cf. √*iṅgh, √iṅg, √aṅg] IṄG ‘move’: iṅgana—, iṅgita— [iṅgáyati ‘shakes’ RV., iṅgati ‘moves, sets in motion’ MBh.: cf. √aṅg, √iṅkh, √īṅkh, √*iṅgh]
1555 *iṅghati ‘moves’. [√*iṅgh] Pa. iṅgha ‘come on!’; S. iṅghaṇu ‘to lengthen out, stretch, open out in wear’ or < ı̄́ṅkhati.
1576 *indradyōtya— ‘lightning’. [Cf. indratējas— ‘thunder- bolt’ BhP.: índra—, dyōtya—] Dm. iṇḍṓči ‘lightning’, indṓči ‘thunder’; Kal. indṓčik ‘lightning’ Morgenstierne NTS xii 155.
1580 *indrāgāra— n. ‘a well’. [S. K. Chatterji ODBL 324: índra—, agāra—] N. inār ‘well, cistern’, B. ı̃dārā; Or. indā̆ra ‘well, small tank, hole’; Bi. inār, °rā, ı̃dārā, ı̃drā ‘large masonry well’, Mth. inār, H. indārā, andārā, inārā m.
1582 *indrēṣṭi— ‘impulse from Indra’. [índra—, iṣṭí1] Kt. indríc̣, (Kamdesh) indríṣṭ ‘earthquake’. INDH ‘kindle’: idhmávant—, índha—, indhana—; *indhastha—; sámiddha—, sáminddhē.
1585 *indhanakuṭaka— ‘fuel—store’ [indhana—, kuṭī—] H. ı̃dhauṛā m. ‘room for storing wood’.
1586 *indhastha— ‘fuel—place’. [índha—, stha—] Wg. ɛ̄̃daté ‘fire—place’ or < idhmávant—.
1590 *iyattama— ‘of so much’. [íyant—: i1] M. itvā ‘of this degree’?
1593 *illi— ‘a kite’. [Cf. cilli—] S. hila f., L. hill, obl. °li f.; P. ill f. ‘kite, a kind of hawk’ (illaṛ m. ‘a foolish person’?), WPah. paṅ. cur. cam. bhal. ill f. ‘kite, vulture’; — semant. connexion doubtful with Pk. illi— m. ‘lion, tiger’, H. īl m. ‘a wild animal’.
1599 *iṣṭakarman— ‘performance of sacrificial rite’. [iṣṭá—2, kárman—] Si. iṭṭama ‘emancipation’; — very doubtful; more prob. from iṭu < iṣṭa1 with kama Geiger EGS 20.
1601 *iṣṭakālaya— ‘brick—mould’. [íṣṭakā—, ālaya—] M. iṭāḷẽ n.
1612 *īdhra— ‘clear sky’. 2. *īdhara— [īdhríya— ‘belonging to the clear sky’ TS.] 1. Kho. yudur ‘clear sky’ Morgenstierne Belvalkar- Vol 97. 2. Kt. īra, īr, Wg. īrƏ, Paš. īr m. vīdhrá—. īdhríya— see *īdhra—.
1622 *īṣādhāra— ‘holding the pole of a plough’. [Cf. yugadhāra—: īṣā́—, dhāra1] M. isar n. ‘pole of the plough’, isārkī, isar° f. ‘ring or bolt at hinder extremity of a plough’. īṣı̄́kā— see iṣı̄́kā—. ĪH ‘desire’: *durīhā—. īhā— f. ‘wish’: see *durīhā—.
1624 *u 2 pronominal element: see asáu.
1625 *ukka— ‘feeling of suffocation’. Ku. ukas—mukas; N. ukus—mukus, —pukus ‘feeling of the stomach being uncomfortably full’; A. uk—muk ‘sound expressing suffocation from extreme heat’, ukmukāiba ‘to have this sensation’, ukmukiyā ‘night- mare’; H. ukas—mukas ‘suffocation’.
1632 *uṅghati ‘sleeps’. [√*uṅgh]. Pk. uṁghaï, ugghaï, oṁghaï ‘sleeps’; L. awāṇ. ughuṇ ‘to have a nap’; EP. uṅgha ‘to doze’; WPah. pāḍ. uṅhaṇ ‘to sleep’, Ku. uṅṇo, N. ũghnu; Or. uṅgeibā ‘to be drowsy’, H. ū̃ghnā, ū̃gnā; G. ũghvũ, ũghāvũ ‘to sleep’. Addenda: *uṅghati: Garh. ũgṇu ‘to be sleepy’.
1633 *uṅghā— ‘sleep’. [√*uṅgh] Ku. ū̆ṅ ‘sleep’, Bhoj. uṅghī, H. ū̃gh, ū̃g f., G. ū̃gh, ũgh f.
1639 *uccayatē ‘takes vengeance on’. [Cf. cáyatē RV.: √ci 3] S. ucāiṇu ‘to have a spite against’.
1640 *uccayayati or *uccayati ‘collects’. [uccinōti: √ci 1] Sh. (Lor.) učoiki, 1st sg. aor. učīum, pret. učīgas ‘to pick, pick up or off, card (cotton)’, or < uccita—? Addenda: *uccayayati: WPah.poet. uċṇo ‘to suck, absorb’? (Him.I 12 < uccita—); — kc. unċṇo ‘to pluck flowers’ (Him.I 12 < *uccayati).
1642 *uccalyati ‘goes up’. 2. Caus. *uccālayati. [uccalati ‘springs up’ BhP.: √cal] 1. Pk. uccallaï ‘goes’; B. caus. uclāna ‘to shake, winnow’; Or. caus. uculāibā ‘to tear off (bark or branches)’; H. ucalnā ‘to be separated’, caus. uclānā; G. ucalvũ ‘to rise’, caus. uclāvvũ; M. uċalṇẽ ‘to rise, shoot up’. 2. Pa. uccālēti ‘raises’; Pk. uccālēi ‘throws up’; P. ucālṇā ‘to arouse, excite’; N. ucālnu ‘to raise, lift’, A. usāliba; H. ucālnā ‘to separate’; G. ucāḷvũ ‘to help in lifting’; M. uċalṇẽ ‘to raise’ with l from intr.; Si. usulanavā, uhu° ‘to carry, support’. See úccarati, uccārayati. Addenda: *uccalyati. 2. *uccālayati: WPah.kc. ċwaḷno ‘to pick up’; — delete Add. 14301 (see utplavatē Add2).
1643 *uccāpayati ‘causes to be collected’. 2. Pass. *uccā- pyatē. [Cf. cāpayati Pāṇ., uccinōti: √ci 1] 1. Ku. ucauṇo ‘to collect in a heap’; — L. awāṇ. ucāvuṇ ‘to raise’ or deriv. ucca—. 2. L. P. Ku. H. ucāpat f. ‘raising money or taking goods on credit’; G. ucāpat f. ‘misappropriation of funds, speculation’; — doubtful. uccārayati see úccarati.
1644 *uccāla— ‘lifting up, removing’. [Cf. uccārá— ‘rising’ TS.: √cal] P. ucālā m. ‘instigation’; A. usāl ‘act of rising’; G. ucāḷɔ m. ‘movables, furniture’. *uccālayati see *uccalyati. Addenda: *uccāla—: S.kcch. aucāṛo m. ‘movable goods’. *uccālayati see *uccalyati Add2.
1645 *ucciṅgaka— ‘a cricket’. [ucciṅgaṭa— m. ‘cricket, crab’ lex.; cf. ucciṭiṅga— m. ‘small venomous animal in the water, crab’, cicciṭiṅga— m. ‘a kind of venomous insect’ Suśr., ciṅgaṭa—, °aḍa— ‘shrimp’ lex.] A. usaṅgā ‘cricket’, B. uciṅgā, ucuṅgā. uccita— ‘gathered’ Kathās. [√ci 1] See *uccayayati.
1646 *uccittaka— ‘very intelligent’. [cittá1] Kho. učútu ‘clever, alert’ Morgenstierne Belvalkar- Vol 85.
1648 *uccukra— ‘very sour’. [cukra—] Pr. učügū́ ‘bitter (?)’. *uccr̥tati ‘separates from’. [√cr̥t] See uccaṭati.
1649 *ucchaṭ— ‘snatch’. 2. *ucchaṭṭ—. [√*chaṭ] 1. Pk. ucchaḍia— ‘stolen’; H. uchaṛnā ‘to abscond’; M. osaḍṇẽ ‘to rob, plunder’. 2. Pk. ucchaṭṭa—, °aṁṭa— m. ‘snatch—thief’; Mth. uchaṭab ‘to bounce, jump’; H. uchaṭnā ‘to withdraw’. ucchanna— see útsanna—.
1650 *ucchardati ‘vomits’. [√chr̥d] B. uchṛāna, och° ‘to vomit’. ucchalati see *ut—śalati. *ucchalyati see *ut—śalati.
1651 *ucchalli— ‘without skin or bark’. [challi—] Or. uñchlāibā ‘to peel (fruit)’.
1653 *ucchiṭṭ— ‘flick away’. [*chiṭ—] Ku. uchiṭṇo ‘to leap, fly, strike’; N. uchiṭnu, °ṭinu ‘to be flicked away’, caus. uchiṭyāunu, ucheṭnu.
1656 *ucchupati ‘throws up’. [√chup] WPah. bhal. uċhūṇū ‘to lift’. ucchuṣka— see *ut—śuṣka—. ucchr̥ṅgita— see *ut—śr̥ṅga—.
1658 *ucchōṭṭa— ‘very small’. [*chōṭṭa—] Dm. úc̣huṭa, učuṭa, f. °iṭi ‘small’, Bshk. účuṭ, f. ičiṭ.
1659 *ucchyati ‘cuts off’. 2. Caus. ucchāyayati. [√chō] 1. P. ucchṇā ‘to be scratched’ (or der. uchehṇā < ucchēdayati); Or. uchibā ‘to prune, lop’. 2. Or. uchāibā ‘to prune’. Cf. *avacchyati. ucchraya— see *ut—śrāya—. úcchrayati see *ut—śrayati. ucchrāpayati see *ut—śrayati. ucchrāya— see *ut—śrāya—. úcchrita— see *ut—śrita—. úcchrīyatē see *ut—śrīyatē 1. ucchvasiti see *ut—śvasiti. ucchvāsá— see *ut—śvāsa—. ucchvāsayati see *ut—śvasiti.
1660a *ujjaṅghura— ‘above the shank’. [Cf. údbāhu— ‘with raised arms’ ŚBr.: jáṅghā—] Pr. uzógur ‘knee’?
1660b *ujjaṭa— ‘uprooted, laid waste’. 2. *ujjāṭa—. 3. *ujjāṭī— f. ‘laying waste’. [jáṭā—] 1. Pk. ujjaḍa— ‘laid waste, desolate’, S. ujaṛu (why not ?), P. ujjaṛ, Ku. ujaṛ, emph. ujaḍḍa; B. ujaṛ ‘de- populated’; Bi. ujaṛ, ujṛā ‘deserted village’; H. ūjaṛ ‘laid waste, depopulated’; G. ujaṛ, ujjaṛ ‘waterless, barren’. 2. S. ujāṛa ‘waste, desolate’, L. (Jukes) ujāṛ, P. Ku. ujāṛ, N. ujār, A. uzār, B. ujāṛ, Or. ujāṛa; H. ujāṛ ‘waste’, m. ‘a ruin’; G. ujāṛ ‘waterless’; M. uj̈āḍ ‘desolate’. 3. S. ujāṛa f. ‘a waste place’, L. P. ujāṛ f.; A. uzār ‘flight or dispersion from fear’; B. ujāṛ ‘a deserted place’, OMarw. ujāṛi f.; M. uj̈āḍī f. ‘desolation’. *ujjaṭati, *ujjāṭayati.
1661 *ujjaṭati ‘is uprooted’. 2. Caus. *ujjāṭayati. [*ujjaṭa—: jáṭā—] 1. K. wujarun ‘to be uprooted’ (lw. with j); S. ujiṛaṇu ‘to be waste’ (lw. with j); L. ujjiṛaṇ, (Jukes) uj̄raṇ ‘to go waste, to abandon one's home’; P. ujjaṛṇā ‘to be laid waste’; A. uzariba ‘to be frightened and dispersed’; Or. ujuṛibā ‘to lay waste’; H. ujaṛnā ‘to be uprooted’. 2. Pk. ujjāḍia— ‘laid waste’; K. wujārun ‘to lay waste’, ḍoḍ. uzāṛṇō, S. ujāraṇu, L. ujāṛaṇ, (Jukes) uj̄°, P. ujāṛṇā, WPah. sod. j̈wārnõ;, Ku. ujāṛṇo, N. ujārnu; A. uzāriba ‘to upturn (earth), expose’; Or. ujāṛibā ‘to uproot, depopulate’; H. ujāṛnā ‘to lay waste’ (→ Mth. ujāṛab ‘to destroy’), G. ujāṛvũ. Addenda: *ujjaṭati: Garh. ujaṛnu ‘to be dilapidated’.
1662 *ujjaḍa— ‘very stupid’. [jaḍa—] H. ujaṛ m. ‘a lout’.
1663 *ujjaḍhu— ‘very stupid’. [*jáḍhu—] H. ujhaṛ, ujjh° ‘stupid’.
1664 *ujjavati ‘goes upstream’. 2. *ujjavana— ‘upstream’. [√] 1. Pa. ujjavati ‘goes upstream’; A. uzāiba ‘to go upstream, move towards the head of a bed, come out in a shoal (of fish)’; B. ujāy ‘goes upstream’. 2. Pa. ujjavanikāya adv. ‘upstream’; A. uzani ‘upper part of a stream’, uzān ‘shoal of fish coming out in flood water’; B. ujān ‘flowing tide, upstream’; Or. ujāṇa ‘tidal’, ujāṇi adv. ‘upstream’, H. ujān adv. Semant. satisfactory, but phonet. rather < údyāti, udyā́na—. *ujjavana— see prec.
1665 *ujjāgrat— ‘awake’. [Cf. jā́garti RV. and ujjāgarayati ‘awakens’ Sāh., Pk. ujjāgara—, ujjāara— m. ‘lack of sleep’: √jāgr̥] S. ojāǥo m., °ǥa f. ‘sleeplessness’; P. ujāgar ‘manifest, known’. — Ext. with —ira—: Pk. ujjaggira— n. ‘wakeful- ness’, A. uzāgar; Or. ujāgara ‘awake’; G. ujāgrɔ m. ‘waking at night, anxiety’; M. uj̈āgar, °āgrā, °agrā, °agirā m. ‘wakefulness’, uj̈āgrī f. ‘publicity’. *samujjāgrat—. *ujjāṭa— see *ujjaṭa—. *ujjāṭayati see *ujjaṭati. *ujjāṭī— see *ujjaṭa—.
1668 *ujjvara— ‘shining’. [~ ujjvala—: √jvar] Or. ujar, uñj° ‘bright, light’; G. ujarṛũ n. ‘light’, ujṛũ n. ‘light, twilight’; M. uj̈rī f. ‘brightness’. Addenda: *ujjvara—: Brj. ujer(o) m. ‘light, moonshine’?
1669 *ujjvarati ‘shines’. 2. Caus. *ujjvārayati. [~ ujjval- ati, *ujjvālayati: √jvar] 1. M. uj̈arṇẽ ‘to return to pristine strength, become somewhat intelligent’. 2. M. uj̈arṇẽ ‘to brighten, restore’.
1672 *ujjvāra— ‘bright’. [~ *ujjvālaka—: √jvar] G. ujār, °rũ ‘bright’. — X andhakāra—: G. ujiyārũ ‘bright’. *ujjvārayati see *ujjvarati.
1673 *ujjvālaka— ‘bright’. [~ *ujjvāra—: √jval] S. ujāro ‘bright, light’; P. ujālā m. ‘dawn’ H. ujālā, ũj° m. — X andhakāra—: Ku. ujyālo ‘light’; N. ujyālo ‘dawn’, adj. ‘clear, cheerful’; OAw. ujiārā ‘light’ Saksena EA 77, H. ujyālā, ujelā m. ‘dawn’. *ujjvālayati see újjvalati. Addenda: *ujjvālaka—: S.kcch. ūjāro m. ‘light, twilight’. *ujjvālayati see újjvalati Add2. ujjháti: see †;*ujjihītē.
1675 *ujjharati ‘pours out, places, touches’. [√*jhar] Pk. ujjharia— ‘thrown, scattered, glanced at side- ways’, ujjhalia— ‘thrown’; G. ujharṛo m. ‘scratch’, ujhraṛvũ ‘to get the skin scratched’, ujharṛātũ ‘scratch- ing, glancing’; — Kho. uẓúrik ‘to sprinkle (water)’ with < *ud—gẓhar—. See Morgenstierne NTS xiii 238. — Cf. *ujjhalati.
1676 *ujjhalati ‘pours out’. 2. Caus. *ujjhālayati. [√*jhal] 1. Pk. ujjhalia— ‘thrown’; Or. ujhaḷāibā, ujhuḷ° ‘to clean (tanks or wells), publish secrets, save from distress’; H. ujhalnā, °ilnā ‘to flow from one vessel to another’ (whence tr. ujhīlnā, °elnā ‘to pour’). 2. Or. ujhāḷibā ‘to clear out (tanks or wells), repair (a house), save from distress’; H. ujhālnā ‘to pour out’. — Cf. *avajjhālayati, *ujjharati.
1677 *ujjhāla— ‘pouring out’. [√*jhal] Or. ujhāḷa adj. ‘overflowing’. *ujjhālayati see *ujjhalati.
1678 *ujjhāṣa— ‘shining’. [√jhaṣ] Pk. ujjhāsi— ‘sparkling’; G. ujās m. ‘brightness, light, lucidity’.
1679 *ujjhukkati ‘bends’. [√*jhukk] Bhoj. ujhukal ‘to stagger’. UÑCH ‘gather’: uñchá—, úñchati; prōñchati, prōñchana—. uñchá— m. ‘gleaning, esp. of separate grains’ Mn. [√uñch] aṅgōñcha— ?
1682 *uṭṭaṅka— 1 ‘weighing’. [ṭaṅka1] G. uṭā̃kɔ m. ‘rough estimate of weight, guess’, uṭā̃kvũ ‘to weigh’.
1683 *uṭṭaṅka— 2 ‘throwing the legs up’. [Cf. uṭṭīkita— ‘jump- ing’ Rājat.? — ṭaṅka3] H. uṭaknā ‘to jump, skip’.
1684 *uṭṭaṅga— ‘up the leg’. [ṭaṅka3] H. uṭaṅgī ‘high up the leg, drawn up (of trousers), shrunk, shrivelled, badly made’.
1685 *uṭṭaṅgana— ‘name of a plant’. S. uṭaṅgaṇu m. ‘seed of Acanthodium hirtum (used in medicine)’; P. uṭaṅgaṇ m. ‘a plant of the order Acanthaceae (given medicinally for impotence)’; H. uṭaṅgan m. ‘a species of nettle the seeds of which are aphrodisiac’.
1686 *uṭṭārayati ‘moves away’. [√*ṭar] Or. oṭāribā ‘to pull, drag, draw water, lift’. — Poss. Pk. uṭṭāra— m. ‘landing place, bank (of a lake, &c.)’ X uttāra—. — Cf. next.
1687 *uṭṭālayati ‘moves away’. [√ṭal 1] M. uṭāḷṇẽ ‘to turn over’, uṭāḷā m. ‘pushing, a lever’. — Cf. prec.
1688 *uṭṭiṅgala— ‘mound’. [*ṭiṅga— s.v. *ṭakka3] M. uṭı̃gaḷ, °ãgaḷ n. ‘mound’, adj. ‘abounding in mounds’, adv. ‘unevenly’.
1689 *uṭṭimbara— ‘mound’. [*ṭimba— s.v. *ṭakka3] M. uṭı̃bar, uṭãb° ‘rugged with mounds’, uṭı̃brā, uṭãb° m. ‘round hill, bump’.
1690 *uṭṭuṅgara— or *uṭṭiṅgara— ‘mound’. [Cf. uttuṅga- ‘high’ MBh. — *ṭuṅga— s.v. *ṭakka3] M. uṭãgar ‘full of mounds’, m.n. ‘small round hillock, stone placed under a mass which is to be rolled along’. — Cf. next.
1691 *uṭṭuṅgala— ‘mound’. [*ṭuṅga— s.v. ṭakka3] M. uṭãgaḷ n. ‘mound’, adv. ‘unevenly’; or < *uṭṭiṅgala—. — Cf. prec.
1692 *uṭṭumbara— ‘mound’. [*ṭumba— s.v. *ṭakka3] M. uṭãbar ‘rugged with mounds’, uṭãbrā m. ‘mound’; — or < *uṭṭimbara—.
1693 *uḍidda— ‘a pulse’. Pk. uḍida— m.; H. uṛad, urad, urd, urdh m. ‘the pulse Dolichos pilosos’; G. aṛad, pl. aṛad or °diyā m. ‘the pulse Phaseolus radiatus’, M. uḍīd m.; — deriv. G. aṛadiyũ n. ‘sweetmeat made of its flour’, M. uḍdī ‘of the colour of uḍīd’. Addenda: *uḍidda—: Brj. udd m. ‘a pulse’ AO 32, 331. uḍḍayatē, uḍḍāpayati see uḍḍīyatē Add2.
1698 *uḍḍhālayati ‘throws up’. [√*ḍhal] S. uḍhāraṇu ‘to gather up flour thrown out of a mill’; N. oṛālnu ‘to stir up rice’; — but see uddhārayati. uḍra— see ōḍra1.
1703 *utkaṭa— 3 ‘hip’. [Cf. kaṭi— and utkuṭaka—] Si. ukuḷa, °ula ‘hip’, ikiliya ‘hip, groin’ ( < °ṭikā—). Addenda: *utkaṭa—3: Md. ukuḷu ‘buttocks’.
1705 *utkaṭṭa— ‘removing rust’. [*kaṭṭa1] G. ukaṭvũ, uṭakvũ ‘to cleanse pots’, ukṭo ‘medicine made from iron rust to cure swollen eyes’.
1706 *utkaḍḍhati ‘drags up’. [Cf. utkarṣati: √*kaḍḍh] Pk. ukkaḍḍhiya— ‘uprooted’; B. ukṛāna, ukhṛāna ‘to root up’.
1712 *utkartati ‘cuts out’. [útkr̥ntati ‘cuts off or out’ ŚBr., Pa. ukkantati ‘cuts out, skins’: √kr̥t 1] Pk. ukkattaï ‘cuts’ (pp. ukkatta—, ukkitta— < *utkr̥tta—); Gy. pal. úktăr ‘strikes, throws down, casts out’; P. uktāuṇā ‘to vex’; Ku. ukatṇo ‘to fall away, dwindle’, uktāṇo ‘to dry up’; A. okaṭiba ‘to upturn as dirt, expose secret misconduct’; H. ukaṭnā ‘to dig up’, caus. ukṭānā; M. ukaṭṇẽ ‘to chisel a grindstone or millstone, pit or be pitted with smallpox’. — Deriv. M. ukṭī f. ‘chisel for refacing a grindstone’. See *utskartati.
1716 *utkalati ‘goes out or up’, utkalita— ‘rising, prosperous’, utkalayati ‘loosens’ BhP. 2. *utkalyatē. 3. utkālayati ‘drives out’ Śaṁk. [√kal 2] 1. S. ukaraṇu, ukir° ‘to go out, descend’; Ku. ukalṇo ‘to rise’; N. uklanu ‘to ascend’; A. ukaliba ‘to be in excess of a certain number in counting, to be passed (of an age)’; H. ukalnā ‘to boil over’; G. ukaḷvũ intr. ‘to boil’, M. ukaḷṇẽ. 2. S. ukilaṇu ‘to come out, be finished’; M. ukalṇẽ ‘to be loosened, be disentangled, open (of a bud)’, tr. ‘to loosen’. 3. S. ukāraṇu ‘to take down, make descend’; Ku. ukālṇo ‘to raise’, N. ukālnu; H. ukālnā tr. ‘to boil (water, &c.)’; G. ukāḷvũ ‘to cause to boil, make ready, finish’; M. ukaḷṇẽ tr. ‘to boil’; Ko. ukaḷtā ‘lifts’; — A. okāliba ‘to eject from the mouth, retch’ and Or. ukāḷibā ‘to vomit’ prob. belong here but are influenced semant. by forms from *ōkk— ‘vomit’. *utkalyatē see *utkalati. Addenda: *utkalati. 1. S.kcch. aukkarṇū ‘to boil’; WPah.kṭg. ukƏḷnõ; ‘to climb, ascend’, ukkhƏḷnõ; (with kkh from níkkhƏḷnõ; < niṣkalati Him.I 11); Garh. ukaḷnu ‘to climb, ride’; A. ukaliba ‘to pass (as time)’ AFD 332. 3. utkālayati: S.kcch. okārṇū tr. ‘to boil’; WPah.kṭg. kwaḷnõ;, khw° ‘to make ascend’; A. okāliba ‘to eject from the mouth’.
1717 *utkavalayati ‘spits out’. [kavala—] A. ukuliyāiba ‘to eject from the mouth’.
1719 *utkāmayatē ‘desires’. [Cf. kāmáyatē ‘loves’ RV., útka— ‘longing for’ Pāṇ.: √kam] M. ukāvṇẽ ‘to desire’. utkāra— see utkara—. Addenda: *utkāmayatē [Cf. Ir. *kāmaya— in Shgh. čēmb—, čomb- ‘to will, agree’, Wkh. kƏmi—, Sang. kƏmay—]
1720 *utkāla— ‘going up or out’. [√kal 2] WPah. bhad. okālu n. ‘ascent’, sod. kwāḷe; Ku. ukālo ‘uphill slope’, gng. ukāw, N. ukālo; G. ukāḷ m. ‘rise’; M. ukāḷā m. ‘ebullition’; — A. okālā, okalā ‘food spat out’ infl. by okāliba < utkālayati. — Connexion very doubtful with Ash. ọ̄̃karái, ū̃k° ‘upwards, high’, Kt. ukƏŕ ‘steep’. utkālayati see *utkalati. utkāśatē ‘shines out’ BhP. [√kāś] See ávakāśatē. Addenda: *utkāla—: S.kcch. okār m. ‘slope’; WPah.kṭg. kwaḷi f. ‘upward slope’, Wkc. kwāḷ f. utkālayati see *utkalati Add2. *utkāsayati see útkasati Add2.
1721 *utkāśyati ‘shines’. [Cf. utkāśatē BhP., kāśyatē Dhātup.: √kāś] P. ukāsṇā ‘to kindle, excite, instigate’; G. ukā̃svũ ‘to throw light on, bring prominently into notice’.
1724 *utkīrā— ‘praising’ (?). [Cf. utkīrtayati ‘praises’: √kr̥ 2] S. ukīra f. ‘yearning for’.
1725 *utkucyatē ‘is bent up’. [utkucati ‘bends upwards, crooks, opens (as a flower)’ Kauś. : √kuc] Or. ukucibā ‘to spring up, float, be suspended’; - with metath. uckibā intr. ‘to hang’.
1727 *utkuṭyatē ‘is bent up’. 2. utkōṭayati ‘bends up’ Pāṇ. Kāś. [√kuṭ 1] 1. Or. ukuṭibā ‘to be fully blown, be manifest’. 2. Pa. ukkōṭēti ‘disturbs a legal question which has been settled’ (cf. ukkōṭaṇa— n. ‘crookedness, perversion of justice’); Pk. ukkōḍiya— m. ‘one who accepts a bribe’; P. okuṛṇā ‘to bend, stretch forward, reach as far as possible’.
1729 *utkuṣati ‘cuts up’. [√kuṣ] Sh. (Lor.) ukuẓoiki ‘to flay, skin’; H. ukusnā ‘to up- root, rip up’.
1731 *utkr̥ta— ‘dug up’. [Cf. utkīrṇa— ‘dug up’ KātyŚr.: √kr̥̄ 1] Or. ukaṛibā ‘to be uprooted, get loose’. — Cf. *utskr̥ta—.
1733 *utkl̥pti— ‘form’. [Cf. útkalpayati ‘forms, moulds’ AV., kĺ̥pti—, °tí— f. ‘preparation’ ŚBr.: √kl̥p] P. ukkat f. ‘contrivance, invention’; — deriv. ukkatī m., °taṇ f. ‘inventor’. *utkēra— see utkara—. *utkērayati ‘digs up’: see útkirati.
1734 *utkēlyatē ‘is disentangled’. [Cf. útkirati, *utkēra- yati: √kil, √kr̥̄ 1] Pk. caus. ukkellāviya— ‘unpicked, opened’; H. ukelnā ‘to unravel’; G. ukelvũ ‘to disentangle, make out a badly written letter’.
1735 *utkōṭa— ‘bending towards, bribe’. [Cf. utkōca— m. ‘bribe’ Yājñ.: √kuṭ 1] Pk. ukkōḍa— n. ‘present to the king’, °ḍā— f. ‘bribe’; H. akor f. ‘bribe, lure (e.g. to an intractable cow)’, akorī m. ‘one who takes bribes’ (or < *ākōṭa— with anal. —kk—, Pa. ākōṭēti ‘knocks against’, Pk. āōḍēi ‘makes enter’). utkōṭayati see *utkuṭyatē.
1738 *utkramyati ‘goes away’. [Cf. kramyati, krām° Pāṇ.: √kram] With metath. N. umkanu ‘to escape’, caus. umkāunu; — rather < *unmukna—.
1742 *utkvātha— ‘boiling up’. [√kvath] M. ukāḍā, ukḍā m. ‘decoction of tamarind with salt for cleaning silver, sultriness’.
1743 *utkṣaṇōti ‘pounds’. [√kṣan 1] Pk. ukkhaṇaï ‘pounds, husks (rice)’; G. ɔkhaṇvũ ‘to pound’.
1744 *utkṣarati ‘pours out’. [√kṣar] Kt. uc̣är ‘poured out’ Morgenstierne Rep1 59; L. deriv. ukhrāṇī f. ‘trough’.
1745 *utkṣāṇayati ‘sifts’. [Cf. Yid. uṣān— ‘to churn’ IIFL ii 193: √*kṣan 2] Gy. bulg. učhan— ‘to sift’ JGLS 3rd ser. vi 23, gr. ušan—; boh. ušān— ‘to knead’; — deriv. hung. učándi ‘sieve’.
1746 *utkṣāra— ‘burnt up’. [kṣārá—1, √kṣai] A. ukharā ‘hot—tempered, dry, poor (of land)’; M. usar ‘dried up, emaciated’, usar, usrī f. ‘dried and pre- served vegetables and fruits’.
1747 *utkṣāla— ‘pouring out’. [√kṣal] Ku. ukhāl ‘vomit’; H. ukhāl m. ‘vomiting’, ukhāl- pukhāl m. ‘cholera’ (see *prakṣāla—); M. ukhāḷ m. ‘any- thing to produce vomiting’.
1748 *utkṣālayati ‘makes flow out’. [√kṣal] Ku. ukhālṇo ‘to vomit’, gng. ukhāwṇo tr. ‘to pour out from the mouth’; H. ukhālnā ‘to vomit’.
1751 *utkṣubdha— ‘cast up’. [√kṣubh] Pk. ucchuddha— ‘thrown up’ (cf. ucchūḍha— ‘driven out’); M. asūd, °ūt n. ‘repercussion of food in eating or drinking’, asudā j̈āṇẽ ‘to go the wrong way (of food)’.
1751a *utkṣurati ‘scrapes out’. [√kṣur] Md. ukuranī ‘scrapes out’.
1754 *utkhāna— ‘digging up’. [Cf. khānaka— Mn., absol. utkhānam: √khan] Ku. gng. ukhāṇ ‘act of rooting up (a plant or tree)’.
1755 *utkhēllati ‘undo, disentangle’. [√*khēll] S. ukhelaṇu ‘to untie’ (whence intr. ukhilaṇu ‘to be extracted’); Ku. ukhelṇo ‘to open, cancel’; N. ukhelnu ‘to uproot’.
1756 *utkhōllati ‘unties, opens’. [√*khōll] S. ukholaṇu ‘to untie’; WPah. bhal. ukholṇū ‘to open (e.g. a box), to take off (clothes)’; — poss. Gy. arm. ukhl— ‘to open’ or < *udghātayati?
1758 *uttanuka— ‘puffed up, proud’. [tanū́— or úttanōti?] Pk. uttaṇua—, uttuṇa—; A. utanuwā ‘excitable, rash, unsteady’.
1760 *uttapa— ‘heating’. [√tap] M. utav m. ‘drying horse for clothes, betelnuts, &c.’ (semant. cf. uttapta— n. ‘dried flesh’ lex.); — Ko. ota, vota, vata ‘sunshine’?
1763 *uttapti— ‘heat’. [√tap] Bshk. uṭet ‘fever’ poss. < *uṣ—ṭapti— < *uts—tapti—.
1764 *uttapyatē ‘is heated’. [√tap] Pk. uttappa— ‘shining, burning’; Kho. (Lor.) utūpīk ‘to become warm’.
1766 *uttamaputra— ‘the son most removed in order’. [uttamá—, putrá—] S. utotī, utetī ‘next in age (of brothers)’ assimilated < *utoṭrī?
1772 *uttaravātara— ‘north wind’. [úttara—, vātara—?] M. utrāvārā m. ‘northerly wind’.
1773 *uttaravānī— f. ‘north wind’. [úttara—, *vānī—] M. utrāṇ f. ‘north wind’. uttarāṅga— see uttaraṁga—. [úttara—, áṅga1]
1779 *uttarika— ‘upper’. [úttara—] Pa. uttarika— ‘upper’, Pk. uttariya—; Kho. (Lor.) tōri ‘upper’ (tōri pōn ‘the upper road’), tóriro ‘higher’: Morgenstierne BelvalkarVol 97 compares uttara—, uttarīya—.
1780 *uttariya— n. ‘the being above’. [úttara—] Pa. uttariya— n.; Si. itiri, ituru ‘remainder, surplus, residual’ D. E. Hettiaratchi Univ. of Ceylon Review vi 290.
1782 *uttarpati ‘jumps out’. [√tr̥p] Phal. utrap— ‘to run’; — or poss. < *upatarpati: both ud and upa compounded with verbs ‘to run’, e.g. úddruta—, úpadravati, úpadhāvati.
1783 *uttala— ‘shallow’. [tala—] G. utḷũ ‘shallow’, M. utaḷ. *uttāḍa— ‘high’ see *utthala—.
1784 *uttāḍayati ‘beats’. [√taḍ 1] Pk. uttāḍēi ‘beats’; — Ku. uteṛṇo ‘to chastise, rebuke’ but with unexpl. e.
1786 *uttānayati ‘stretches out’. [údatnata 3rd pl. aor. mid. RV.: √tan] M. utāṇṇē ‘to describe, declare’ (< ‘spins out, describes at length’?) or < uktá—.
1788 *uttāpala— ‘impetuous’. [uttāpa—: √tap] Pk. uttāvala— ‘impetuous, quick’, n. ‘impetuosity’; K. wutāwul m. ‘haste, eagerness’; L. utāuḷā ‘hasty, excitable’, P. utāulā; WPah. paṅ. utauḷā ‘swift’, cur. tauḷā; Ku. utaulo ‘swift, hasty’, subst. °li; N. utāulo ‘hasty, impatient’, A. utalā; B. utālā, utalā ‘hasty, passionate’; Or. utaḷā, utālā ‘impatient, uneasy’; OAw. utāila ‘rapid’; H. utāwal, °lā ‘swift, hasty’, utāwal, °lī f. ‘haste’, G. utāvḷũ adj., utāvaḷi f., M. utāvīḷ, utāvḷā adj., utāvaḷ, °vḷī f. Addenda: *uttāpala—: S.kcch. autāvaṛ f. ‘haste’; WPah.kṭg. (kc.) tauḷɔ ‘rash’; J. tāwḷā ‘hot—tempered’.
1789 *uttāpya— ‘heat’. [uttāpa—: √tap] G. utāp, °pɔ m. ‘excessive heat, excitement, anxiety’; M. uttāp, °tap n. ‘an open or sunny place’, utāp, utap ‘sunny, not shaded’.
1790 *uttāyatē ‘is stretched out’. [Cf. tāyátē ‘is stretched’ RV., úttanōti: √tan] Ku. utāṇo, wat° ‘to lie on one's back, be supine’.
1795 *uttutta— ‘pushed up’. [Sk. úttudati ‘pushes up or open’ AV., Pk. uttuyaï ‘pains, distresses’: √tud] M. ututṇẽ ‘to break out into pustules, be in a hurry, fidget’. — Or poss. < uttukta—.
1796 *uttr̥ṇa— ‘without grass’. [tŕ̥ṇa—] Pa. uttiṇa— ‘without grass or straw’; Pk. uttiṇa—, °ṇia— ‘without grass’ (but uttaṇa— ‘grassy’); — M. utaṇṇẽ ‘to strip the grass off a roof’ or perh. a M. cmpd. from taṇ.
1797 *uttr̥ta— ‘passed over or up’. [Cf. uttīrṇa— ‘crossed, landed, escaped’, Pa. uttiṇṇa— ‘drawn out’, n. ‘outlet’: √tr̥̄] Si. utuḷā pret. of uturanavā ‘to overflow’ < úttarati.
1798 *uttr̥dati ‘cuts through’. [Cf. uttr̥ṇatti ‘splits or cuts through’ TBr.: √tr̥d] G. utraṛvũ, utaṛ°, uteṛ° ‘to unsew, unstitch’.
1799 *uttr̥ṣṇa— ‘very thirsty’. [tŕ̥ṣṇā—] M. uttānhṇẽ ‘to be very thirsty’, utānhī f. ‘thirst, keen desire’; — Niṅg. utuník ‘thirst, thirsty’ or with NOGaw 59 cmpd. with ū ‘water’ (cf. Kt. awƏ—tin).
1800 *uttyajana— n. ‘leaving’. [uttyakta— ‘abandoned’ lex.: √tyaj] Pk. uccayaṇijja— ‘to be abandoned’; Ku. ucaiṇo ‘a votive offering put aside for a god if a wish is granted’. *uttraṭṭati ‘cracks’. [√*traṭṭ] See *uttruṭyati.
1803 *uttruṭyati ‘is broken’ [uttruṭita— Kād.: √truṭ] M. utaṭṇẽ intr. ‘to burst, split, crack, snap’; — utāṭṇẽ ‘id.’, utāṭ f. ‘readiness to burst’ with secondary ā or < *uttraṭṭati. *utthaḍa— ‘high’ see *utthala—.
1804 *utthala— ‘high’. 2. *utthaḍa—. 3. uttāla— ‘great, strong, high, abundant’ Śiś. 4. *uttāḍa—. 1. Wg. utálƏ ‘high’, Dm. uthála, Paš. uthā́l, ar. utthṓl, Shum. utthálƏ, Gaw. uthálå, f. uthéli, Kal. urt. uthā́la, rumb. hūtala, Bshk. úthal, ūthál, Tor. (Biddulph) ūtal, f. ūtil, Savi wuthaló, Phal. utthālu; Sh. ŭthắlū ‘high, tall, loud’; K. wŏtulu , kash. wathal ‘high’. 2. WPah. cur. uthṛā ‘high’. 3. M. utaḷṇẽ ‘to be full and plump, (of fruit) to be ready to be picked’. 4. L. P. utāṛ f. ‘high land, upland’.
1805 *utthalati ‘is upset’. 2. *utthalyati. 3. *utthalyā—. [sthala—?] 1. B. uthlā ‘to overflow, boil over’; Or. uthaḷibā, uthuḷ° ‘to overflow’. 2. Pk. utthallaï ‘jumps up’; S. uthilaṇu ‘to be over- turned’; P. utthallaṇā, utha° tr. ‘to upset’, redup. uthallaṇā—putthalṇā, Ku. uthelṇo (formed from intr. *uthil—); N. uthlanu ‘to be upset’, H. uthalnā, G. uthalvũ; — with metath.: Ku. alathṇo ‘to pour from one vessel to another’; M. ulathṇẽ ‘to be upset’, tr. ‘to upset’. 3. Pk. utthallā— f. ‘overturning’; S. uthala f. ‘flood’; G. uthal—pāthal f. ‘turning upside down’. *utthalyati see prec. *utthalyā— see *utthalati. *utthāti see *ut—sthāti. utthā́na— see *ut—sthā́na—. utthāpana— see *ut—sthāpana—. úthāpayati see *út—sthāpayati. *utthāpyatē see *ut—sthāpyatē. *utthāmayati see *ut—sthāmayati. útthita— see *út—sthita—. Addenda: *utthalati. 2. *utthalyati: S.kcch. othlāṇū ‘to overturn, invert’, authlo m. ‘relapse (in disease)’. *utthalyati see utthalati Add2.
1806 *utthūt— ‘choking’. [thūt] L. utthrū m., mult. utthṇū m. ‘fit of choking’; P. utthū, utthrū m. ‘violent coughing’.
1807 *utpakva— ‘quite ripe’. [pakvá—: √pac] Pa. uppakka— ‘scorched, shrivelled up’; M. upikṇẽ ‘to overripen and spoil (of fruit)’.
1808 *utpacyatē ‘boils over’. [Cf. utpācita— ‘thoroughly boiled’ Suśr.: √pac] B. upacāna ‘to boil over, overflow’ (Chatterji ODBL 875 < *utpatyatē); Or. upacibā, upuc° ‘to run over, overflow, abound’.
1809 *utpaṭati ‘bursts open’. 2. utpāṭayati ‘roots up’ SāṅkhŚr. 3. *utpaṭyati ‘is burst open’ (cf. utpāṭyatē ‘is rooted up’ Suśr.) [útpaṭa— m. ‘sap issuing from a cut in a tree’ ŚBr., páṭati ‘splits’ Gr.: √paṭ 1] 1. Dm. opƏŕāy— ‘to pick, pull out’; Paš. ōpuṛ— ‘to dig up’; — with intransitive meaning after transitives from 3: B. upaṛā ‘to come up by the roots’; Or. upaṛibā, upuṛ° ‘to be uprooted’; M. upaḍṇẽ ‘to come up by the roots’; — G. upaṛvũ ‘to be pulled out, be lifted’ (in last sense poss. < útpatati which in MIA. collides with *utpaṭati). 2. Pa. uppāṭēti ‘splits, roots up’, Pk. uppāḍēi; Ku. upāṛṇo ‘to take up by the roots’; A. upāriba ‘to dig up’; B. upāṛā ‘to pull up’; Or. upāṛibā ‘to uproot’, Mth. upārab, OAw. upāraï, H. upāṛnā; M. upaḍṇẽ ‘to pluck up’; OSi. upuḷanavā ‘to pluck up’, Si. upulvanavā ‘to lift up’. 3. S. upaṭaṇu ‘to open, uncover, expand’; Mth. upaṭab ‘to be uprooted’; G. upaṭvũ ‘(of colours) to fade’, upaṭ f. ‘a piece of turf torn up and put under a wheel’; M. upaṭṇẽ ‘to come up and fall out (of nail, peg, tree), break out, become manifest’; — with secondary trans- itive meaning: H. upāṭnā ‘to root up’; M. upaṭṇẽ ‘to pluck out’; Si. upuṭanavā ‘to uproot’. Cf. *utpalati. *utpaṭyati see prec. Addenda: *utpaṭati. 2. utpāṭayati: Garh. upāṛnu ‘to uproot’; Md. ufuranī ‘plucks out or up’ rather than < *ut- sphārayati 1.
1811 *utpatta— ‘flown up’. [utpatita—: √pat] Pk. uppatta— ‘loosed, changed’; Sh. (Lor.) op *l/ to ‘flown away, vanished, lost’.
1813 *utpathika— ‘astray’. [utpatha— m. ‘wrong road’ Kāś., adj. ‘astray’ BhP., Pa. uppatha— m., Pk. uppaha— m.: pánthā—] H. upahī m. ‘stranger’.
1816 *utpala— 2 ‘a cake’, utpalī— f. ‘a cake of unwinnowed corn’ lex. [‘shaped like a lotus’? — utpala1] P. oplā m. ‘dried cowdung prepared for fuel’; Ku. uplo m. ‘cake of cowdung’, H. uplā m., °lī f., EH. uprā m.
1817 *utpalati ‘bursts out’. [Cf. *utpaṭati: √*pal] M. upaḷṇẽ ‘to fall out (of trees from excessive wetness of ground), emit blood at every pore, dissolve into streams and rivulets’, upaḷ, upḷī f. ‘rill oozing from the ground in rainy weather’. utpalī— see *utpala2.
1818 *utpalyāṇa— ‘without saddle’. [palyāṇa—] M. uplāṇā, °ṇī, °ṇū ‘(of a horse) bareback’ (Bloch LM 297 a M. cmpd. u— with palāṇ).
1825 *utpitta— ‘having excess of bile’. [pittá—] M. upīt gheṇẽ or piṇẽ ‘to act in some outrageous way of daring or exertion, be in exceeding hurry’. utpiba— see utpātaka—.
1828 *utpusati ‘swells’. [√pus] Wg. (Lumsden) "ups—ún" ‘to swell’, Kt. aps— Morgen- stierne NTS xvii 228 with (?). — Rather < *utpruṣati.
1829 *utpūyatē ‘is cleansed’. [Cf. utpūta— AitBr. and útpunāti: √pū] M. upaj̈ṇẽ ‘to husk and clean rice by pouring boiling water on it, then pounding, parching, and cooling’, upj̈ā, ubj̈ā m. (after which ubaj̈ṇẽ) ‘rice so cleaned’.
1831 *utpr̥ṣṭha— ‘upside down’. [pr̥ṣṭhá—] L. P. upaṭṭhā, apuṭṭhā ‘upside down, inverted’; H. apūṭhnā ‘to overturn’; — or poss. < *āpr̥ṣṭha— ‘on the back’ > MIA. *āpruṭṭha—.
1832 *utpruṣati ‘bubbles up’. [utprúṣ— f. ‘bubble’ VS.: √pruṣ 1] Wg. (Lumsden) "ups—ún" ‘to swell’, Kt. aps— (with pre-Indo-aryan us and loss of r between two con- sonants: rather than with NTS xvii 228 < *utpusati); G. upasvũ ‘to rise (of blister or bubble or bread)’; — M. uphusṇẽ ‘to bubble, rumble (of belly)’ with —ph- from uphaḷṇẽ, uphaṇṇẽ < utphalati, *utphaṇati.
1833 *utpraidha— ‘rising up’. [Cf. ḗdhatē ‘increases’ RV., ‘becomes insolent’ MBh., ‘rises’ BhP., praidhatē Pāṇ. com. :√ēdh] Pk. uppēhaḍa— ‘raised, proud’; M. upeḍ ‘elevated and open (of ground)’ LM 297.
1835 *utplavikā—, utplavā— f. ‘boat’ lex. [√plu] Si. ipilla ‘float, outrigger of canoe’. *utplāvayati ‘makes emerge’ see utplavatē.
1836 *utphaṇati ‘springs up’. 2. Caus. *utphāṇayati. [√*phaṇ 2] 1. P. upphaṇnā ‘to swell, suppurate, rot’; Aw. lakh. uphanāwab ‘to burst up (as foam)’; H. uphannā ‘to boil up, ferment’; M. uphaṇṇẽ, uphāṇ° ‘to shoot up briskly, rise in blisters, swell with pride, ferment’. 2. M. uphaṇṇẽ ‘to winnow’ or < or X útpunāti. Addenda: *utphaṇati, *utphāṇayati [Cf. Ir. usfan—: Shgh. sifan- ‘to rise, ascend’, Shgh. X. Rosh. sifēn—t ‘to raise’ EVSh 72] *utphāṇayati see *utphaṇati Add2.
1838 *utphāṇa— ‘springing up’. [√*phaṇ 2] H. uphān m. ‘ebullition’; G. uphāṇɔ m. ‘effervescence, arrogance’; — Ku. uphān ‘foam’; G. uphān m. ‘ebulli- tion’, M. uphān n.m. perh. X or < *ut—spanda—. *utphāṇayati ‘makes spring up’ see *utphaṇati.
1841 *utphēnayati ‘foams up’. [phḗna—] M. upheṇṇẽ, uphiṇ° ‘to ferment, become sour and spoilt’.
1842 *ut—śakna— ‘gone up’. [√*śak 2] Pa. ussakkati rises, creeps out’; Pk. ussakkaï ‘goes back, is excised’; P. uskaṇā ‘to spring up’; N. uskanu ‘to get out of’; H. usaknā ‘to be raised’; M. usakṇẽ ‘to drive’; — caus. P. uskāuṇā ‘to cause to spring up’; B. uskāna ‘to raise (wick of an oil lamp)’; Or. uskāibā ‘to uproot (corn), raise (a question)’. — Derivation of the NIA. words < *utsikna— (see *utsukya—) is phonet. possible, but unlikely; or poss. through metathesis < utkarṣati, útkasati. *ut—śadati, *ut—śanna— ‘sunk’ see útsadati, útsanna—.
1843 *ut—śalati ‘springs up’. 2. ucchalati ‘flies up, springs up’ Śiś. 3. *ucchalyati. [√śal] 1. Pk. ūsalaï ‘rejoices’, ūsalia— ‘having the hair stand on end’. 2. Pk. ucchalaï ‘rises, flies up’; Gy. arm. učhel— ‘to go on’; L. ucchalaṇ ‘to jump’, P. ucchalṇā, Ku. uchalṇo; N. uchranu ‘(a pimple) to come out’ (← Bi.?); B. uchalā ‘to overflow’, Or. uchaḷibā, uchuḷ°; OMth. uchalaï ‘overflows, springs up’; H. uchalnā ‘to leap’ (with metath. ulachnā ‘to throw up’?); G. uchaḷvũ ‘to leap’; M. usaḷṇẽ ‘to dash up (as spray)’. 3. Pk. ucchallaï ‘rises, flies up’, S. uchalaṇu, uchil° ‘to spring up’, tr. ‘to cast away’. See *ut—śālayati. Addenda: *ut—śalati: OMarw. ūchaḷaï ‘flies up, flutters’.
1844 *ut—śānti— ‘rest, pause’. [śānti—: √śam 1] M. usãt, °ãth, °ãdhi f. ‘a pause from labour’.
1845 *ut—śārayati ‘breaks’, cf. śārayati lex. 2. *ut—śr̥ta— 1 ‘broken’. [√śr̥̄] 1. WPah. bhal. uśārṇu ‘to throw out’; Or. uchāribā ‘to break down forcibly, scatter, throw away’; Si. ihirenavā, isi° ‘to be scattered’ intr. formed from *usuranavā GS 84 (but wrongly < utsārayati). 2. Or. uchuṛibā ‘to be strewn with force, strew with force, scatter’, uchāṛibā ‘to break down forcibly, strew’ (X uchāribā above).
1846 *ut—śāla— ‘leaping up’. [√śal] L. ucchāl m. ‘swelling or running over of a river’; P. uchālī f. ‘vomiting’; Ku. uchāl ‘leap, stride, vomit’; N. uchār— in uchār—pachār ‘raising and dropping’, (Tarai) uchāl ‘wave’; B. uchal ‘flowing over’; Or. uchāḷa ‘vomiting’; H. uchāl f. ‘tossing up, motion up’; G. uchāḷɔ m. ‘leap’; M. usā̆ḷī f. ‘splashing, spurting up’. Addenda: *ut—śāla—: WPah.kṭg. śwáḷɔ m. ‘great noise (from excitement)’, J. śwāḷā m. ‘a great cry’. — WPah.kṭg. ċhā́ḷ f. ‘leap, jump’ rather with Him.I 65 < *chāla- or ← H. chāl f. ‘wave’, K. ċhāl f. ‘jump’.
1847 *ut—śālana— ‘making leap up’. [√śal] Pk. ucchālaṇa— n. ‘causing to jump up’; G. ucchāḷṇī f. ‘auction at which the bids rise by leaps’; M. usaḷṇī f. ‘spurting up’.
1848 *ut—śālayati ‘causes to leap up’. [√śal] Pk. ucchālēi ‘throws up’; P. uchālṇā ‘to toss up’; Ku. uchālṇo ‘to throw up, vomit’; N. uchārnu ‘to lift up’; Or. uchāḷibā ‘to vomit, clean out a well’; H. uchālnā ‘to throw up, dandle’; G. uchāḷvũ, ach° ‘to throw up, shake up the contents of a pot’. — See *ut—śalati.
1849 *ut—śiras— ‘pillow’. [ucchiras— ‘with raised head’ Kālid., cf. *ut—śīrṣa—: śíras—] Kt. wuċéŕ, °ċir ‘pillow’ (Rep1 56 < *avaśiras—, NTS xvii 220 < *upaśiras—, cf. upaśiras adv. ‘on the head’ Kauś.); — Wg. uċḗ, uċẽ́ (less prob., though poss., < ōpaśá— NTS. xvii 220).
1850 *ut—śiṣṭa—. 2. úcchiṣṭa— ‘left over, stale, spat out’ TS., n. ‘leavings’ AV. [uñśiṣṭa— MaitrS. :√śiṣ] 1. Sh. (Lor.) ušūto (?) ‘foul, unclean’. 2. Pa. ucchiṭṭha—, °aka—, uttiṭṭha— ‘left over, impure’, Pk. ucchiṭṭha—; K. ċheṭh, dat. °ṭas m. ‘refuse of food’; Ku. uchiṭo ‘sudden choking’; M. uṣṭā (< *uśiṭhā) ‘left, rejected (of food), foul, used’, uṣṭẽ n. ‘stale food, un- washed dish’, deriv. uṣṭāviṇẽ ‘to defile by tasting’. - Si. ujul, in̆dul ‘left over from a meal, impure, leavings’ (Hettiaratchi Indeclinables 8) certainly with H. Smith JA 1950, 180 ← Drav. cf. Kan. eñjal. *ut—śiṣṭāvali—.
1851 *ut—śiṣṭāvali— ‘line of leavings’. [*ut—śiṣṭa—, āvali—] M. uṣṭāvaḷ f. ‘line of leavings where a public meal has been held’ < *uśiṭh—.
1852 *ut—śīrṇa— ‘boiled’. [Cf. ā́śīrta— RV. :√śrā] Or. usunā ‘rice boiled in the husk’ (rather than < *ut—śrāṇa— or *ut—śūrṇa—), Bi. usinā, usnā. — Cf. *ut—śr̥ta2.
1853 *ut—śīrṣa—, ucchīrṣaka— m. ‘one who has raised his head’ Suśr., n. ‘pillow’ Mn. [Cf. *ut—śiras—: śīrṣá—] Pa. ussīsaka— n. ‘head of bed, pillow’; Pk. ussīsa—, ūsīsaya—, ūsasī— f. ‘pillow’, Kal. uṣíṣ; H. ūsīsā, us° m. ‘head of bed, pillow’; G. uśīsũ n. ‘pillow’ (uśīkũ perh. due to influence of a loanword from Sk. with pro- nounced as kh); — Pk. ūsaa— n., M. usẽ n. ‘head of bed, pillow’, uśī, ũ° f. ‘pillow’ poss. through haplology < *ussissa— or with Bloch LM 299 < ōpaśá—. — H. osīsā, m. ‘head of bed, pillow’, G. osīsũ, osīkũ n. ‘pillow’ poss. < avaśīrṣaka—. *ut—śuka— ‘eager’ see *utsukya—.
1854 *ut—śuṣka— ‘dried up’. [Cf. ucchuṣka— ‘withered’ Kathās., ucchuṣyati ‘dries up’ ChUp., Pa. ussussati: √śuṣ 1] Pr. üškyö ‘dry’; Kho. usukik, os° ‘to wither, cease suckling (a child), come to an end’ (or < *avaśuṣka—). Or both may be < *upaśuṣka—, cf. upaśuṣyati ‘dries up’ TS., Pa. upasussati.
1855 *ut—śuṣṭa— ‘dry’. [√śuṣ] Pr. ištī ‘dry wood’. *ut—śūrṇa— ‘boiled’ see *ut—śīrṇa—. Addenda: *ut—śuṣṭa— [Cf. Ir. in Shgh. zigů g d, pret. ziyux̌t ‘to dry up’ < *uz—hauša—, *uz—hušta— EVSh 109]
1856 *ut—śr̥ṅga— ‘having upright horns’. [Cf. ucchr̥ṅgita- Śiś.: śŕ̥ṅga—] Kho. uṣúṅ ‘young male ibex’ BelvalkarVol 86, (Lor.) ‘female ibex’. Horns of adult males curve back more and more as they grow, those of females and young males are shorter and straighter (see Lydekker, Great and Small Game of India v 101). *ut—śr̥ta— 1 ‘broken’ see *ut—śārayati.
1857 *ut—śr̥ta— 2 ‘boiled’. [Cf. śr̥tá— ‘cooked’ RV.: √śrā] Or. usilā ‘prepared from parboiled paddy’. — Cf. *ut—śīrṇa—. *ut—śrapayati ‘boils’ see *ut—śrāyati.
1858 *ut—śrayati, úcchrayati ‘raises’, °tē ‘rises’ RV. 2. *ut- śrāpayati, ucchrāpayati ‘raises’ VS. 3. *ut—śrāpaṇa—. [√śri] 1. Pa. ussēti ‘raises’; Wg. uṣē— ‘to take on the back’; B. ũchā ‘to shake or toss in a frying pan’. 2. Pa. ussāpēti ‘lifts up’, Pk. ussavēi, ūsa°, ōs°; Ash. uṣā́— ‘to put on the back’; B. ũchāna ‘to raise up’; OSi. huvay absol. ‘having raised’, Si. osavanavā, usuv°, ussanavā ‘to raise’. 3. Pa. ussāpana— n. ‘raising’; M. usāṇ n. ‘extra high tide, sudden overflowing of a river’. Addenda: *ut—śrayati. 2. *ut—śrāpayati: M. usavṇẽ ‘to rise (of the sun)’. *ut—śrāpayati see *ut—śrayati Add2.
1859 *ut—śrāṇa— ‘boiled’. [Cf. śrāṇa— Pāṇ.: √śrā] H. usānnā ‘to boil’; — deriv. caus. usnānā, intr. usannā ‘to be boiled’ (or < *ut—śrīṇāti). — Or. usunā ‘half—boiled’ rather < *ut—śīrṇa—. *ut—śrāta— ‘boiled’ see *ut—śrāyati. *ut—śrāpaṇa—, *ut—śrāpayati ‘raise’ see *ut—śrayati.
1860 *ut—śrāya—, ucchrāyı̄́— f. ‘raised piece of wood’, °ya— m. ‘elevation, height’, ucchraya— m. Yājñ. [Cf. samuc- chraya— m., Pa. samussaya— m. ‘accumulation’: √śri] Pk. ucchāya—, ussaya— m. ‘height’; L. ussā m. ‘heap of grass or fodder’ < °āya— or °aya—.
1861 *ut—śrāyati intr. ‘boils’. 2. *ut—śrapayati tr. ‘boils’ 3. *utśrāta—. [śrā́yati Dhātup., śrātá— RV., śrapáyati AV.: √śrā] 1. Kt. auṣo— intr. ‘to boil’, Wg. ṳ̄ṣ—, uṣū—, Pr. uṣu—, wu°; — Ash. wō̤u— or < *viśrāyati. 2. Ku. usyāuṇo, wasyūṇo ‘to cook by boiling, to boil’; Or. usāı̃bā ‘to warm paddy over a fire in preparing parboiled rice’. 3. Ash. wō̤ṣō adj. ‘boiling’; Ku. usuā ‘parboiled’. Addenda: *ut—śrāyati: Md. ussanī ‘makes rise (of bread), kneads’? or < *ut—śrīyatē 1.
1862 *ut—śrita—, úcchrita— ‘raised’ ŚBr. [√śri] Pa. ussita— ‘erected, high’, Pk. ucchiya—, ussiya—, ūsi°; G. uchiyɔ m. ‘borrowed money’; — Aś. usaṭa— ‘raised, eminent’ though generally despite phonet. difficulties put here (see E. H. Johnston JRAS 1931, 571) is rather < utsr̥ta—. — Deriv. G. uchītũ, °īnũ ‘borrowed’.
1863 *ut—śrīṇāti ‘boils’. [Cf. śrīṇā́ti ‘cooks’ Dhātup.: √śrā] Gy. pal. šnăr, caus. šnaúăr ‘burns’ (or < śrīṇā́ti); N. usinnu ‘to cook by boiling’, H. usinnā (usannā ‘to be boiled’ is rather deriv. usānnā, see *ut—śrāṇa—).
1864 *ut—śrīyatē1, úcchrīyatē ‘is raised’ ŚBr. [√śri] G. ucharvũ ‘to be brought up, be trained, be edu- cated’, ucharyũ—pācharyũ ‘reared with great care’; - deriv. uchervũ tr. Addenda: *ut—śrīyatē1: Md. ussanī ‘makes rise (of bread)’? or < *ut—śrāyati.
1865 *ut—śrīyatē 2 ‘is boiled’. [√śrā] H. usījnā ‘to cook by boiling’ (whence intr. usijnā ‘to be boiled, to bubble up’). — Collides with usījhnā < *utsidhyati.
1866 *ut—śvasiti, ucchvasiti ‘takes a deep breath’ Gobh. 2. *ut—śvāsayati, ucchvāsayati ‘causes to breathe again, gladdens, raises’ BhP. [√śvas 1] 1. Pk. ussasaï ‘sighs’, M. usasṇẽ. 2. Pk. ūsāsia— ‘freed from distress’; Or. uśāsibā ‘to lessen’, uśāsiā ‘lighter’; H. usāsnā ‘to breathe’; M. usāsṇẽ ‘to sigh, swell and heave, rise and look full (of the breasts)’. *ut—śvāta— ‘swollen’ see next. Addenda: *ut—śvasiti. 1. OMarw. (Vīsaḷa) absol. usasāi ‘(horse) panting’. 2. *ut—śvāsayati, ucchvāsayati ‘causes to breathe again’, BhP.: WPah.kṭg. śwáuṇõ; ‘to yawn’. - swásṇõ; ‘to sigh’ ← H. usās m. ‘sigh’ < *ut—śvāsa—, ucchvāsa—.
1867 *ut—śvāyati ‘swells up’. 2. caus. *ut—śvāyayati 3. *ut—śvāta— ‘swollen’. [Cf. ucchūna— ‘swollen’, śváyati ‘swells’ ŚBr., caus. śvāyayati: √śvi] 1. Ku. usyāṇo, wasā° intr. ‘to swell’. 2. WPah. jaun. uśāwṇõmacr; ‘to swell’. 3. Ku. gng. waśāyõ; ‘swollen’. *ut—śvāyayati ‘makes swell’ see prec. Addenda: *ut—śvāyati: WPah.kṭg. śwā́ṇõ; ‘to swell’.
1868 *ut—śvāsa—, ucchvāsá— m. ‘froth’ RV., ‘deep breath’ KātyŚr. [√śvas 1] Pa. nirussāsa— ‘breathless’; Pk. ussāsa—, ūsā°, ucchā° m. ‘deep breath’; K.wāh (< *uhāh— < *uśśāśa—) f. ‘palpitation or throbbing (of heart &c. and marked by panting)’; N. usis—nisis ‘breathlessness’ (< *usās—nisās, see ni- śvāsa—); A. uh, uxāh ‘breath’; MB. uchāsa ‘sigh’; Or. usāsa ‘relief from disease, ease’; Mth. usās ‘comfort’; OAw. usāsa ‘sigh’; H. usās, usā̃s m. ‘breath, sigh’ (← L. usās m.); OMarw. usāsa m. ‘sigh’; OG. ūsāsa m. ‘inhaling’, G. uśvās m. ‘deep breath’ (v ← Sk.); M. usās, °sā m. ‘sigh, deep breath’. *ut—śvāsayati ‘makes breathe’ see *ut—śvasiti. Addenda: *ut—śvāsa—, ucchvāsá— m. ‘froth’ RV., ‘deep breath’ KātyŚr.: WPah.kṭg. śwái f. ‘yawn’ (< *uśśāha—); A. uśāh, phonet. uxah ‘breath’, *uhāh > uwāh, uh AFD 224. *ut—śvāsayati see *ut—śvasiti Add2.
1872 *utsadhānī— ‘spring of water’. [Cf. utsadhí— ‘re- ceptacle of a spring’ RV. and *udadhānī—: útsa—, dhā́na—] Shum. učä́nik ‘spring’, A. uhani ‘a place with many springs’; — Paš. weg. unčaṛék ‘spring’ < *učãṛ—?
1877 *utsavati ‘rises’. [Cf. utsuvati ‘causes to go up’ Kāṭh.: √] Pk. ussavēi ‘raises’; M. usavṇẽ ‘to rise (of the sun)’. Addenda: *utsavati: rather < *ut—śrāpayati Add2.
1880 *utsāra— ‘going out’, utsāraka— m. ‘porter’ lex. 2. ‘rising, raising’. [√sr̥] 1. Pk. ūsāra— m. ‘leaving, abandoning’. 2. S. osāra f. ‘building’, osārī f. ‘building of a wall’; P. usārā m. ‘building’, (‘room on the top of a house, porch, vestibule’ perh. < *avasāra2). See útsarati, utsārayati.
1884 *utsidhyati ‘cooks’. [√sidh 2] H. usījhnā ‘to cook by boiling over a slow fire’. - Collides with usījnā < *ut—śrīyatē 2.
1885 *utsīvayati ‘unsews’. 2. Pass. *utsīvyatē. [But utsyūtá— ‘sewn up’ TS.: √siv] 1. M. usaviṇẽ ‘to open a seam, rip open’. 2. M. usavṇẽ ‘to be opened up in the seams’. *utsīvyatē ‘is unsewn’ see prec. utsuka— see next.
1886 *utsukya— ‘eagerness’. [Cf. utsuka— ‘anxious, eager’ MBh., Pa. ussuka— ‘eager’, NiDoc. osuǵa—, Pk. ucchua—, ussuga—, ōsua—; autsukya— n. ‘longing for’ MBh., NiDoc. osukya—. Pa. uss— regularly < ut—s— contradicts the theory of Wackernagel and Debrunner KZ 67, 155 f., accepted by EWA i 9, of hypersanskritism < MIA. *icchua— (cf. Sk. Pk. icchu—). — If not conn. suvatē, sutá— ‘incited’ ŚBr., it may rather be sanskritization of MIA. ussua—, ucchua— < *ut—śuka— cf. ucchōcáyant- ‘inflaming’ AV. (J. C. Wright). — √ or √śuc] Pa. ussukka— n. ‘eagerness’, ussukkati ‘endeavours’; Pk. ussukka— ‘eager’, ōsukkaï ‘is keen’; P. uskaṇā ‘to be excited’, B. uskā, H. usaknā; — caus. Pa. ussukkāpēti ‘practises eagerly’; Pk. ussukkāvaï ‘makes eager’; P. uskāuṇā ‘to excite’, WPah. bhal. uskāṇū, Ku. uskauṇo, B. uskāna, Or. usukāibā, usk°, H. uskānā. — Derivation of the NIA. words < *utsikna— is phonet. possible, but unlikely: Sk. utsikta— ‘overflowing, raised, proud’ MBh., Pk. ussikkaï, ūsi° ‘throws up, leaves’. — NIA. homonyms with the meaning ‘raise’, though the semantic development (‘excite’ > ‘raise’) is possible, are prob. < *ut—śakna—.
1887 *utsumbhati ‘sobs chokingly’. [subhnā́ti ‘chokes’ TS., sumbhati Kāṭh.: √subh] Pk. ūsumbhia— n. ‘weeping till a feeling of choking comes’; M. usãbṇẽ, os° ‘to sob’. utsuvati see *utsavati.
1891 *utsōḍhi— ‘effort’. [Cf. utsāha— and sōḍha— MBh.: √sah] Pa. ussōḷhi— f. ‘exertion’, Si. usoḷiya.
1892 *utskadati ‘jumps up’. [Cf. utkandati ‘springs away’ Pāṇ. com.: √skand] Woṭ. Sv. ukh— ‘to rise (of sun), climb’. — Perh. rather with G. Buddruss Woṭ 132 < útkasati with kh for k after Sv. nikh— < *niṣkasati, but with loss of —s— unexpl.
1893 *utskara— ‘digging out’. 2. *utskala—, [√*skr̥̄, √kr̥̄ 1] 1. K. wŏkhur m. ‘overturning’; M. ukhrī f. ‘scale, scab’. 2. Or. ukhlā ‘revealing family secrets’.
1894 *utskaraṇa— ‘digging out’. [√*skr̥̄, √kr̥̄ 1] G. ukharṇũ n. ‘disclosing the secrets of others’.
1895 *utskarati ‘digs out’. 2. *utskalati. 3. Caus. *utskā- rayati. 4. *utskālayati. 5. *utskr̥ta—. [√*skr̥̄, √kr̥̄ 1] 1. K. wŏkharun ‘to turn upside down (e.g. in poking coals in a brazier)’; Or. ukhuribā ‘to poke, stir up’; M. ukharṇẽ ‘to scratch up, loosen or detach from’. 2. Pk. ukkhaliya— ‘rooted up’; Ku. wakhalṇo ‘to be rooted up’. 3. Or. ukhāribā ‘to poke, stir up’. 4. N. ukhālnu ‘to uproot’; G. ukhāḷvũ ‘to eradicate, detach’; M. ukhaḷṇẽ ‘to work a field for the first time, destroy by pulling out’ (whence intr. ukhaḷṇẽ ‘to be- come loose’). 5. (a) MIA. *ukkhaḍa—: L. ukkhaṛaṇ ‘to be torn up’; P. ukkhaṛnā ‘to be plucked out’; Ku. ukhaṛṇo ‘to be uprooted’; B. ukhṛā ‘to get loose’; Or. ukhaṛibā ‘to be uprooted’; Mth. ukhaṛab ‘to be pulled out’; Bhoj. ukharal ‘to pull’; H. ukhaṛnā ‘to be rooted up’, G. ukhaṛvũ — whence caus. L. ukhāṛaṇ ‘to tear up’; P. ukhāṛnā ‘to pluck out’; Ku. ukhāṛṇo ‘to uproot’ (→ N. ukhāṛnu), Or. ukhāṛibā, Mth. ukhāṛab, Aw. lakh. ukhārab, H. ukhāṛnā, G. ukhāṛvũ, M. ukhaḍṇẽ (Bloch LM 295 < Pk. ukkaḍḍhaï, *utkaḍḍhati). (b) MIA. *ukkhiḍa—: S. ukhiṛaṇu ‘to be torn up’; - whence caus. Pa. ukkhēṭita— ‘spat out, thrown off’; S. ukheṛaṇu ‘to loosen, disjoin’; P. ukheṛṇā ‘to pluck out’; H. ukheṛnā ‘to root up’, G. ukheṛvũ. (c) MIA. *ukkhuḍa—: Pk. ukkhuḍaï ‘breaks’; P. ukkhuṛnā ‘to be plucked out’; Or. ukhuṛibā ‘to be up- rooted’; — whence caus. Pk. ukkhōḍia— ‘rooted up’. — But see *khuṭ 1. See útkirati. Addenda: *utskarati: WPah.kṭg. khɔ́ri cf. ‘irritation’ (< *ukkhaur—?) Him.I 33.
1896 *utskartati ‘cuts out’. 2. *utskr̥tta—. [√*skr̥t1, √kr̥t 1] 1. S. ukhaṭaṇu ‘to engrave, to issue out’ (the latter due to the double meaning of ukiraṇu < (1) útkirati and (2) utkalati). 2. Pk. ukkhutta— ‘cut’. See *utkartati. *utskalati, *utskārayati, *utskālayati, *utskr̥ta- ‘dig out’ see *utskarati. Addenda: *utskartati [Cf. Ir. *skr̥ntati in Shgh. x̌ičand— ‘to cut off’, *skr̥sta— in Shgh. x̌ičux̌t EVSh 188]
1897 *ut—stambha— ‘support’. [Cf. údastambhīt RV., Pk. uṭṭhaṁbhaï ‘supports’: √stambh] OG. uṭhaṁbha m.
1898 *ut—str̥ta— ‘spread out’. [√str̥] Pk. utthiya—, utthaya— ‘spread out’; S. uthiṛaṇu ‘to be opened out (of tobacco in a pipe), be removed, be knocked away’.
1899 *ut—sthala— ‘shallow’. [sthala—] H. uthal, uthlā ‘shallow, shelving, shallow—minded’; M. uthaḷ ‘shallow’. — Poss. same as utsthala— n. ‘name of an island’ Kathās.; BHSk. Pk. utthala— m.n. ‘sand- hill, dry sandy place’.
1900 *ut—sthāti ‘stands up’. 2. Reformed as *utthāti. [úttiṣṭhati, udásthāt RV.; pres. —*sthāti formed after —sthā— in aor., fut., inf., and ger.: √sthā] 1. Pa. uṭṭhāti ‘stands up’, Pk. uṭṭhaï, °ṭhēi; Gy. arm. uthlu— ‘to stay, wait’, as. ušt— ‘to arise’, gr. hung. ušti—, wel. ušt—, Ash. õmacr;st—; Wg. oštā— ‘to rise, fly’ (also as lw. ut—: see below); Bashg. "osht—" ‘to rise’, Kt. ušt—, Pr. ušti—, Gaw. uṣṭi—, Kal. rumb. uṣṭim ‘I rise’; S. uṭhaṇu ‘to spring up, be produced’ (← East, beside uthaṇu see below); L. uṭṭhaṇ ‘to get up, stand’, P. uṭṭhṇā, WPah. bhad. cur. uṭhṇū, Ku. uṭhṇo, N. uṭhnu, A. uṭhiba, B. uṭhā, oṭhā, Or. uṭhibā, OMth. ūṭhaï, Bhoj. ūṭhal, uṭh°, Aw. uṭhab, H. uṭhnā, OMarw. OG. ūṭhaï, G. uṭhvũ, M. uṭhṇẽ; Ko. uṭā—, uṭṭā— ‘to stand’. 2. Aś. jau. 3 sg. opt. uthāye ‘let him exert himself’; Wg. ut— ‘to rise’ (← Dard. beside oštā— see above); Dm. uth— ‘to rise, be left behind’; Tir. uthum ‘I stand’; Shum. utth— ‘to rise’; Mai. ky. uth— ‘to stand up’, Phal. 1 sg. utthū́m, Sh. koh. ŭthōnu̯, K. wŏthun, kash. absol. wathi (ḍoḍ. uṭhṇo ← WPah.), S. uthaṇu. — Deriv. caus. Sh. gil. ŭtharóĭki̯ ‘to awaken’, S. uthāraṇu. See *ut—sthita—, *ut—sthāpayati. Addenda: *ut—sthāti: WPah.kc. vṭhṇo ‘to rise, stand up’; A. uṭhiba (phonet. uth—) ‘to rise’.
1901 *ut—sthāna— ‘act of rising’. 2. Reformed as utthā́na- n. ŚBr, ‘starting on an expedition’ Mn., ‘manly effort’ MBh. [√sthā] 1. Pa. uṭṭhāna— n. ‘rising, manly vigour’; Aś. gir. usṭāna—, man. uṭhana—, kāl. uṭhāna— ‘exertion’; Pk. uṭṭhāṇa— n. ‘rising, origin’; P. uṭhāṇ m. f. ‘act of rising’; Ku. uṭhāṇ f. ‘starting, beginning’; N. uṭhān ‘rising up’; B. uṭhāni ‘ascent, slope’; Or. uṭhāṇa ‘high land’, °ṇī ‘steepness’; Mth. uṭhān ‘power of rising’; H. uṭhān f. ‘act of rising’; M. uṭhāṇū̃ n. ‘a rising on the body, tumour’. 2. Aś. shah. uthana— ‘exertion’; Pk. utthāṇa— n. ‘courage, strength’; S. uthāṇī f. ‘morning’; A. uthān ‘a boiling up’.
1902 *ut—sthāpana—, utthāpana— n. ‘causing to rise, lifting’ KātyŚr. [√sthā] Pk. uṭṭhāvaṇa—, uṭṭhav° n.; N. sir—uṭhāuni ‘com- pensation’; Mth. uṭhaunā ‘practice of taking something at regular intervals and paying for it at longer intervals’; H. uṭhāunā m. ‘something set aside for a god’, °nī f. ‘a partic. funeral ceremony on the third day after death’ = G. uṭhavṇũ, uṭhāmṇũ n.; G. uṭhāvṇī f. ‘demand for goods on credit’; M. uṭhāvṇī f. ‘lifting, raising from poverty’.
1903 *ut—sthāpayati ‘raises’. 2. Reformed as útthāpayati AV. [√sthā] 1. Pa. uṭṭhāpēti, Pk. uṭṭhāvēi, Ash. õmacr;stā́—, L. uṭhāvaṇ, P. uṭhāuṇā, Ku. uṭhūṇo, N. uṭhāunu, B. uṭhāna, Or. uṭhāibā, Aw. lakh. uṭhāwab, H. uṭhānā, OMarw. uṭhāi, G. uṭhāvvũ, M. uṭhaviṇẽ. 2. NiDoc. uthaveti, Ḍ. hutāna; — Wg. utā— ‘to place’ ← Ind. Rep1 60, NTS xvii 232. See *ut—sthāti. Addenda: *ut—sthāpayati: WPah.kc. uṭhauṇo ‘to lift’.
1904 *ut—sthāpyatē ‘is raised’. [utthāpya— ‘to be raised, to be sent away’ AitBr.: √sthā] G. uthāpvũ ‘to take down, remove, transgress’. — In form pass. of *ut—sthāpayati but infl. by *ut—sthām- ayati. Addenda: *ut—sthāpyatē: S.kcch. authāpṇū ‘to violate’; Brj. uthapno AO 32, 331.
1905 *ut—sthāmayati ‘removes’. [sthā́man—] Pk. Ap. utthāmiya— ‘removed’; G. uthāmvũ ‘to take down, set aside, remove, transgress’. — See *ut- sthāpyatē.
1906 *ut—sthāla— ‘socket’. [sthālı̄́—] M. uthāḷẽ, uthḷẽ n., °ḷā m., °ḷī f. ‘socket at the foot of a post’.
1907 *ut—sthita— ‘arisen’. 2. Reformed as útthita— RV. [√sthā] 1. Pa. uṭṭhita—, Pk. uṭṭhiya—; Gy. eur. uštilo ‘stood up’; Woṭ. wuṭṓ ‘standing’ (← Ind.?); H. uṭhā ‘stood up’, OMarw. ūṭhyo; — deriv. pres. st. Gy. pal. štirăr ‘stands up’, Gaw. uṣṭi—, Kal. rumb. 1 sg. uṣṭim. 2. NiDoc. uthida, 3 sg. pret. uthidati; Pk. utthiya—; Bashg. uti— ‘to stay’; Bshk. itthi— ‘to be standing’, Chil. uty—, Gau. oty—; Sh. gil. uthyóĭki̯ ‘to rise from sleep’ (→ Ḍ. hutinā); K. wọ̆thu ‘standing up’. — MIA. *utthinna— (after niṣaṇṇa— NTS ii 245) → Ash. Wg. utin— ‘to be standing’, Kt. wutin—. — Woṭ (h)— ‘to stand up’, Tor. (LSI) uččh— poss. < *uṭhš— < *uṣṭh- (Buddruss Woṭ 87 later palatalization of uthy—). See *ut—sthāti. útsnāti see *avasnāyati. Addenda: *ut—sthita—: S.kcch. ūṭhīṇū, auṭh° ‘to arise, wake up’.
1908 *ut—spanda— ‘jumping up’. [√spand] Ku. uphān ‘froth, foam’; A. ophāndā ‘puffed’; G. uphā̃d, °ā̃t f., uphān m. ‘effervescence, arrogance’; M. uphān m. ‘ebullition’. — Cf. *utphāṇa—.
1909 *ut—spandati ‘jumps up’. 2. Caus. *ut—spandayati. [√spand] 1. Kho. (Lor.) ušpunik, iš° ‘to dance about, buck (of a horse)’; (Morgenstierne) iš° ‘to hop, dance’ (doubtful bec. of š, not : poss. < spandatē, but if so why not is—? Perh. ← Kaf.); — A. ophandiba ‘to be puffed up, be proud’. 2. Kho. ušpuneik ‘to make jump’. *ut—spandayati ‘makes jump up’ see prec. Addenda: *ut—spandati: A. ophandiba also ‘to swell’ AFD 213.
1910 *ut—sphaṭati ‘bursts out’. [√sphaṭ] K. wŏpharun ‘to become loose’; L. uphaṛaṇ ‘to rise (as dough or bread)’; H. uphaṛnā ‘to swell up, boil up’. Addenda: *ut—sphaṭati: A. ophariba ‘to bound off’ (rather than with AFD 213 < †;*ut—spharati 1). †;*ut—spharati 1 ‘leaps up’ [√sphar 1] see *ut- sphaṭati 1.
1911 *ut—spharati ‘is abundant’. [√sphar 2] Ku. upharṇo ‘to be left over, be superfluous’. *ut—sphalati ‘bursts’ see utphalati.
1911a *ut—sphalati Add. 14310.
1912 *ut—sphāyatē ‘swells up’. [√sphāy] A. uphāiba ‘to swell up (as boiled rice)’.
1913 *ut—sphāra— ‘abundance’. [sphāra—] M. uphar, uphrā m. ‘annual crop (of a tree, vegetable or fruit)’.
1913a *ut—sphārayati 1 ‘jerks up’. [√sphar 1] Add. 14311. Md. ufuranī ‘plucks out or up’ — or < utpāṭayati.
1914 *ut—sphārayati ‘makes abundant’. [√sphar 2] Ku. uphārṇo ‘to leave over, use sparingly’. *ut—sphāla— ‘leaping up’ see utphāla—. *ut—sphālayati ‘makes leap up’ see utphalati. Addenda: *ut—sphārayati 2 ‘makes abundant’. [√sphar 2] — read thus.
1914a *ut—sphāla— 2 ‘abundance’. [√sphal 2] Add. 14312.
1914b *ut—sphālayati Add. 14313. *utsvapna— see †;*utsupna—. UD: *unda—; †;*samutta—.
1915 *ut—sphiṭyatē ‘is hurt’. [Cf. sphiṭṭayati, sphēṭay° ‘hurts’ Dhātup., Pk. upphiḍa— ‘blunt, weak’, upphiḍaï ‘becomes so’: √sphiṭ] M. uphiṭṇẽ, uphaṭ°, oph° ‘to look wan’.
1916 *ut—sphurati ‘jumps up’. [√sphur] N. uphranu ‘to leap, jump’ (whence caus. uphārnu ‘to jerk up’); A. ophariba ‘to spring off, be flung off’; M. upharṇẽ ‘to winnow’; Si. upuranavā ‘to pluck up or out’ (EGS 27 < utpāṭayati).
1917 *ut—sphūrjati ‘rumbles’. [Cf. ávasphūrjati ‘thunders’ VS. ŚBr., ‘snorts’ MBh.: √sphūrj] M. uphuj̈ṇẽ ‘to rumble (of stomach)’. utsyà— see útsa—.
1919 *utsvāpa— ‘talking in sleep’. [√svap 1] H. ucāwā m. ‘talking in sleep, nightmare’ but why c?
1920 *utsvēda— ‘sweat’. [√svid] Pr. wyīṣƏ, wīṣ ‘sweat (in fever)’; — very doubtful. ud 1 in composition with verbs denotes ‘up’ and ‘out’, with nouns ‘without’, with adjectives ‘emphasis’: úttara—, uttama—. UD 2 ‘wet’: utta—, útsa—, udaká—, udán—, udrá—1, unátti, undana—, unna—, ulla—2, ṓdman—, *ōdra—, ōlla—2, *audra—; *abhyutta—, avōtta—, avōda—, úpōtta—; — ōdaná—?
1922 *udakakṣāra ‘waterfall’. [udaká—, kṣāra2] Kho. g oc̣hā́r waterfall’ (BelvalkarVol 91 Kho. cmpd. < u g a—c̣har), Kal. uc̣hár. udakabhāra— see *pānīyahāra—. *udaṅka— ‘upward curve’ see next. [√añc]
1923 *udaṅkākāra— ‘curviform’. [*udaṅka—, ākāra—] H. ũkārī f. ‘curve, crook, bend’. — Doubtful. údañc— see ucca—. [√añc]
1926 *udadhānī—, udadhāna— ‘holding water’ Kauś., n. ‘reservoir for water’ Āp. [udán—, dhā́na—] Wg. ūẽř, ū'iṇ ‘dam, dyke’. udán— n. ‘water’ RV. [√ud 2] udaká—, udanyáti, udanyā—, udanyú—, udra—1, udra—2; samudrá—; *udadhānī—, udapāna—, udahārá—.
1936 *udāsthāti, 1 pl. aor. udā́sthāma ‘we have risen again’ AV., udāsthita— ‘set over’ lex. [√sthā] M. oṭhṇẽ, vaṭh° ‘to rise, come off, appear prominently, thrive’; — very doubtful. údita— 1 ‘risen’: see údēti.
1938a *udīpya— ‘flood’. [udīpa— ‘flooded’, m. ‘flood’ Rājat.: áp—] K. vyū̆pu dat. vīpis m. ‘flood’.
1941 *udupānaha— ‘shoeless’. [upānah—] H. ubāhnā, ubah° ‘barefoot’, Marw. ubhāṇo: ub— < *uvv— < *uuv—?
1943 *udr̥ṇin— ‘out of debt’. [For *udr̥ṇa— after r̥ṇin—: r̥ṇá—] Ku. uriṇi, H. urin, G. urṇiyũ. *udēṅghati ‘goes up’ see upēṅghati.
1947 *udgamati ‘comes forth, rises’. [Orig. subj. of aor. in udáganma 1st pl. RV.: √gam] Pk. uggamaï ‘rises’, pres. part. uggamaṁta—; Or. uguibā ‘to rise in anger, rise suddenly’; M. ugavṇẽ ‘to rise (of sun, &c.), shoot up’, pres. part. ugvat, °tī f. ‘the east’.
1949 *udgamyatē ‘is raised’. [Pass. of udgamayati ‘causes to rise’ Pat.: √gam] L. uggamaṇ, (Jukes) uǥmaṇ ‘to sprout, come up, be born’; P. uggamṇā ‘to spring up, appear, rise (of sun)’.
1950 *udgaraṇa— ‘spitting out’. [Cf. udgiraṇa— n. Suśr.: √gr̥̄ 2] Or. ugaraṇa ‘vomiting’. *udgarati 1 ‘pours out’ see *avagarati. [~ udgalati1: √*gr̥̄ 1] *udgarati 2 ‘spits out’ see udgirati2. [~ *udgalati 2]
1951 *udgarta— ‘raised support (?)’. [gárta2] G. ugaṭ f. ‘support placed behind or before the wheel of a carriage to prevent it moving’; — very doubtful.
1952 *udgala— ‘spitting out’. [√gr̥̄ 2] S. uǥiro ‘nauseous’; L. ogal, (Jukes) uǥal m. ‘chewing the cud’; M. ugaḷ f. ‘chewed stuff spat out’.
1954 *udgāti ‘rises, comes forth’. [Orig. subj. of aor. údagāt RV. ‘has risen (of sun)’: √] Pk. uggēi, °gaï ‘rises’; Tor. pret. ugāt ‘he went away’; S. uǥaṇu ‘to spring up, shoot up’; P. uggṇā ‘to spring up, grow’; B. ugāna ‘to spring up’, Or. ugeibā; Mth. ūgab ‘to rise, appear’; OMarw. ūgaï ‘rises, appears’; G. ugvũ ‘to rise, come out (as the fruit of), grow’. — Deriv. P. ugāuṇā ‘to cause to spring up’, H. ugānā rather than < *udgāmayati. Addenda: *udgāti: S.kcch. ūgṇū, aughṇū ‘to grow, sprout’; Garh. ugṇu ‘to grow’.
1956 *udgāmayati ‘causes to rise or issue’. [Cf. udgamayati ‘causes to issue’ Pat., Pk. uggamiya— ‘produced’: √gam] OG. ūgāmaï ‘wields (a weapon)’, G. ugāmvũ ‘to raise towards, lift up against’; M. ugaviṇẽ ‘to gather in monies due, disentangle’; — deriv. M. ugāvā m. ‘monies gathered in’, ugāṇā m. ‘gathering in’ whence ugāṇṇẽ ‘to gather in’. Addenda: *udgāmayati: S.kcch. aughāmṇū ‘to strike’?
1958 *udgārayati 1 ‘causes to be raised’. [√gur 1] K. wugarāwun ‘to recover a debt’; Or. ugāḷibā, og° ‘to block the way with outstretched arms, intercept, detain’; M. ugārṇẽ ‘to raise threateningly, collect (monies)’. *udgārayati 2 ‘spits out’ see udgirati 2.
1959 *udgāla— 1 ‘oozing’. [√gal 1] N. ugāl, °lo ‘verdigris’; H. ugālā m. ‘ooze, slime’; M. ugāḷā m. ‘a levigated mass’. *udgāla— 2 ‘spitting out’ see udgāra—. *udgālayati 1 ‘causes to ooze’ see udgalati 1. *udgālayati 2 ‘spits out’ see udgirati 2. *udgirati 1 ‘lifts up’ see údguratē.
1962 *udguru— ‘very heavy’. [gurú—] Dm. ugúra ‘heavy’, Kal. urt. agū́rak, Bshk. ugū́r, Tor. ūgū, f. ügü; Chil. uṅgūro ‘slow’; Sv. ugƏró ‘heavy’; Phal. úguro, úṅg° ‘heavy’, f. uṅgúri ‘pregnant’, Sh. gil. ăgúrŭ, f. °ri ‘pregnant’ (< *uguro → Ḍ. ugūra), koh. hăgúro (emph. h—?).
1963 *udgr̥ta— ‘lifted up’. [Cf. udgūrṇa— n. ‘act of raising’ Yājñ. :√gur 1] S. uǥiṛaṇu ‘to be collected’, L. ugiṛaṇ; Or. uguṛāibā ‘to turn upside down’; Si. (SigGr) ugula— ‘to rise aloft, fly upwards’; — new. tr. formation: S. uǥāṛaṇu ‘to collect’, L. ugāṛaṇ. — Si. uguḷanavā ‘to pluck up, eradicate’ rather < udghāṭayati.
1966 *udgrāhaka— ‘collector’. [udgrābhá— m. ‘taking up’ TS., °āha— Pāṇ.: √grah] Pa. uggāhaka— m. ‘one who is eager to learn’; P. ugrāhā m. ‘tax—collector’.
1968 *udghaṭati ‘is open’, udghaṭita— ‘unfastened’ Kālid. 2. udghāṭayati ‘opens’ MBh. [√ghaṭ] 1. Pa. caus. ugghaṭēti ‘opens, reveals’; Pk. ugghaḍia- ‘open’ whence tr. ugghaḍaï ‘opens’; S. ughiṛaṇu ‘to be open, be laid bare’; P. ugghaṛṇā ‘to be opened, be spread out’ whence caus. ughuṛvāuṇā and tr. ugheṛnā; Ku. ughaṛṇo ‘to become open’; N. ughranu ‘to be open, be fair (of weather), look well on’; B. ughṛā ‘to be open’; Aw. lakh. ugharab ‘to get uncovered’, H. ughaṛnā; G. ughaṛvũ ‘to open (intr.), bloom, be free from rain’; M. ughaḍṇẽ ‘to open, be fair (of weather)’. 2. Pa. ugghāṭēti ‘unfastens, removes’, Pk. ugghāḍēi, °ḍaï ‘opens’; S. ughāṛaṇu ‘lays bare, draws (a sword)’; P. ughāṛṇā ‘to open’, WPah. bhal. ughāṛnū, Ku. ughāṛṇo, N. ughārnu, B. ughaṛāna, Mth. ughārab, OAw. ughāraï, H. ughāṛnā, G. ughāṛvũ, M. ughaḍṇẽ; — Si. uguḷanavā, pret. igiḷuvā ‘to root up’ (whence intr. igiḷenavā ‘to be uprooted’) rather than < *udgr̥ta—; - L. ughaṛan ‘to be collected’ formed from ugāhṛaṇ ‘to collect’ (if not < *udghr̥ta—): for semant. develop- ment ‘open—uncover—raise—collect’ cf. reverse in úd- dhanti ‘raises’ RV., ‘throws open’ TS. s.v. *udghātayati. Addenda: udghaṭati. 2. udghāṭayati: S.kcch. ūghāṛṇū ‘to open’, WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ghwàṛnõ;, J. ghwāṛnu, Garh. ughāṛnu; A. ughāliba ‘to uproot’ (—l—? AFD 236, 333).
1969 *udghata— ‘raised, opened’. [< IE *—gwhn̥to—? Re- placed anal. by uddhata—, after úddhanti < *—gwhen—: √han 1] P. ugghā ‘famous, clear, open’ (B. D. Jain PhonPj 138 < udgha—).
1970 *udgharati 1 ‘trickles out’. 2. *udghalyati ‘pours out’ intr. 3. *udghālayati ‘pours out’ tr. [√ghr̥ 1] 1. Pa. uggharati ‘oozes’; G. ughrāḷɔ, ɔgh° m. ‘lines of of a liquid poured out’, oghrī f. ‘loose threads at the end of a garment’ (< *udgharita—?). 2. G. ūghalvũ ‘to start in procession for bride's father's house, go in procession’. 3. M. ughaḷṇẽ ‘to clear the stale remains of a feed out of a handmill’.
1971 *udgharati 2 ‘lifts up’. 2. Caus. *udghārayati. 3. Pp. *udghr̥ta—. [Hardly conn. with hárati which is IE. *ĝher—] 1. L. awāṇ. ughruṇ ‘to raise’; P. uggharṇā ‘to be col- lected’ (with intr. meaning as opposed to caus. below). 2. L. ugāhṛaṇ ‘to collect’; P. ugharvāuṇā ‘to cause to be collected’ (der. *ughār—); Or. ughāribā ‘to open, burst’; G. ughrāvvũ ‘to collect money promised’ (der. *ughār—); M. ughārṇẽ ‘to collect’. 3. Dm. ogŕe— intr. ‘to boil’ NOPhal 26 < *ud—ghar- with (?), Phal. ugháṛ—; L. ughiṛaṇ, ughaṛ° ‘to be col- lected’ whence tr. ugāhṛaṇ ‘to collect’ (if not < udghā- ṭayati). *udghalyati ‘trickles out’ see *udgharati 1. Addenda: *udgharati2: S.kcch. oghrāṇū ‘to collect’. udghāṭayati see *udghaṭati Add2.
1976 *udghātayati ‘raises’. [úddhanti ‘lifts’ RV., ‘throws open’ TS. :√han 1] Ku. ughoṇo ‘to collect’, ughāī ‘collection’; N. ughāunu ‘to lift up, draw (water from a well), take up a collection’; A. ughāiba ‘to wind thread on a reel’; Or. ughāibā ‘to cast in the teeth, taunt’; H. ughānā ‘to accumulate’ whence intr. ughnā ‘to be accumulated’.
1977 *udghāra— ‘pouring out’. 2. *udghāla—. [√ghr̥ 1] 1. Pk. ugghāra— m. ‘sprinkling’. 2. Pr. agál, g äl ‘rain’, Kt. agōl. *udghārayati ‘causes to be lifted’ see *udgharati 2. *udghāla— ‘pouring’ see *udghāra—. *udghālayati ‘pours out’ see *udgharati 1.
1978 *udghāsa— ‘fodder’ or ‘remnants of fodder’. [Cf. udghasa— m. ‘flesh’ lex.; — ghāsá—: √ghas] G. oghās n. ‘residue of cattle's fodder’. *udghr̥ta— ‘lifted up’ see *udgharati 2.
1979 *udghr̥pta— ‘lifted up’. [√grah] Si. ugat ‘learned’, ugattā pret. of ugananavā < údgr̥hṇāti; — Ash. ógutƏ, f. ọ̈gƏtī ‘seized’ pp. of ọ̄gā́— < udgrāhayati.
1980 *udghr̥ṣati ‘rubs’. 2. udghr̥ṣṭa— Kālid. [Cf. udgharṣ- ati ‘rubs together’ Kālid., Pa. ugghaṁsēti: √ghr̥ṣ] 1. Pk. ugghusaï ‘wipes’, S. ughaṇu < *ughah— P. Tedesco JAOS 77, 194; L. ugghaṇ ‘to wipe (esp. the opium from the sliced poppy capsule)’ whence ugghā m. ‘col- lector of opium’. 2. Pa. ugghaṭṭha— ‘rubbed’, Pk. ugghiṭṭha—, ugghuṭ°; S. ugaṭho ‘wiped’ pp. of ughaṇu. udghr̥ṣṭa— see *udghr̥ṣati.
1982 *uddanta— ‘without teeth’. [Replaces adantáka— TS., adánt° ŚBr. (~ uddantura— ‘formidable’ lex., Pk. uddaṁtura— ‘with projecting teeth‘). — dánta—] A. udā̃t, udãtiyā ‘not changing the first teeth (of cattle)’; Bi. udant ‘a calf before it has got its true teeth’; H. udãt ‘without teeth (of a calf)’.
1983 *uddarati ‘tears up’. 2. *uddīryatē ‘is split’. 3. *uddr̥ta—. 4. *uddārayati ~ uddālayati. [uddīrṇa— Daś. √dr̥̄] 1. Si. uduranavā ‘to tear out, pluck up’ whence intr. idirenavā ‘to be eradicated’. 2. Pa. udrīyati, uddī° ‘is split open’; A. udiyāiba ‘to uncover, expose to view’. 3. S. uḍ̱iṛaṇu ‘to rip (intr.), become undone, burst’ whence tr. uḍ̱oṛaṇu ‘to rip, burst, unstitch’; A. udi ‘uncovered, open, bare’. 4. Pk. uddāria— ‘torn up, uprooted, run from battle’; G. ɔdārvũ ‘to plough’.
1984 *uddaśati ‘bites’. [√daṁś] H. uṛasnā ‘to prick, insert, fold in’.
1985 *uddahati ‘burns up’. 2. *uddāhayati. [√dah] 1. Pa. uḍḍahati; A. urahiba ‘to become bad smelling by being burnt (as milk)’, urahāiba ‘to melt by boiling (sugar)’. 2. Pk. uddāha— m. ‘fire’, uḍḍāha— m. ‘conflagration’; Bi. uṛāheb ‘(a member of the family) to make first use of a new earthen vessel’, Mth. uṛhāeb. A. Bi. Mth. forms may be < ávadahati RV. with MIA. analogical —ḍḍ—. Addenda: *uddahati: A. urahiba also ‘to be scorched’ AFD 332. †;*uddāpayati see uḍḍīyatē.
1986 *uddāta— ‘cleansed, bright, clear’. [Cf. avadāta- ‘cleansed, pure, dazzling white’ MBh., Pa. ōdāta—, Pk. avadāya—: √dai] Pk. uddāyaï ‘is polished, is very clear’; H. ūdā ‘purple, grey, brown’; G. udɔ ‘light blue’; M. udī ‘brown’.
1989 *uddārita— ‘broken’. [√dr̥̄] Pk. uddāria— ‘torn up, run from battle’; L. awāṇ. uḍārī ‘flight’. See *uddārayati s.v. *uddarati.
1991 *uddāla— 2 ‘bursting’. [√dal 1] Pk. uddāla— m. ‘pressing, crushing’; A. urāl ‘a mortar’ < *uḍḍāla—. Si. udälla, pl. udalu ‘a kind of hoe’ (X kuddāla1?) Addenda: *uddāla—2: Md. udali ‘hoe’, — oḍā (oḍalek) ‘adze’ cf. kuḍḍāla— ~ kuddāla1. uddēhikā— see upadīka—.
1993 *uddāvayati ‘pains’. [Cf. dunṓti ‘torments’ AV., caus. dāvayati: √du 1] Pk. uddāvaṇayā— f. ‘distress, disaster’; Si. uddanavā ‘to give pain’ < *udv—. *uddāhayati ‘burns up’ see *uddahati. uddīpikā— see upadı̄́ka—.
1995 *uddīyati ‘flies up’. [√ 1] Ash. ṓdi— ‘to ascend’. — Cf. uḍḍīyatē. *uddīryatē ‘is split’ see *uddarati.
1996 *uddūyatē ‘is hurt’. [√du 1] Pr. wulu— in ǰī wulumaso ‘my head aches’ more prob. with NTS xv 293 < lu— < dūyatē with Pr. prefix. - See *uddāvayati. *uddr̥ta— ‘torn up’ see *uddarati.
1997 *uddēkṣati ‘looks for, expects’. 2. *uddēkṣā—. [Formed from *dēkṣati after údīkṣatē ŚBr.: √īkṣ and √dr̥ś] 1. L. uḍ̱īkaṇ ‘to look for, wait for’; P. uḍīkṇā ‘to expect’. 2. P. uḍīk f. ‘expectation’; Ku. udekh ‘indifference’; N. udek ‘astonishment’; Or. udeka ‘appearance’.
1999 *uddēśayati ‘points out’. [uddiśati ‘directs towards’ TBr.: √diś] Pk. uddēsaï; Si. udesanavā ‘to declare, explain’, absol. udesā ‘on account of’ infl. by Pa. uddissa ‘id.’ < uddiśya. *uddēśya— ‘foreign’ see vidēśyà—. uddēhikā— see upadı̄́ka—.
2001 *uddrāti ‘flees, flies’. [Cf. uddrāvá— ‘running away’ VS., m. ‘going upwards’ Pāṇ.: √drā] Kt. vudra—, (Bagromatal) undra— ‘to fly’ (Rep1 60 and NTS xii 154 suggests connexion with uḍḍīyatē); L. (Jukes) uḍraṇ ‘to fly’ (beside uḍ̱aṇ < uḍḍīyatē. - Poss. further development in Dm. undrä̃ŕ— ‘to fly’, L. uddrãṛaṇ. — With —kk—: S. uḍ̱ako, uḍ̱iko m. ‘fear’.
2003 *uddrāvayati ‘puts to flight’. [Cf. úddruta— ‘running away’ VS., drāváyati MBh.: √dru 1] L. udrāvaṇ ‘to confuse, confound’ or < *upadrāvayati s.v. úpadravati. Addenda: *uddrāvayati: WPah.kṭg. ṛauṇõ; ‘to cause to fly, drive away (flies etc.)’ or < †;*uddāpayati s.v. uḍḍīyatē Add2.
2004 *uddvāla— ‘burning’. [√*dval] G. ubāḷɔ m. ‘fuel’.
2005 *uddhaḍ— ‘throb’. [*dhaḍ—] G. udhaṛakvũ, udhara° ‘to throb, beat fast (of heart)’.
2010 *uddharā— ‘water-channel’. [√dhr̥ or √hr̥] Paš. udhár f. ‘irrigation channel’ (IIFL iii 3, 6 < ud—dhr̥—?)
2016 *uddhānayati ‘lifts up’. [Cf. úddhanti ‘lifts up, throws away’ RV.: √han 1] S. uḍhāṇaṇu ‘to gather up flour thrown out by a mill’: *ūḍh— scarcely < *udzdh— if sandhi ud h— > uddh— is later than expected ujjh—. — Cf. S. uḍhāraṇu ‘id.’ s.v. *uḍḍhālayati.
2017 *uddhāpayati ‘sets up’. [úddadhāti ‘erects (penis)’ RV., ‘sets up’ AV.: √dhā] A. udhāiba ‘to raise’; M. udhaviṇẽ ‘to put up (a hand—mill, dust—board, &c.) after using’. *uddhāma ‘excitement’ see uddhama—.
2019 *uddhāva— ‘running away’. [√dhāv 1] B. udhāo subst. ‘running out of one's sight’ (ODBL 663 < *uddhāvuka—).
2020 *uddhāvati ‘runs away’. 2. *uddhāvayati. [√dhāv 1] 1. Pk. uddhāi ‘runs, goes strongly’, uddhāvaṇa— n., °ṇā— f. ‘strong action, quick completion of work’; M. udhavṇẽ ( ~ udavṇẽ < úpadravati?) ‘to perform ex- ploits and achievements (said ironically and reproach- fully)’. 2. Phal. udhéw— ‘to flee’. *uddhāvayati ‘makes run away’ see prec.
2022 *uddhīyatē ‘is raised’. [úddadhāti ‘raises’ RV.: √dhā] N. udhinu ‘to be sharpened’ semant. cf. *udyāmayati; A. udhiba ‘to soar’ whence udhāiba ‘to raise’ (or directly < *uddhāpayati). uddhuta— see uddhūta—.
2023 *uddhuppā— ‘great heat’. [*dhuppā—] Wg. udū́p ‘sweat on the body’.
2024 *uddhuvati, or *uddhavati ‘shakes up’. [Cf. dhuváti AV., dhaváti Dhātup., úddhunōti ‘shakes up’ RV., Pk. uddhuṇiya—, °ūṇiya— ‘blown by the wind, scattered’: √dhū] Pk. uddhuvvaï ‘shakes, fans’; OM. udhavaṇeṁ intr. ‘to scatter, rise up’, udhavaṇī f. ‘chimney’.
2025 *uddhūḍi— ‘excessive dust’. [*dhūḍi—] Ash. uduṛū́, odū́ṛ ‘dust’, Wg. udúṛ, üdúŕ ‘dust storm’; Kal. rumb. udhrū̃ ‘dust’; Sh. gil. ŭdū m., koh. ŭ́dŭ m., gur. ŭdū́h m.; — Or. idhuil ‘dust’ with unexpl. i— and l. — Sh. koh. ŭdŭm m. ‘dust’ X dūm < dhūmá—.
2029 *uddhmāyatē ‘is inflated’. [uddhamati ‘inflates’ TĀr.: √dham] Pa. uddhumāyati ‘is blown out, swells, rises’; Pk. uddhumāaï, °āi ‘blows hard’; Si. idimenavā ‘to swell’ intr. formed from *uduma—.
2030 *uddhrasā— ‘coughing up’. [dhrasnāti ‘casts up’, udhrasnāti ‘throws up, gleans’, perf. udhrasāṁ babhūva, udhrāsayati Dhātup. for uddhr° E. H. Johnston JRAS 1931, 571: √dhras] Pa. uddhasa— ‘picking up’; — G. udhras f. ‘cough’ in u° āvvī ‘to have a fit of coughing’ very doubtful.
2032 *uddhvalati ‘goes astray’. 2. *uddhvālayati ‘leads astray’. 3. *uddhvāla—. [Prob. cmpd. of hválati ‘goes astray’ ŚBr. = hváratē RV., hvālayati ‘shakes’ Bhaṭṭ.; but poss., in view of forms with ūḍh— (if < *udzdh—), cmpd. of *dhvalati = dhvárati ‘bends, makes fall’ Dhātup., 3 pl. aor. mid. ádhūrṣata RV.: √hval (√hvr̥) or √dhvr̥] 1. L. uddhaḷaṇ ‘to elope’; P. uddhlaṇā ‘to elope (of a married woman)’; Mth. Bhoj. uṛharī ‘a woman who has eloped or been carried off forcibly’; H. udhalnā ‘to elope, be seduced, be full of lust, be ruined, be squan- dered’, G. udhaḷvũ ‘to run away with a man other than one's husband, run away wildly’; M. udhaḷṇẽ ‘to run away wildly or in every direction, run off (of a tenant), fail (of a crop)’. 2. L. udhāḷaṇ ‘to carry off (a woman)’; P. udhālaṇā ‘to run off with another man's wife’, H. uṛhārnā. 3. L. awāṇ. udhālā ‘rape’; P. udhālā m. ‘elopement with a paramour’, Ku. uṛhālo, N. uṛālo; M. udhāḷī f. ‘leap, spring’. *uddhvāla— ‘leading astray’ see prec. *uddhvālayati ‘leads astray’ see *uddhvalati. *udna— ‘wet’ see unna—.
2034 *udbūra— ‘sprinkling, powder’. [*būra—] S. ubūraṇu ‘to scatter or let fall through the fingers (as salt on meat, &c.), to pepper’; ubūrkho ‘light, not pressed down (as in filling a vessel)’; — with unexpl. b beside ḇūro. údbruvatē ‘extols’ ŚBr. [√brū] See úpabrūtē.
2035 *udbhakti— ‘out of line’. [bhaktí—] OG. ūbhati ‘bad design or drawing’. udbhagna— see next.
2036 *udbhajyatē ‘is broken’. 2. udbhagna— ‘burst, torn’ Suśr. [√bhañj] 1. OM. ubhajaṇeṃ ‘to be weary of’ (but see údvijatē). 2. Pk. ubbhagga— ‘filled with’; OG. ūbhagaü ‘broken in, trained’; OM. ubhagaṇeṁ ‘to be weary of’.
2037 *udbhara— ‘rising’. [See údbharati: √bhr̥] Paš. ōbarā ‘high’ IIFL iii 3, 3.; S. obharu m. ‘height, depth’; H. ubhrā ‘excited’ (or pp. of ubharnā); G. ubhrɔ m. ‘effervescence’.
2040 *udbhāyayati ‘frightens’. [bhāyayati, bhāpayati Pāṇ.: √bhī] H. ubhānā ‘to alarm’.
2041 *udbhāra— ‘rising’. [√bhr̥] Pa. ubbhāra— m. ‘withdrawal’; L. P. ubhār m. ‘rising, swelling, the east’; H. ubhār m. ‘swelling, plumpness, rising of a woman's breasts’; M. ubhār m. ‘handful of grain taken from a horse's nosebag and reserved to be thrown in at the next feed’, ubhārā m. ‘rising and spreading of perfume’. *udbhārayati ‘makes raise’ see údbharati.
2043 *udbhiṭ— ‘just meet’. [√*bhiṭ] Pk. ubbhiḍaṇa— ‘only just touching’.
2045 *udbhujati ‘bends up’. 2. *udbhukta—. [bhujáti ‘bends’ Dhātup.: √bhuj 1] 1. Pa. ubbhujati ‘bends up’. 2. Pk. ubbhutta— ‘thrown up’, ubbhuttaï ‘throws up’; A. obhotā ‘turned back, upside-down’, obhatiba ‘to turn back’.
2047 *udbhr̥jjati ‘fries’. [√bhrajj] Or. ubhujibā, °jāibā ‘to fry wet rice’. *udbhr̥ta— ‘raised’ see údbharati.
2049 *udyamati, údyacchati ‘raises’ RV., ‘undertakes, is diligent’ MBh. 2. udyamana— n. ‘raising’ Pāṇ., ‘exertion’ Daś. [√yam] 1. Pk. ujjamaï ‘is diligent’; G. ujmāvũ ‘to be de- lighted’. 2. G. ujamṇī f. ‘a feast’.
2050 *udyasati ‘is eager for’ [Cf. udyāsá— m. ‘exertion, effort’ VS., yásyati ‘froths up’ RV., ‘heats or exerts oneself’ Car., yasati Pāṇ.: √yas] S. uj̄ahaṇu ‘to please, suit, agree with one's fancy’; - cf. Pk. ujjhasa— m. ‘effort’, ujjhasia— ‘best, excellent’.
2053 *udyāpayati ‘finishes’. 2. udyāpana— n. ‘conclusion’ MW. [udyāpita— ‘finished’ MW., vratōdyāpana— ZDMG vi 92: √] 1. Pa. uyyāpēti ‘takes out’; Pk. ujjāviya— ‘expanded’; Ap. ujjamiya— ‘concluded (of a vow)’; Or. ujāibā, ujuāı̃bā, ujāı̃bā ‘to complete a vow, to finish’, ujuā̃, ujā̃ ‘completion’; G. ujavvũ ‘to conclude a religious vow’, ujjh° (X ujhavvũ < ujjháti); M. uj̈aviṇẽ ‘to conclude any religious ceremony’, uj̈avṇẽ ‘to be concluded’. 2. Pk. ujjāvaṇa—, ujjav° n. ‘ceremonies at the end of a vow’, Ap. ujjamaṇa— n., G. ujamṇũ n. < *ujavãṇ—, ujavṇũ n. with v replaced from ujavvũ; M. uj̈avṇī f. ‘bringing a religious rite to a conclusion’. Addenda: *udyāpayati: S.kcch. ūjavṇū ‘to celebrate’.
2054 *udyāmayati ‘raises’. [údyata— ‘raised (of weapons)’ RV.: √yam] N. ujyāunu ‘to sharpen’ semant. cf. udhinu < *uddhī- yatē.
2058 *udraṁhati ‘jumps up’. 2. Caus. *udraṁhayati. [ráṁhati ‘hastens’ RV., raṅghatē Bhaṭṭ., láṅghati ‘jumps’ Dhātup., all < IE. *legwh— IEW 660: √raṁh] 1. H. ulahnā, orahnā ‘to spring up, grow’. 2. WPah. bhal. ulā̃haṇū ‘to adjourn’; A. ulāhiba ‘to lift’; — or like Pk. ullāhēi ‘makes less’ < *ullā- ghayati. *udraṁhayati ‘makes jump up’ see prec.
2059 *udrasa— ‘sapless’. [rása—] H. uras ‘tasteless, thin (of liquids)’. údrikta— see údricyatē.
2060 *udrikhati, úllikhati ‘makes an incision or furrow’ ŚBr., ‘scratches’ AśvGr̥. [√rikh 1] Pa. ullikhita— ‘combed, scratched’; Pk. ullihaï ‘scratches (a mark), writes’; Bhoj. urehal ‘to draw a picture’; H. urehnā ‘to write, draw’ with e from *udrē- kha—, or < *udrēkhayati.
2062 *udriṣati ‘is hurt’. 2. *udrēṣayati. [Cf. ríṣyati, aor. áriṣat, rēṣáyati ‘hurts’ RV.: √riṣ 1] 1. Kho. uluṣik ‘to be torn, be torn in pieces’ semant. better than < *udruṣati. 2. Kho. aléṣik ‘to tear, cut open’. *udrīṇa— ‘split’ see next.
2063 *udrīyatē ‘runs out, is dissolved, is broken’. 2. *udrīṇa—. 3. *udrēpayati. [riṇā́ti ‘lets go’ RV., rı̄́yatē ‘is dissolved, is shattered’ RV., rīṇa— ‘dissolved’ Śiś., rēpayati Gr.: √] 1. Pa. udrīyati, uddī° ‘falls to pieces, is burst’; G. ulvũ ‘to expire (of time)’; M. ulṇẽ ‘to break into cracks and fissures’; Si. ireṇavā ‘to be split, be torn’; — Or. uljibā ‘to pour out’ rather < údricyatē. 2. Si. iruṇā pret. of ireṇavā above. 3. Kho. uléik ‘to throw away, pour out, sprinkle’ (BelvalkarVol 85) rather < *udrēcayati. *udruṣati ‘is vexed’. [ruṣáti AV.: √ruṣ] See *udriṣati. Addenda: *udrīyatē. 1. Si. ireṇavā and 2. *udrīṇa—: Si. iruṇā - rather with tr. iranavā ‘to split, crack, cut’, Md. iranī ‘tears’ < *cīrayati or perh. < †;*śīrayati.
2064 *udruhati ‘rises’. 2. *udrūḍha—. [Cf. udrōdhana— n. ‘growing’ AitBr.: √ruh 1] 1. Paš. ur— ‘to rise’ or with IIFL iii 3, 16 < údīrtē. 2. Pk. ullūḍha— ‘risen’; Ku. uruṛiṇo ‘to become light (in weight), get out of position, become bankrupt’ (semant. ‘raised > light’ cf. udbhūta—). *udrūḍha— ‘risen’ see prec.
2066 *udrēkha— ‘scratching, drawing’, ullēkha— ‘causing to appear clearly’, °khā— f. ‘stroke, line’ lex. [√rikh 1] OAw. urehā m. ‘painter’, H. ureh m. *udrēkhayati ‘scratches, draws’, ullēkhayati ‘stirs up’ ŚārṅgS. [√rikh 1] See *udrikhati. *udrēcati ‘leaves’ see údricyatē. udrēcayati see údricyatē. *udrēcyatē ‘is poured out’ see údricyatē. *udrēpayati ‘pours out’ see *udrīyatē. *udrēṣayati ‘tears’ see *udriṣati.
2067 *udrōka— ‘shining’. [Cf. udarōcathāḥ ‘thou didst shine forth’ AV.: √ruc] Pa. ullōka— ‘bright (?)’; Paš. ulík ‘spark’ G. Buddruss Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Pašai—Dialekte 28, S. ulo m.
2068 *udrōkka— ‘stopped’. [Cf. ud with rudh 2 in údarautsīt ‘has pushed away’ ŚBr.: *rōkk—] Pk. ullakka— ‘stopped, broken’, ullukka— ‘broken’; H. uraknā ‘to halt, be stopped’.
2074 *udvardhatē ‘comes forth’. [udvr̥ddha— ‘appearing’ Rājat., Pk. uvvaddha—, °aḍḍha— ‘increased’: √vr̥dh] OM. udhāiṇeṁ ‘to appear’. — See *udvr̥ddhi—.
2075 *udvalati 1 ‘untwists’. [√val] Pk. uvvalaï intr. ‘turns back’; M. uvaḷṇẽ, ũv° intr. ‘to untwist, come undone, return to his pristine power (of a bull imperfectly castrated)’. *udvalati 2 ‘boils’ see *ubbal—.
2077 *udvāna— 2 ‘outside the web’. [vāna1] H. ubānā m. ‘the threads left outside the comb in weaving’; — Kho. awán ‘hem, border’ (despite initial a- less prob. < *āpāna2 ‘protection’). Addenda: *udvāna—2: Kho. awān ‘hem’ BKhoT 66. udvāpayati see udvapati Add2.
2082 *udvārayati ‘opens’. [Absol. udvr̥tya MBh.: √vr̥ 1] Pk. uvvārēi ‘releases’, poss. uvvālaï ‘says’ see úpabrūtē; S. uḇāraṇu ‘to save’; H. ubārnā ‘to release’; — Mth. intr. ubarab ‘to escape’ re—formed from tr.
2083 *udvāsa— ‘smell’. [√vās] Pr. bƏsƏ ‘smell’; — H. ubas m. ‘putrid smell’ with a after ubasnā < *udvāsyatē.
2084 *udvāsyatē ‘smells’ intr. [√vās] L. (Jukes) uḇassaṇ ‘to become mouldy or musty’, uḇassiā ‘musty’; P. ubasnā ‘to have a bad smell, be putrid, rot, ferment’; H. ubasnā ‘to smell offensive, rot’, upasnā after pret. upsā < ubsā, umasnā with um- apparently < udv— cf. udvēṣṭatē, — Deriv. caus. P. ubsāuṇā ‘to cause to putrefy’, H. ubsānā. — H. busnā ‘to smell putrid’ < ubasnā X basnā < vāsayati 3.
2090 *udvr̥ddhi— ‘growth’. [√vr̥dh] OM. ūdhī f. ‘development’. — See *udvardhatē.
2092 *ud—hadati ‘defecates’. 2. *ud—hanna—. [√had] 1. Pa. ūhadati, anal. after pp. replaced by ūhanati whence pass. ūhaññati ‘is soiled’. 2. *ūhanna— replaced by *ūhagga— (see hádati) in Or. uggibā ‘to defecate’ or < *uvahagga— see *upahadati.
2093 *ud—hvr̥ti— ‘deceit’. [√hvr̥] Bshk. íǰi ‘a lie, iǰā́r ‘liar’ AO xviii 223, but phonet. difficult. udhrasnāti see *uddhrasā—. unátti see unna—.
2097 *unnagna— ‘naked’. [nagná—] A. Or. ulaṅga ‘naked’, B. ulaṅg, H. ulãg, al°.
2100 *unnandaka— ‘rejoicing’. [nandaka— in cmpd. MBh.: √nand] Si. unandu ‘lively’ < *unan̆dda— < °n̆dva— (*unnan- dita— proposed in EGS 26 would > *unän̆d—).
2102 *unnava— ‘very new’. [náva1] Pr. unǘ ‘new’.
2103 *unnahati ‘unties’. [unnahyati ‘frees, unties’ Suśr., ‘frees oneself, rushes out’ MBh., unnahana— ‘un- fettered’ BhP.: √nah] Si. unanavā ‘to loosen’, inī ‘released’ < *unnahita—.
2105 *unnādayati ‘makes resound’. [unnadati ‘roars’ MBh., nadáyati ‘makes resound’ RV., nād° MBh.: √nad] Pa. unnādēti ‘makes resound’, S. ūnāiṇu, on° ‘to howl (of dogs and jackals)’; — deriv. ona f. ‘jackal's cry’.
2109 *unmacyatē ‘is raised’. [√mac] H. umacnā ‘to lift oneself to get further purchase’ whence as tr. umācnā ‘to lift up, drive out’; — more doubtfully M. umċaḷṇẽ ‘to be uprooted’.
2113 *unmathyatē ‘is stirred up’ 2. unmathayati ‘shakes, excites’ BhP. 3. *unmāthayati. [unmathnāti ‘dis- turbs, rouses’ PārGr̥., mathyátē ‘is stirred’ RV., māthayati MBh.: √manth] 1. Pk. ummacchia— ‘angry, bewildered’, °cha— n. ‘anger’, °chavia— ‘puffed up with pride’; Ku. umchyai ‘disgust, hate’; G. (Sorath where ch > s) umas f. ‘dis- gust, swoon’; M. umhās, °sā, umās, °sā m. ‘rising of any strong emotion, heaving of the stomach’. 2. Pk. ummahaṇa— ‘destroying’; H. ūmahnā, um° ‘to boil up, overflow, exult’; — ūmnā ‘to be exultant’ more prob. than < *unmadati. 3. Pk. ummāhia— ‘destroyed’; H. umāhnā = ūmahnā, māhnā ‘id.’ or < māthayati; OG. umāhyo, °āyo ‘excited’.
2115 *unmadati ‘is excited’. [mádatē Ved.: √mad 1] H. ūmnā ‘to be exultant, boil up’ rather < ūmahnā < unmathayati.
2118 *unmala— ‘free from dirt’. [mála—] M. umaḷṇẽ ‘to wash’ LM 299, but rather < *unma- lati.
2119 *unmalati ‘rubs’. 2. *unmālayati [√*mal 1] 1. Pk. ummalaṇa— n. ‘touching, rubbing’; M. umaḷṇẽ, kuḍālī dial. umaḷṇā̃ ‘to wash’ (NTS vii 99 < un—mard—, but LM 299 < *unmala—). 2. Pk. ummāliya— ‘well polished’; M. umaḷṇẽ tr. ‘to wash (clothes or vessels)’.
2122 *unmānayati ‘gives leave to go (?)’. [√man] S. umāṇaṇu ‘to escort anyone a short way on taking leave’. *unmāpayati ‘measures’ see *unmāyatē.
2123 *unmāpya— ‘without measure’. [māpya—] OM. umapa ‘unmeasurable’.
2124 *unmāyatē ‘is measured’. 2. *unmāpayati ‘mea- sures’. [Cf. unmā́— f. VS.: √] 1. Ku. amāṇo ‘to be contained, be held’; H. amānā ‘to fit into’; — semant. cf. *saṁmāpayati. 2. MB. umāna ‘to weigh’ ODBL 530.
2126 *unmārgati ‘searches out’. [Cf. mārgati: mr̥gá—, mārga—] M. umagṇẽ ‘to search out, track’, intr. ‘to become known’, umagyā m. ‘a tracker’ (LM 298 < *unmagna—).
2128 *unmāsaka— ‘out of the proper month’. [mā́sa—] Sh. (Lor.) amā́zo, f. —e ‘prematurely born’.
2129a *unmukna— ‘freed’. [Cf. unmukta— R., únmukti— f. ‘deliverance’ ŚBr.: √muc] Pk. ummukka—; N. umkanu ‘to escape’, caus. umkāunu — rather than < *utkramyati.
2134 *unmr̥ṣṭa— 2 ‘lifted up’. [únmr̥śati ‘lifts up’ RV., Pa. ummasati: √mr̥ś] M. umāṭh ‘elevated’, umāṭhā m. ‘an eminence, height’.
2135 *unmrakṣati ‘rubs’ and *unmrakṣaṇa— ‘rubbing’. [√mrakṣ] Ku. umakhṇo ‘to rub a person's body with nettles in order to remove an enchantment’, umkhaṇ m. ‘act of so rubbing’.
2137 *upakanīyas— ‘next younger’. [Cf. upakaniṣṭhikā— f. ‘finger next the little finger’ ĀśvGr̥. and kánīyas— ‘younger’ RV., Pa. kaniya—, Pk. kaṇīa—, °ṇīasa—: *kana—] Pr. bangya, baña ‘younger, smaller’ NTS xv 254 with (?).
2137a *upakara— ‘strewing on, pile’. [Cf. úpakirati ‘scatters upon’ ŚBr., Pa. upakiṇṇa—: √kr̥̄ 1] K. wār m. ‘putting or piling things over one another e.g. courses of bricks, layers of cloth).’
2140 *upakāṅkṣā— ‘desire’. [√kāṅkṣ] G. ũkh f. ‘desire’.
2144 *upakāla— ‘summer’. [Semant. cf. Psht. psarlai ‘spring’ < *upa—sarada—ka— (where sarad— is ‘summer’) and similar time and season names in Sk.: upaparvan- ‘the day before the Parvan’, upapūrvarātram ‘towards the beginning of night’: EVP 60. Did kālá2 which gives ‘year’ in Sh. mean ‘autumn’ or ‘winter’?] Sh. gil. uvālu̯ m., pales. wāalo m., jij. ɔvālu m., koh. gur. vālu̯ m. ‘summer’.
2145 *upakuṇḍala— ‘up to the full circle’? [kuṇḍala—] G. ũḍaḷ n.f. ‘clasping with both arms, double armful, lap’: just as doubtfully < *upamaṇḍala— with which phon. it would merge.
2146 *upakūpya— ‘a small well’. [upakūpa— m. lex., kū́pya—: kū́pa1] N. opi ‘a small well’.
2147 *upakr̥kāṭī— ‘part near the back of the neck’. [kr̥kā- ṭikā—] G. oṛi f. ‘hinder part of the neck’?
2149 *upakr̥tya— ‘to be helped’. [Cf. *pratikr̥tya—: √kr̥ 1] Ku. waı̃co, waı̃jo ‘lending, loan’?
2151 *upakṣajyati ‘approaches’. 2. *upakṣakta—. 3. *upakṣājayati. [√kṣaj] 1. Sh. ŭc̣hačóĭki̯, 3rd sg. pres. ŭc̣hā́čĕi ‘to arrive’ as anal. reformation from *uc̣haǰ— after pret., see fol. Deriv. caus. ŭc̣ha̯caróĭki̯ ‘to conduct, send’. J. Bloch BSL 51, 11 wrongly gives uch— and derives < ā́gacchati. 2. Sh. 3 sg. pret. ŭc̣hā́tŭ ‘he arrived’. 3. Sh. ŭc̣hayóĭki̯, 3 sg. pres. uc̣hā́yĕi ‘to send, conduct’. úpakṣarati see next.
2152 *upakṣalati ‘pours over’. [úpakṣarati ‘flows towards’ RV.: √kṣal] OM. usalaṇeṁ intr. ‘to splutter and splash’. *upakṣājayati ‘causes to arrive’ see *upakṣajyati. upaga— ‘approaching’ Āp., ‘relating to’ MBh. [√gam] parōpaga—.
2153 *upagarhaṇa— ‘blaming’. [√garh] H. urihnā m. ‘reproof, reproach’.
2154 *upagirati ‘swallows’. [Cf. upagilēt Suśr.: √gr̥̄ 2] Si. uranavā ‘to imbibe, suck in’, div u° ‘to swear an oath’; or poss. < avagiratē. upagilati see *upagirati. [√gal2]
2156 *upagr̥bhāyati, úpagr̥hṇāti ‘seizes from below’ AV., ‘collects’ TS., ‘takes possession of’ MBh. 2. *upa- ghr̥pta—. [√grah] 1. Pa. upagaṇhāti ‘takes up for meditation’, Pk. uvaggaha— m. ‘taking’, uvaggahia— ‘set up’; Ash. wagā́- ‘to seize, take away, lift up’; Kt. waga— ‘to seize’; Bashg. wag—, rag— ‘to demand, require’. (NTS ii 282 < ava—grah— in avagr̥hṇāti ‘divides’ Suśr., Pk. ōgiṇhaï ‘understands’). 2. Preterites: Ash. wagútä, Kt. waxtä, Bashg. awƏgutā.
2158 *upaghrāyati ‘smells at’. [Cf. upaghrā́yam ‘smelling at’ MaitrS., úpaghrāpayati ‘causes to smell at’ TS. upajaghrau ‘kissed’ Kālid. √ghrā] Pa. upagghāyati ‘smells at, kisses’; Ku. wagāṇo ‘to be satiated, be full, get puffed up’; — or < *avaghrāyati.
2162 *upacāyayati ‘heaps up’. [úpacinōti ‘heaps up’ TS., Pa. upacināti; Pk. uvacayaṇa— n. ‘growth’; cāyayati, cāpayati Pāṇ.: √ci 1] OM. uāiṇeṁ ‘to be satisfied’. — See upacīyatē.
2168 *upacchadana— ‘covering’. [√chad 1] Or. uchaṇā, uchuṇā ‘eaves of a house’ (see also upacchanna—).
2170 *upacchādayati ‘covers’. [√chad 1] Or. uchāibā ‘to spread (a mat or bedding)’. upajíhvikā— see upadı̄́ka—. upajı̄́ka— see upadı̄́ka—.
2172 *upaṭṭhiṅga— ‘prop’. [*ṭhiṅga—] H. uṭhaṅgnā ‘to rest on’, uṭhaṅgan, uṭhgan, uḍhaṅgan m. ‘prop, support’; G. uṭhãgvũ ‘to lean against’; M. uṭhı̃gṇẽ, uṭhãg° ‘to lean against’, uṭhı̃gṇẽ, uṭhãg°, uṭhãgaṇ n. ‘prop’.
2174 *upatapti ‘heat, exertion’. [√tap] Kt. bätot ‘work’ NTS ii 262.
2176 *upatimyati ‘wets’. [For upa with a verb ‘to wet’ cf. úpōnatti ŚBr., úpōtta—: √tim] L. ummaṇ ‘to be soaked’, umāvaṇ ‘to soak’, awāṇ. ummuṇ ‘to ooze out’, caus. umāvuṇ. úpatiṣṭhati see *upasthāti.
2178a *upadūyatē Add. 14326.
2179 *upadr̥ti— ‘a smaller skin’. [dŕ̥ti—] S. f. ‘small water bag’; — doubtful, or poss. < audikā—. upadēhikā— see upadı̄́ka—.
2182 *upadviṣṭa— ‘hated’. [Cf. Av. upat̰bištō ‘hurt, in- sulted’: √dviṣ] H. ubīṭhnā, ubiṭh° ‘to cease to be liked, become un- pleasant through being sated, become unattractive through over—use (esp. of over—indulgence in sexual relations)’.
2183 *upadhāra— ‘supporting’. [√dhr̥] Pk. uvahāra— m. ‘spreading’; K. wār m. ‘putting or piling things over each other (as courses of bricks)’, wār thawun ‘to keep, retain’, wôru m. ‘the having a fixed residence or post’; G. vhār, vār m. ‘support, help’; - OAw. uhāra ‘curtain’?
2188 *upanimantrā— ‘invitation’. [Cf. upanimantrayati ‘invites’ MBh.: mántra—] MIA. *ubanimandrā— → Psht. blandrƏ f. ‘invitation, entertainment’.
2192 *upapāra— ‘near the bank’. [pārá1] G. uārɔ m. ‘unfrequented part on a river bank’. upapārśva— m. ‘shoulder, flank’ MBh. [Cf. upapar- śukā— f. ‘false rib’: pārśvá—] *upapārśvāṅga—.
2193 *upapārśvāṅga— ‘shoulder, limb’. [upapārśva—, áṅga—] Dm. waṣấṅ, °ṣoṅ ‘wing’.
2194 *upapiḍikā— ‘small abscess, pimple’. [piḍaka—] K. vīrü f. ‘group of small pimples on the face in adolescence’?
2200 *upabhūmistha— ‘being on the ground’. [bhū́mi—, stha—] Kt. bƏbyümstƏ ‘snake’ NTS ii 26.
2202 *upamardati ‘rubs’. [upamr̥dnāti ‘grazes’ VarBr̥S.: √mr̥d] Or. uṇḍibā ‘to grope for’ or < avamardati. — See also *ādhūṇḍh—.
2205 *upamūrdhan— ‘on the head’. [mūrdhán—] G. ũḍhaṇ n., ũḍhṇī f., uḍhāṇīyũ n. ‘a piece of cloth wrapped round the head under a burden, cushion for burden on the head’.
2211 *uparaṭati ‘shouts to’. [úpa with ‘to call’ cf. úpahva- yatē RV., upārudati Bhaṭṭ.: √raṭ] M. oraḍṇẽ, var° ‘to shout’. uparathyā— ‘by—road’ R. see virathyā—. [rátha—]
2212 *uparandhyatē ‘is cooked’. [Cf. uparandhayati ‘tor- ments’ BhP.: √randh] Kho. (Lor.) wƏr e_ nǰik, wrƏnǰik ‘to be fried in oil, spit or crackle in pot, bubble and boil (of meat, fat or ghee, not water), be roasted’.
2214 *uparamyati ‘ceases’. [úparamati TS., Pa. uparamati, Pk. uvaramaï: √ram] M. varamṇẽ ‘to abate, go down, be mitigated (of pain)’.
2216 *uparāṭa— ‘shouting to’. [√raṭ] Or. urāṛi ‘loud cry’; M. oraḍ, var°, orḍā, var° m. ‘shouting’. *uparātra— ‘overnight’ see apararātrá—.
2217 *uparādhyati ‘favours’. [uparādhaya— ‘propitiating’ Pāṇ.] Paš. waraz— ‘to protect, keep, feed’ IIFL iii 3, 189.
2220 *uparukṣa— ‘small tree’. [*rukṣa—] OSi. uvaruk ‘smaller trees’. uparudhyatē see next.
2227 *upalagati ‘touches’. 2. *upalagna—. [√lag] 1. Si. ulanavā tr. ‘to rub against’ or < *upalāgayati; — Pk. valaï ‘makes mount up’, pp. valagga— whence valaggaï ‘mounts’ semant. difficult. 2. Pk. uvalagga— ‘touching, concerned with’; Ku. olag, wal° f. ‘presents of vegetables, curds, milk and fruits made by tenants to their landlords (these gifts are considered as dues)’, gng. oug ‘present of vegetables’; M. uḷag, uḷīg n., uḷigī f. ‘obligation, burden, duty, task’. *upalagna— ‘touching’ see prec. Addenda: *upalagati. 2. upalagna—: OMarw. ūḷaga ‘servant’, ūḷagaï ‘serves, waits upon’; OM. uḷiga ‘service’ (← Drav. DED 646) perh. ← Drav. ← IA. see avalagna—. *upalagna— see *upalagati Add2.
2228 *upalapati ‘entices’. [√lap] OG. ulavaï ‘betrays’ if with ; but if with l, then < ullapati; — prob. Pa. upalāpēti ‘persuades, cajoles’ < *upalāpayati (E. H. Johnston JRAS 1931, 574 caus. of upa—lī—).
2229 *upalayana— ‘sticking to’. [√] Paš. palēn ‘sticking, fastening’ IIFL iii 3, 141 with (?). *upalāpayati ‘cajoles’ see *upalapati.
2230 *upalābhayati ‘causes to obtain’. [upalabhatē ‘ob- tains’ MBh., Pk. uvalabhaï; caus. upalambhayati BhP., Pk. uvalaṁbhaï ‘obtains’: √labh] Gy. wel. gr. ulav— ‘to share, divide’?
2231 *upalāya— ‘refuge’. [√] Ku. ulau ‘shelter’; — cf. Pk. inf. uvalāuṁ ‘to take refuge’.
2232 *upalāla— ‘having spittle on’? [lālā—] L. ulār m. ‘food of animals that is left or spoilt’; - very doubtful.
2233 *upalāśman— ‘grindstone’. [úpala—, áśman—] S. urso m., °sī f. ‘flagstone for grinding things on’.
2236 *upavaṁśa— ‘secondary beam’. [vaṁśá—] Gaw. hū̃s ‘roof beam’?
2237 *upavayati ‘strings, threads’. [√] M. ovṇẽ, õ;vṇẽ ‘to string, thread, stitch’. — Cf. Pa. upavīyati ‘is woven’. Addenda: *upavayati [Cf. Ir. Shgh. baw e y— ‘to cover, veil’]
2238 *upavayana— ‘wrapping round’. [Cf. upōta— ‘enveloped’ ŚānkhŚr.: √] Aw. lakh. oinā ‘a spindle on which yarn is put up after spinning’ (BRS 73 < avatīrṇa—). — See upōta—.
2239 *upavaraka— ‘paramour’. [vará2] Kho. (Lor.) wōru, wēiru ‘paramour’? — See upapatí—.
2243 *upavasathāgāra— n. [upavasathá—, agāra—] Pa. upōsathāgāra— n. ‘monastery or chapel in which the pāṭimokkha was recited’, Si. inscr. pohatakarahi loc. sg. (—t— and —k— both for —y—). úpavahati see *avavahati.
2246 *upaviṣṭi— ‘approach, sitting’. [√viś] Bshk. darbḗṭh ‘threshold’, Phal. d *l rbēeṭi; K. biṭh, °ṭhü , dat. bichĕ f. ‘session, assembly, meeting for an unlawful purpose’; L. vēṭh f. ‘sitting with a sheet tied round back and knees’.
2255 *upaśrānta— ‘rested’. [upaśrāmyati ‘rests’ Kauś.: √śram] M. usãtṇẽ ‘to rest, pause’ or < upaśānta—.
2256 *upaśrānti— ‘resting’. [See prec.: √śram] M. usãt, °ãth f. ‘a moment's rest from work’ or < upaśānti—.
2257 *upaśrōṇika— ‘near the hips’. [śrṓṇi—] Paš. uṣuṅ— in uṣuṅwāl (—wāl < *palla1?) ‘waist’ IIFL iii 3, 20. upaṣṭambha— see upastambha—.
2260 *upasariyā—, upasaryā— f. ‘one to be impregnated’ Pāṇ. [upasara— m. ‘approach of a male to a female, covering (a cow)’ Pāṇ.: √sr̥] H. osariyā (ext. of *osarī) f. ‘young buffalo cow ready for covering, but not yet covered’, osar f. (< *upasarā—?). upasaryā— see prec.
2263 *upaskadati ‘jumps towards’. 2. *upaskatta—. [Cf. inf. skádē, skádaḥ RV., aor. askadat Gr., upaskanna- ‘attacked’ R.: √skand] 1. Phal. ukh— ‘to come’ (1 sg. pres. ukhūm, pres. part. ukhāndu). 2. Phal. pret. ukhā°tu ‘came to, arrived at’.
2269 *upastarati, úpastr̥ṇāti ‘spreads over, scatters under’ RV., upāstarati VarBr̥S. 2. upastáraṇa— n. ‘cover’ RV., ‘undermattress’ ĀśvGr̥. 3. *upastr̥ta— ‘spread over’. [√str̥] 1. K. watharun ‘to spread out (carpet, mat, &c.), throw (person on ground)’; Si. vätirenavā (from tr. *vatur—) ‘to lie prone, sprawl, overflow’ (ES 85 < vistārayati). 2. NiDoc. vastaraṁnena inst. ‘mat(?)’; K. watharunu ‘mat, rug, carpet’. 3. Pk. uvatthaḍa— ‘covered’; Kal. ustráu ‘bedding’ (—au < —al?); OG. uthaü m. ‘shed’, G. ɔthɔ m.; Si. vataḷa ‘spread out, extended’ (or with EGS 78 < vistr̥ta—).
2274 *upasthāti ‘stands near’, upasthita— ‘approached’ ĀśvGr̥S. [úpatiṣṭhati ‘stands near’ RV., ‘attends on’ MBh.: √sthā] Pa. upaṭṭhāti, pp. upaṭṭhita— ‘waits on’; Pk. uvaṭṭhāi, uvaṭṭhiya— ‘stands near’; Si. vaṭanavā, vaṭin°, pret. väṭiyā ‘to wait on’.
2276 *upasnāva— ‘flood’. [Cf. upasnuta— ‘streaming forth’ Kir.: √snu] OM. unhāva m. ‘flood’.
2278 *upasvapikā— ‘dream’. [√svap 1] Pr. bƏsi ‘dream’; — very doubtful.
2279 *upahadati ‘defecates’ [upahadana— n. ‘discharging faeces upon’ VarBr̥S.: √had] Pp. *upahanna— anal. replaced by MIA. *uvahagga- (see hádati) in Or. uggibā ‘to defecate’ or < *ūhagga- see *ud—hadati.
2280 *upahanaka— ‘striking’. [úpahanti ‘strikes’ RV., Pa. upahanati ‘injures’, Pk. uvahaṇaï ‘destroys’: √han 1] Paš. waṅg— ‘to shoot, throw (a stone), hit’ IIFL iii 3, 187 with (?).
2283 *upahlādayati ‘makes rejoice’. [hlādayati MBh.: √hlād] G. uhlāvvũ, hul° ‘to please, delight’.
2286 *upākna— ‘smeared’. [Cf. úpākta—, *upāgna—: √añj] Si. vakanavā ‘to smear’; — or < upāṅkṣyati or *upāñjati X mrákṣati; less likely < forms of vyañj- which early lost sense of anointing. GS 67 wrongly < mrákṣati.
2290 *upāgna— ‘smeared’. [cf. úpākta—, *upākna—: √añj] K. wanun ‘to become wet’ < MIA. *uvaṇṇa— pp. of *uvajjaï (< *upājyatē) with replacement of —gg- after type bhijjaï: bhiṇṇa—.
2291 *upāṅkura— ‘being on (shoulder—)curve’. [aṅkurá—: √añc] Wg. ukřƏ ‘hump’. — Doubtful.
2294 *upāṅgūḍi— ‘on the finger’. [*aṅgūḍi—, s.v. aṅgúli—] Pr. woguík ‘finger—ring’. upā́carati see úpaharati.
2295 *upājyatē ‘is smeared’. [√añj] K. wazawun ‘to moisten’. *upāñcati ‘raises’ see údañcati.
2296 *upāñjati, úpānakti, pl. úpāñjanti ‘anoints, greases (a wheel)’ TS. [√añj] Pk. uṁjissaï ‘will wet’, uṁjia— ‘sprinkled’; G. ũjvũ ‘to oil, grease’; M. vãj̈ṇẽ ‘to smear a pot with oil or marking—nut’. — Perh. X mrákṣati in Si. vakanavā, see *upākna—.
2298 *upāñjali— ‘putting the open hands together’. [Cf. upa—hasta— m. ‘act of taking with the hand’ Pāṇ.: añjalí—] M. õ;j̈aḷ, õ;j̈haḷ, vãj̈aḷ f. ‘cavity made by putting the two hands together’ (LM 302 < añjalí—); — perh. also P. uñjal m. ‘double handful’, Or. uñjlā, H. uñjal, uñjlī f. unless due to metathesis, see añjalí—. upādikā— see upadı̄́ka—.
2300 *upādhi 2 ‘above’. [Cf. upādhika— ‘exceeding’ RVPrāt.: úpa, ádhi] Wg. ōi, oya adv. ‘up, above’ doubtful (see úpa); — WPah. bhal. b e\ e ‘above’ very doubtful.
2305 *upāndha— ‘somewhat blind’. [andhá—] Nin̓g. wandā́ ‘blind’; K. wuna f. ‘blindness’; S. ū̃dhaï f. ‘darkness’; G. ũdhā̃ḍhaḷ, ũḍh°, ũdhā̃dhḷũ, ũḍh- ā̃ḍhḷũ ‘dim, shortsighted’; M. õ;dh, õ;d f. ‘gloominess, murk’, õ;dhaṭ ‘dim, dark’.
2306 *upāpayati, úpāpnōti ‘reaches, obtains’ TS. [√āp] M. uvāvṇẽ tr. ‘to obtain’, intr. ‘to spread out’.
2307 *upābhra— ‘near the clouds’. [abhrá1] S. ubhu m. ‘the heavens, sky’.
2313 *upālabhana— ‘blame’. 2. *upālābhana—. [Cf. upālambhana— n. Kālid.: √labh] 1. Or. ulahaṇā, Mth. ulahan, H. urahnā m. 2. P. ulāhṇā m. ‘reproach’; Ku. ulāṇo m. ‘blame’, H. urāhnā m. Addenda: *upālabhana—. 2. *upālābhana—: H. ulāhan m. ‘blame’ rather than < *upalābhana—.
2315 *upālābhya— ‘blame’. [Cf. upālabhya— ‘blameable’ Pañcat., lābhya— = lābha— lex.: √labh] S. ulābho, ubhālo m. ‘taunt, reproach’. upāvartatē see upavartatē. upāśrayati see úpaśrayati.
2320 *upēṅghati ‘goes towards’. [√*iṅgh] M. vẽghṇẽ ‘to go up, mount’ or < *udēṅghati? - Doubtful. *upēcchati ‘desires’. [√iṣ 2] See upēpsati. upēta— see úpaiti.
2323 *upēṣayati ‘sends on’. [Cf. upaprḗṣyati ‘drives on’ AV.: prob. to be separated from úpēṣatē ‘attacks’ RV. < upa īṣ—: √iṣ 1] Kho. weṣéik ‘to send, dispatch, (Lor.) send away’ BelvalkarVol 97; — or < *apēṣayati.
2324 *upēṣukā— ‘arrow’. [iṣukā́—] Kho. weṣú ‘arrow, bullet’ BelvalkarVol 97.
2326a *upōttapti— Add. 14328.
2328 *upōpta— ‘sown’. [úpavapati ‘strews earth over, buries’ TS.: √vap 2] Paš. bōtóu ‘ploughing (sowing?)’; Shum. bṓtau—ã̤l ‘plough’; Bshk. bōtei ‘harvesting’; Phal. bhotīt ‘to plough’ IIFL iii 3, 39 with (?): b— < upa— is phonet. difficult, see úpaviśati.
2330 *uppara— ‘above’. 2. *upparalla—. [úpara—] 1. A. opar ‘upper’, subst. ‘height, top’; B. upar ‘the top’, Or. upara. 2. Pk. uppalla— ‘mounted on’; N. upallo ‘upper’, H. uparlā, G. uplũ: — all perh. rather der. from *uppari. *upparapaṭṭa—, *upparabhūmi—.
2331 *upparapaṭṭa— ‘upper slab’. [*uppara—, paṭṭa1] Bi. uprauṭā ‘upper stone of a handmill’.
2332 *upparabhūmi— ‘upper ground’. [Cf. uparibhūmí adv. ‘above the ground’ ŚBr.: *uppara—, bhū́mi—] Ku. upraũ ‘dry unirrigated land’.
2333 *uppari ‘above’. [upári with emph. lengthening of consonant] NiDoc. upari (= upp°?), Pk. uppariṁ, uppiaṁ; Gy. arm. upra ‘on’, eur. opre, up°, pre ‘on, over’, opral, up°, pral ‘from above’, hung. upar ‘on’; K. wupar ‘above’; S. pari ‘on’; P. uppar, °pur ‘on, above’; WPah. khaś. bar, rudh. upri, Ku. N. upar; A. upari ‘over and above’, opare ‘above’; B. upar, par ‘on’, Or. upari, upuri, upara, para, Mth. ūpar, pari, par, OAw. para, H. ūpar, OMarw. upari, ūpara, parī, OG. ūpari, G. upari , par, M. upar.
2336 *ubdhrikā— ‘snare’. [Cf. Oss. urd ‘warp’ IIFL iii 3, 6: √ubh] Ash. undrı̄́ ‘snare’, Paš. lauṛ. udrı̄́, weg. chil. ulı̄́.
2337 *ubbakka— ‘vomited’. [S. uḇ—, G. M. ub— point to earlier *ubb— (< *udb—?) rather than *uvv— as in Pk. (< *udvakka— replacing udvānta—)] Pk. uvvakka— ‘vomited’, uvvakkaï ‘vomits, drives out’; S. uḇakāraṇu ‘to retch, sigh’, P. ubakṇā ‘to vomit’; Ku. ubkai ‘nausea’, ubkauṇo ‘to raise, lever up’; H. ubāknā, ubak° ‘to vomit’; G. ubak f., ubkɔ m. ‘retching’; M. ubak m. ‘rising of matter from the stomach (before vomiting)’. *ubbadhya— ‘contents of stomach’ see ū́badhya—. Addenda: *ubbakka—: S.kcch. aubākī f. ‘yawn’?
2338 *ubbar— ‘rise, swell’. 2. *ubbār—. [See *ubbal—] 1. Or. ubaribā, ubur° ‘to rise, come out’; M. ubarṇẽ ‘to rise (of a blister), rise into shape (of a heap of grain &c.)’. 2. M. ubarṇẽ ‘to raise and form’, ubārṇẽ ‘to emit watery fluid.’
2339 *ubbal— ‘rise, swell, boil’. 2. *ubbāl— tr. [Morgen- stierne AO xviii 222 derives from ud—val—, Sk. vā̆layati, ONorwegian vella ‘boil’, IE. *wel— IEW 1140. If so forms of K. G.M. with b and S. with must be ← Centre, since —d—v— > Pk. —vv— and in these languages —v—. Poss., with *ubbar—, *ubbār— above, due to coalescence of ud—val— with ud—bhar— s.v. údbharati; but cf. also a similar series s.v. *ummaḍ—. 1. Bshk. ōbél ‘boiling’; K. wubalāwun ‘to cause to boil’; S. uḇiraṇu intr. ‘to boil’; L. (Jukes) uḇlaṇ ‘to boil, effervesce’; P. ubbalṇā intr. ‘to boil’; B. ublā ‘to boil over’; Or. ubaḷibā ‘to rise, overflow’; H. ubalnā ‘to boil over, rise, ascend’; M. ubaḷṇẽ ‘to have one's pregnancy terminated’. 2. S. uḇāraṇu tr. ‘to boil’, L. (Jukes) uḇālaṇ, P. ubālaṇā, H. ubālnā; G. ubāḷɔ m. ‘outburst, excitement’; M. ubāḷā m. ‘bubbling up’. Addenda: *ubbal—. 1. WPah.kṭg. ubƏḷnõ; intr. ‘to boil’. 2. *ubbāl— WPah.kṭg. bwaḷnō tr. ‘to boil’, bwāḷ m. ‘vapour (e.g. from wet clothes)’; J. bwā' m. ‘heat’. *ubbāl— see *ubbal— Add2.
2340 *ubbā— ‘damp heat’. Pk. uvvā— f. ‘heat’, uvvāha—, m.; S. uḇa, huḇa f. ‘vapour, steam’; L. ubā m. ‘excessive heat and sweat owing to sultriness’, (Jukes) uḇā m. ‘miasma rising from flooded lands, malaria’; G. ub, ubā f. ‘mould’; M. ūb f. ‘sultry heat’; H. ūbh m. ‘sultry heat’. — Deriv. H. ūbhnā ‘to be oppressed by heat’; G. ubvũ ‘to rot’; M. ubṇẽ ‘to swelter, spoil through heat’. — Ext.: Pk. uvvara— m., °ria— n. ‘heat’; — G. M. ubaṭ ‘mouldy’; — M. ubaḷṇẽ ‘to rot through excessive heat’, ubārṇẽ ‘to swelter, rot through heat’. — See next.
2340a *ubbākāla— ‘hot season’. [*ubbā—, kālá1] M. ubāḷā m. ‘hot or dry season’. UBH ‘weave’: *ubdhrikā—, *vābha—; *pravabhati; — √*vabh.
2342 *umbāḍa— ‘firebrand’. [Conn. doubtful with úlmuka- m. AitBr., Pk. ummua— n.] S. umaṛu m. ‘lighted stick’, umāṛī f. ‘half—burnt log, firebrand’; G. umāṛ, °ṛɔ m., °ṛiyũ n. ‘firebrand’, ũbāṛiyũ n. ‘piece of wood lighted at one end’.
2344 *ummaḍ— ‘rise, bubble up’. 2. *ummaḍḍ—. 3. *um- māḍ—. [See *ubbal— and cf. *ummar—, *ummal—] 1. Ku. umaṇṇo ‘to bubble up, ferment’ (< *umaṛṇo?); N. umranu ‘to grow, boil up’ or < *ummar—; B. umṛā ‘to overflow’; G. umaṛvũ ‘to rise up, gather to a head, be produced’. 2. P. umaḍṇā, umaṇḍ° ‘to overflow, swell, rise (of a river)’; N. umaṛnu ‘to grow, boil up’; H. umaḍnā, umaṇḍ° ‘to swell, heave, increase’. 3. P. omāhṛā m. ‘rising of love’; N. umāṛnu ‘to cause to spring up’ (with from umaṛnu); M. umāḍā m. ‘over- flow, gushing forth’.
2345 *ummar— ‘rise, bubble up’. 2. *ummār—. [See *ubbal— and cf. *ummaḍ—, *ummal—] 1. N. umranu ‘to spring up, bubble up, grow’ or < *ummaḍ—. 2. Ku. umyār f. ‘growth, prosperity’; N. umārnu ‘to cause to grow’.
2346 *ummal— ‘rise, bubble up’. 2. *ummāl—. [See *ubbal— and cf. *ummar—, *ummaḍ—] 1. Ku. umalṇo ‘to boil, bubble up’; N. umlanu ‘to boil, ferment’; G. umaḷkɔ m. ‘emotion, ardent love’; M. umaḷṇẽ, umhaḷ° ‘to shed blood at every orifice’, umaḷ f. ‘qualmishness’; — unmaḷṇẽ ‘to heave (in the stomach)’ with unm— as Sanskritization. 2. Ku. umālṇo tr. ‘to boil’, N. umālnu; M. umaḷṇẽ, umhaḷ° ‘to slake lime’, umāḷā, umhāḷ° m. ‘boiling up’.
2347 *ummēr— ‘join’. [Cf. √*miḍ] S. umerī f. ‘the connecting two ends of thread to- gether by twisting and laying them over’; G. umervũ ‘to add, augment’, umerɔ m., °raṇ n. ‘increase’.
2354 *urōjāta— ‘own son’. [úras—, jātá—] Pa. urējāta— (ē magadhism for ō P. Thieme KZ 66, 132); Si. uradā ‘one's own son’ (EGS 28 uraya + ).
2355 *urōdhānī— ‘breast, teat’. [úras—, dhānī—] Kho. roren ‘nipple’ with d(h) as beginning second member of cmpd. remaining long enough to become d with d < —t—, cf. panǰaraš < páñcadaśa (BelvalkarVol 95 < *urōdhānya—?).
2356 *urvara— ‘surplus, left over’, urvarita— ‘left over’ BhP. [Poss. with EWA i 110 hyper—sanskritism fr. Pk., but perh. conn. with ulvaṇá—, ulba° ‘excessive’, Pk. ullaṇa—, uvvaṇaubba° and with urvárī— f. ‘wife presented with many others for choice’ AV., Pa. ubbarī— f. ‘concubine’. S. with b and indicates early MIA. —vv— and —bb—] Pk. uvvaria— ‘left over’, uvvaraṁta— ‘remaining over’; S. uḇiraṇu ‘to be left over’, uḇāraṇu ‘to save’, obari f. ‘remnants’, obāraṇu ‘to leave food over (in eating)’; Ku. ubharṇo ‘to be left over’, tr. ubhārṇo; N. ubro, ubāru ‘surplus’, ubranu ‘to be left over’, tr. ubārnu; A. ubariba ‘to disregard’; B. ubarā ‘to be plentiful’; Or. ubaribā, ubur°, ubor° ‘to remain as surplus’; OAw. ubaraï ‘is saved’, ubāraï ‘saves’; H. ū̆barnā ‘to be left over as sur- plus’, tr. ubārnā, ubrā—subrā ‘surplus’; M. uver, °rī, ūr, urī f. ‘remainder, surplus’, urṇẽ ‘to be left as a residue’, uraviṇẽ ‘to make to remain over’, urakṇẽ ‘to be over, be finished’.
2363 *ullagyati ‘is unfastened’. [√lag] Or. ulāgibā ‘to take off (a dress), free from a bond, abandon’; M. ulagṇẽ intr. ‘to cease, pass away’, tr. ‘to finish, clear (a field, &c. of crops or stones)’; ext. in M. alagḍā m. ‘disentanglement’, algaḍṇẽ intr. ‘to get un- ravelled’, tr. ‘to unravel, take to pieces’, alkaṭṇẽ. — K. wŏlagun ‘to get through (a difficulty), endure to the end, pass over’? (See ullaṅghayati).
2364 *ullaṅgha— ‘jumping over’. [√laṅgh] N. ulāṅ ‘transgression’; A. ulaṅghā ‘disobedience’.
2367 *ullaṅghin— ‘leaping over’. [√laṅgh] Si. ulän̆gi ‘gazelle’.
2368 *ullaṭati ‘turns over’. 2. *ullaṭyatē ‘is upset’. 3. *ul- lāṭayati ‘causes to turn over’. [√*laṭ] 1. S. uliṛaṇu ‘to be loose or shaky’; H. ulaṛnā, ular° ‘to topple over, lie down’. 2. Pk. ullaṭṭa— ‘overturned, empty’; K. wulaṭun ‘to be reversed’; S. uṭilaṇu ‘to fall back to a former place’; L. ulṭā adv. ‘on the contrary’; P. ulṭaṇā ‘to be upset’; WPah. bhal. ulṭāi f. ‘turning over a log so as to saw on the other side’; Ku. ulaṭṇō, al° ‘to be upset, turn to one side’; N. ulṭanu ‘to be upset’; A. olaṭiba ‘to turn back or round’; B. ulṭā ‘to be upset’, Or. ulaṭibā; OMth. ulaṭaï ‘turns aside’; Mth. unaṭā ‘in a reverse manner’; H. ulaṭnā ‘to be overturned’; OMarw. ulaṭo ‘reversed’; G. ulaṭvũ ‘to be the reverse of’; M. ulaṭṇẽ ‘to be upset’, tr. ‘to turn over’. 3. H. ulāṛnā ‘to overturn’, ulārnā ‘to cause to lie down’. *ullaṭyatē ‘is upset’ see prec. Addenda: *ullaṭati. 1. S.kcch. aularṇū ‘to be tipped up’, ālarṇū ‘to lie down’ (X ālīyatē?). 2. *ullaṭyatē: S.kcch. ūlṭī keṇī ‘to vomit’, auṭṭalṇū ‘to become upside down’, WPah.kṭg. ulṭṇõ;, ulṭɔ ‘left, reverse’, ulṭauṇõ; ‘to turn upside down, or inside out’; B. ulṭo ‘reversed’; — read B. ulṭā̆na ‘to turn over’. *ullaṭyatē see *ullaṭati Add2.
2369 *ullaṇḍati ‘jumps up or out?’ [√laṇḍ] Pk. ullaṁḍiya— ‘driven out’; H. ulaṇḍnā ‘to invert a vessel to empty it’ with other phonet. somewhat similar forms: uleṇḍnā, ũḍel°, uṛel°, uṛer°, uleṛ°, ulaı̃ḍ°, ũdāl°, ũdal°; — Pk. ullaṁtha— ‘thrown up’; G. ulāṭ f. ‘jump’.
2371 *ullamba— ‘hanging on?’ [Cf. ullambin— Kathās.: √lamb] H. ulambā m. ‘hard swelling, tumour’. ullambayati ‘hangs up’ Kathās. [√lamb] See avalambatē.
2372 *ullardayati ‘overloads’. [√lard] Pk. ulladdiya— ‘heavily loaded, overloaded’; P. uladdṇā ‘to overturn, upset’.
2375a *ullāghayati ‘makes light’. [Cf. laghayati ‘makes light, lessens’ Kālid.: laghú—] Pk. ullāhēi ‘lessens’. — See *udraṁhati. *ullāṭayati ‘upsets’ see *ullaṭati.
2378 *ullāva— ‘a piece cut off’. [Cf. ullūna— ‘cut off’ ŚāṅkhŚr.: √] Ku. ulāw ‘a fragment of stone or wood flying off when cut’. ullāsa—, ullāsayati, ullāsin— see ullasati. úllikhati see *udrikhati. *ullīyatē see avalīyatē.
2379 *ulluṇṭhati ‘rolls to and fro’. [Cf. ulluṇṭhana— ‘rolling’ Apte, ulluṭhati ‘moves violently to and fro’ lex., luṇṭhita— ‘set in motion’ Hariv.: √luṭh] Or. uluṇṭhibā ‘to roll on the ground’; — conn. with Pk. ulluṁṭha— ‘raised, overbearing’ doubtful. — Cf. *ulluṇḍati.
2380 *ulluṇḍati ‘overturns’. [√luḍ] Pk. ulluṁḍaï ‘falls, drips’; Or. uluṇḍibā ‘to roll on the ground’; M. ulãḍṇẽ, ol° tr. and intr. ‘to turn over, spill’ (or poss. < *avaluṇḍati). — Cf. *ulluṇṭhati. ullēkha— see *udrēkha—. ullēkhayati see *udrēkhayati.
2381 *ullōḍa— ‘commotion’. [ullōla— m. ‘large wave’ Kād.: √luḍ] Pa. ullōla— m. ‘commotion, wave’; Pk. ullōla— m. ‘uproar’; Si. ulela ‘wave, whirling in water, festival’.
2382 *ullōpana— ‘taking out’. [Cf. úllupta— ‘taken or drawn out’ AV., ullōpam Kauś., Pa. ullumpati ‘takes out, saves’: √lup] Pa. ullōpana— n. ‘saving’; M. ulvaṇ n. ‘the threads which remain in the comb after the completion of the web’.
2383 *ullōman— ‘rising of the hair’. [lṓman—] P. allõ; f. ‘uneasy sensation or irritation in any part of the body’? ullōla— see *ullōḍa—. ulvaṇá— see *urvara—.
2392 *uṣṇadhāra— ‘hot spring’. [uṣṇá—1, dhā́ra2] M. unherẽ n. ‘hot spring’.
2393 *uṣṇapānīya— ‘hot water’. [uṣṇá—1, pānı̄́ya—] M. unhvaṇī n. ‘water heated in the sun's rays’.
2395 *uṣṇavāta— ‘hot wind’. [uṣṇá—1, vā́ta—] G. unvā m. ‘very hot weather’. *uṣṇāpana— ‘heating’ see uṣṇayati.
2396 *uṣṇālaya— ‘hot spot’. [uṣṇá—1, ālaya—] M. unhāḷẽ n. ‘spring of hot water’.
2402 *ūṇḍa— ‘deep’. 2. *ōṇḍa—. 3. *avōṇḍa—. 1. Pk. uṁḍa—, °aya— ‘deep’, S. ūnho; WPah. bhal. uṇḍe ‘down’; Ku. uno ‘low’, un ‘down’, uniṇo ‘to lower (of clouds)’; H. poet. ū̃ṛā ‘deep, sunk’; Marw. ū̃ṛo ‘deep’, G. ū̃ḍũ. 2. H. õ;ḍā ‘deep’, M. õ;ḍ, õ;ḍhā, õ;ḍhā. 3. H. aũḍā, OMarw. aũṛo. ūta— see *ūna2. Addenda: *ūṇḍa—: S.kcch. ūno ‘deep’.
2404 *ūdhriya— ‘pertaining to the udder’. [ū́dhas—] Dm. īt ‘udder’ < *īdr NTS xii 129, ideŕi prob. dimin. from *īdr (scarcely with NTS xii 153 < *ūdharikā—).
2406 *ūna— 2 ‘woven’. [Cf. ūta—, uta2 lex., Pk. vūya—, vua—: √] K. wūnu pp. of wōnun. — See ūyatē, *vināti.
2416 *ūni— ‘deficiency’. [ūná1] P. ūṇ f. ‘want, deficiency’.
2421 *ūruvastha—, ūrvasthá— n. ‘thigh bone’ ŚBr. [ūrú—, ásthi—] Pa. ūraṭṭhi—, °ika— n.; B. urut, urat ‘thigh’. ŪRJ: ūrjas—.
2425 *ūrṇālōman— ‘hair between eyebrows’. [Cf. Pa. uṇṇa- n. ‘id.’: ū́rṇā—, lṓman—] Si. uṇulom, unu°.
2427 *ūrdhvaṁga—, cf. ūrdhvaga— ‘ascending’. [ūrdhvá—, ga—] Si. uḍan̆gu ‘haughty, arrogant’: so EGS 25 who quotes Pa. uḍḍhaṁgama— ‘going upwards’. — Or poss. < ūrdhvāṅga— ‘*with raised body’; n. ‘upper part of the body’ MW. — Or < *ūrdhvāgra—, q.v.
2428 *ūrdhvakaṇṭa— ‘bottom up’. [ūrdhvá—, *kaṇṭa—] N. ubhiṇḍo ‘standing on one's head, headlong’? ūrdhvaga— see *ūrdhvaṁga—.
2429 *ūrdhvacchada— ‘covering above’. [ūrdhvá—, chada—] Ku. upchau ‘shelter, protection’.
2434 *ūrdhvastha— ‘standing above’. [ūrdhvá—, stha—] Si. uḍat ‘higher, upper’ or perh. with EGS 5 s.v. ata 1 a Si. cmpd. uḍu + at < ánta—.
2436 *ūrdhvāgra—. [ūrdhvá—, ágra—] Pa. uddhagga— ‘standing on end, prominent’, °gika- ‘aiming at a lofty end’; Si. uḍan̆gu ‘haughty, arrogant’. — Rather than with EGS 25 < *ūrdhvaṁga—. ūrdhvāṅga— see *ūrdhvaṁga.
2438 *ūrṣā— 2 ‘wool’. [< IE. *wlHso—, cf. Lat. vellus < *welsos, IIFL iii 3, 27 with (?): ū́rṇā—] Paš. ū́ẓa ‘wool’. ū́vadhya— see *ūbadhya—.
2446 *r̥kṣabhalla— ‘bear’, acchabh° m. Bālar. [ŕ̥kṣa—, bhalla2] Pk. ricchabhalla—, acchabhalla—, acchahalla— m., M. āsval, as°, āsvīl, as°, āsol m., Ko. ā̃svel f.
2449 *r̥jutama— ‘very straight’. [√r̥jú—] Ash. uzƏm e ‘straight’, Wg. üǰǘmƏ (NTS ii 246 < r̥jiman—?). R̥ÑJ ‘straighten’: r̥jú—, r̥ñjáti.
2452 *r̥ṇāyika— ‘indebted’. [r̥ṇá—] Pa. iṇāyika— ‘in debt’, m. ‘creditor’; L. riṇṇāī ‘in- debted’.
2454 *r̥tuvanta—, r̥tvanta— m. ‘end of the (rainy?) season’ Mn. [Cf. ánta r̥tū́nāṁ hēmantáḥ ŚBr.: r̥tú—, ánta—] K. wanda m. ‘winter’, °das, wȧndi ‘in winter’ (Mor- genstierne). r̥tvanta— see prec. r̥ddha— see r̥dháti.
2459 *r̥ṣabhadr̥ti— ‘oxhide’. [r̥ṣabhá—, dŕ̥ti—] Kho. (Lor.) r e ṣuīri, °ṣīri.
2477 *ēkavr̥tta—, ēkavŕ̥t— ‘simple’ AV. [ḗka—, vr̥t2] N. yeuṭā ‘one’.
2482 *ēkāṁsa— ‘on one shoulder’. 2. With —kk—. [ḗka—, áṁsa—] 1. Pa. ēkaṁsa— ‘on one shoulder (of a dress)’. 2. Si. ekas ‘being on one side’.
2484 *ēkāṇḍin—, ēkāṇḍa— ‘having one testicle only (of a horse)’. [ḗka—, āṇḍá—] M. ekā̃ḍyā ‘having a scrotum without visible division (inauspicious in a horse)’.
2490 *ēkāśana— ‘having one meal’. 2. With —kk—. [ḗka—, áśana—] 1. Pk. ēgāsaṇa— n. ‘a partic. sort of vow’. 2. S. ekahaṇo ‘eating only one meal a day’; G. ekāsṇũ n. ‘eating only once a day’.
2492 *ēkāhika— ‘having interval of one day’. 2. With —kk—. [ēkāhá— m. ‘ceremony lasting one day’ ŚBr., ‘period of one day’ Pāṇ., Pa. ēkāha— m., Pk. ēgāha— m.n.: ḗka—, áhar—] 1. Pa. ēkāhika— ‘lasting one day’, Pk. ēgāhiya— ‘risen in one day, having an interval of one day (of fever)’. 2. A. ekaiyā ‘returning every third day, tertian (of fever)’; Or. ekuā ‘daily (of fever)’.
2503 *ēkkaculla— ‘stove with one opening’. [*ēkka—, culli—] Mth. (WTirhut) ekaulhā ‘fireplace with one orifice’ (ETirhut) kaulhā.
2504 *ēkkadhārā— ‘a single edge or fold’. [*ēkka—, dhārā2] P. akahr f. ‘first ploughing’, akahrā, °rī ‘single—fold’; N. ekohoro ‘single—fold’.
2505 *ēkkapārśva— ‘on one side’. [*ēkka—, pārśvá—] P. ekvāssī f. ‘bread baked on one side only’; M. ekos, ekośı̄̃ adv. ‘off the main road’.
2506 *ēkkala— ‘alone’. 2. *ēkkalla—. [ēkala— ChUp.: ḗka—] 1. Shum. yekula ‘alone’, Gaw. yēkulɔ́; Or. ekaḷa, °ḷā ‘single, sole’. 2. Pk. ekkalla—, °aya—, ikkilla— ‘alone’, L. ikalla, kallhā, P. akall, ikallā, ak°, ludh. kallā, WPah. bhal. e k e llho, cam. killā, Garh. ekkulā, ik°, Ku. yaklo, ik°, N. eklo, ekal— in cmpd., A. akal, B. ekalā, Or. ekalā, ẽklā, OMth. ekala, H. ekal, akelā, ikallā, akillā, OG. ekalaü, G. ekla, eklũ, M. eklā, Si. ekalā. *ēkkalaputra—.
2507 *ēkkalaputra— ‘only son’. [Cf. ēkaputra—: *ēkkala—, putrá—] P. iklauttā ‘only begotten’, m. ‘only son’, H. eklautā, ik°, iklaũtā m.
2508 *ēkkavandhyā— ‘barren except for one’. [*ēkka—, vandhya—] Bi. ekaũj ‘woman with only one child’.
2509 *ēkkavartin— ‘living alone’. [*ēkka—, vartin—] Or. ekuṭiā ‘solitary’.
2510 *ēkkasara— ‘having one fold’. [*ēkka—, *sarā2] N. eksaro ‘single’; MB. ekasara ‘alone’ (ODBL 700 < sará1); G. eksarī f. ‘necklace with one string’.
2513 *ētadbandhuka— ‘of this kind’. [ēṣá1, bandhu1] Si. eban̆du ‘such like’?
2518 *ēraṇḍataila— ‘castor—oil’. [ēraṇḍa—, tailá—] M. ērãḍel n.; — or perh. a M. formation after other cmpds. with —taila—.
2519 *ēraṇḍaphullikā— ‘castor—oil plant’. [ēraṇḍa—, phulla—] L. harnôlī, awāṇ. °naulī f.
2525 *ēva— 2 ‘one’. [Cf. Av. aēva— &c.] Kt. Wg. ew ‘one’ NTS xiii 233, but prob. < ḗka—. *ēvamdaśa.
2526 *ēvaṁdaśa ‘eleven’. [Cf. Av. aēvandasa: *ēva—2, daśá] Kt. yanīċ, Ash. ċänīs NTS xiii 233, but prob. < *ēkaṁdaśa—.
2532 *ēssaru— ‘an edible berry’. P. esar m. ‘Rubus rotundifolius’; Ku. aselu, hisālu ‘blackberry’; N. aselu, ais° ‘name of various edible berries’.
2538 *ōkk— ‘vomit’. 2. *ōgg—. 3. *vākk—. [Onom.] 1. Pk. okkia— ‘vomited’; S. okaṇu ‘to vomit’, oka f. ‘vomiting’, Ku. okāṇo, N. okāunu, Or. okibā, uk°, okā, uk°, H. ok f., G. ɔkvũ, ɔki f., M. okṇẽ, ok f. — Ext. with —ār—: S. okāraṇu ‘to retch’, Or. okāribā, uk°; G. ɔkārī f. ‘vomiting, vomit’; M. okārā m. ‘retching’, Si. okkāraya. — A. okāliba ‘to eject from the mouth, retch’, Or. ukāḷibā, ok° ‘to vomit’ < utkālayati s.v. *utkalati influenced semant. at least by *ōkk—. 2. S. oǥaṇu ‘to vomit’. 3. N. wāk wāk garnu ‘to vomit’, wākāunu; B. oāk ‘retching’. *ōgg— ‘vomit’ see prec. Addenda: *ōkk— ‘vomit’. [~ Drav. DED 866]
2539 *ōggara— ‘gruel’. [← Turk. ögrä, ükrä, üg° ‘soup’ Brockelmann Mitteltürk. Wb. 235, ‘vermicelli’ Radloff Vergl. Wb. i 1813] Pk. oggara— m. ‘a kind of rice or grain’; P. ogrā m. ‘thick rice water’; Ku. ogro, wag° ‘gruel of rice and pulse as a sick diet’; H. ogrā, oghrā m. ‘a mixed dish, gruel, pottage’. ōgha— see aughá—.
2540 *ōccha— ‘small, thin, mean’. Pk. uccha— ‘low, mean’; Dm. ū́čha, ū́ča ‘little’; Kal. učı̄́k ‘light (of weight)’; Phal. účo ‘a little’; S. ocho ‘paltry, mean’, L. (Shahpur) ochā, awāṇ. hochā; P. ochā ‘light, vain, absurd’; WPah. bhal. hoccho ‘mean, low’; Ku. occho, wac° ‘mean, contemptible, arrogant’; Or. ocha ‘small, mean, exhausted’; Bhoj. ōch ‘mean’; H. ochā ‘empty, small, silly’; OG. uchaü ‘less’, G. ochũ ‘deficient, inferior’; M. os ‘desolate, depopulated’, osā m. ‘empty space in a cornfield’; — M. otsā light, mean, deficient’ ← H. or G. Addenda: *ōccha— [~ *hōccha— Add2; cf. WPah.kṭg. ókkhɔ ‘small’ ~ *hōkkha— Add2]: S.kcch. ochū̃ keṇū ‘to lessen’.
2542 *ōjjhalla— ‘shade, screen, veil’. P. ojhal f. ‘privacy, retirement’; N. ojhyāl, ojel ‘shadow, shade, shades of night’; H. ojhal ‘screened’, f. ‘screen, shelter, concealment’; G. ɔjhal f. ‘veil, curtain, cover’, ɔjhāṛi f. ‘shade’, ɔjhaṭ m. ‘shadow’; — Gy. eur. učhal, wel. učal m. ‘shade’ prob. < *avacchāda—.
2544 *ōṭṭā— ‘shelter, screen’. 2. *ōttā—, which is therefore prob. not < *apagupta— or *avag°. 3. *ōḍḍā—. [Poss. further conn. with *ōḍḍh— ‘dress, cover’, but to be separated from forms < *apaghaṭya—, °ghāṭa—, °ghāṭayati] 1. S. oṭa f. ‘protection, shelter’; L. P. oṭ f. ‘support, shelter’; Ku. woṭ ‘shade’; H. oṭ f. ‘obstruction’, oṭal f. ‘screen’, oṭnā ‘to cover, screen’; G. oṭ f. ‘curtain, partition’, oṭlī f., °lɔ m. ‘veranda, porch, raised platform to sit on’; M. oṭī f. ‘veranda or unwalled space in front of or behind central space’, oṭā m. ‘parapet along terrace, raised mass of earth or bricks’. 2. N. ot ‘shelter’; B. ot ‘screen, shield, ambush’, ote ‘secretly’; OMth. ota ‘screen, shelter’. 3. G. oḍ f., oḍɔ m. ‘curtain to stop draught’ (bec. of , not , conn. unlikely with apaṭī— f. ‘screen of cloth’ lex. or *avavr̥ta—, Pa. ōvaṭa— ‘obstructed’). Addenda: *ōṭṭā—. 2. *ōḍḍā—: S.kcch. oḍāṇū ‘to shut (the eyes)’. *ōḍḍā— ‘screen’ see *ōṭṭā— Add2.
2545 *ōḍā— ‘furrow’. [Conn. with ṓḍha— ‘driven near’ ŚBr. very doubtful] S. oṛa f. ‘drawn line, furrow’; L. ōṛ, pl. ōṛã f. ‘furrow’, P. oṛ f., Or. oṛibā ‘to plough a field once’, oṛe cāsa ‘one ploughing’.
2547 *ōḍḍh— ‘put on, wear, cover’. [← Drav. cf. Tam. uṭu—, Kan. uḍu— ‘to dress’, Tel. uḍupu ‘dress’ (though ac. to T. Burrow BSOAS xii 134 < *cuṭu). The forms of all languages (except Tir., see below) must or may contain —ḍḍh—: conn. therefore with váhati ‘wears clothes’ Mr̥cch. (vṓḍhum LM 302) is unlikely.] Pk. oḍḍhigā—, uḍḍhiyā— f. ‘blanket for wearing’, oḍḍhaṇa— n. ‘cloak’, ōyaḍḍhī—, °iyā— f.; Gy. eur. uryel ‘puts on, wears’, germ. wel. riv— tr. and intr. orig. a causative from uri—; Dm. ōŕ ‘scabbard’; K. wuḍiñ f. ‘mantle’; S. oḍhaṇu ‘to spread clothes over, put on’, oḍhiṇī f. ‘mantle’; L. oḍhṇā m. ‘shoulder—wrap’, oḍhur m., loc. —ir ‘screen’; P. uḍhāuṇā ‘to cause to be worn’, oḍhṇī f. ‘small sheet, woman's veil’; Ku. oṛhṇo ‘to wear’, waṛhoṇo ‘to clothe’, gng. oṛīṇ ‘covering cloth’; N. oṛnu ‘to put on’, oṛāunu ‘to cover up’; A. uriba ‘to put on clothes’, orani, oronā ‘veil’; B. oṛ ‘pillowcase’ (ODBL 329 wrongly < avavēṣṭ—), uṛani, uṛuni ‘sheet worn as a cloak’, oṛnā ‘veil’; Or. oṛhibā, uṛh° ‘to wear’, oṛhaṇī, uṛh° ‘flowing upper garment’, oṛhaṇa, °ṇā, uṛaṇā ‘veil’; OMth. oṛhana ‘wrapper’, Bhoj. Aw. lakh. oṛhanā ‘mantle’; H. oṛhnā ‘to cover’, caus. uṛhānā, oṛhan m. ‘shield’, oṛhnī f. ‘sheet’; OMarw. auḍhaï ‘covers’ (au spelling for o?); OG. uḍhiu ‘spread over’, uḍhaṇauṁ n. ‘covering sheet’, G. oḍhvũ, oḍ° ‘to put on’, caus. oḍhāvvũ, oḍhɔ m. ‘cloth covering’, oḍhṇī f., °ṇũ n. ‘girl's upper garment’; M. oḍaṇ n. ‘shield’, oḍhṇī f. ‘shawl worn by women over head and shoulders’; — Si. uḍe ‘breeches (worn under cloth)’ perh. direct ← Tam. — Pk. ūḍhiaya— ‘covered’ and Tir. uṛiem ‘I put on clothes’ (though with < —ḍh— not —ḍḍh— AO xii 176) belong here rather than < ūḍhá—. — Paš. oṛ— ‘to twist, plait, braid’ despite IIFL iii 3, 17 < upavēṣṭayati. Addenda: *ōḍḍh— ‘cover’: Brj. uṛhnā̃ m.pl. ‘clothes’.
2548 *ōḍḍhara— ‘cave, hiding place’. L. oḍhur m. ‘screen’, oḍhir adv. ‘out of sight’ < *ōḍḍharē; Ku. uṛiyār ‘cave, den, hole’, N. oṛhyār, oṛer.
2554 *ōdra— or *audra— ‘wet’. 2. ōlla— 2 lex. [√ud 2] 1. Pk. odda— ‘wet’; A. odā ‘half dried or roasted (of grain), untempered (of metals)’; B. oda, odā ‘wet, damp’; Or. oda ‘wetness’, odā ‘wet, damp’; H. od m. ‘wetness’, odā ‘wet’. — All poss. < ṓdman— esp. in view of the substantives of Or. H. 2. Pk. olla— ‘wet’, °laï ‘wets’; H. ol ‘wet, damp’; M. ol n.f. ‘dampness’, olā ‘wet, fresh, green’, olaviṇẽ to ‘moisten’; Ko. vallẽ ‘wet’.
2556 *ōpp— ‘polish’. Pk. oppa— ‘rubbed, polished’, °pā— f. ‘polishing jewels’, °pia— ‘polished’; Or. upibā ‘to polish’; Bi. ŏpnī ‘jeweller's polishing stone’; H. opnā ‘to polish’, op f. ‘lustre’; G. opvũ ‘to polish, bleach, gild’, op m. ‘polish’; M. opṇẽ ‘to be bleached’, opaviṇẽ ‘to polish’, op m. ‘polish’; Si. opa ‘lustre, polish’.
2557 *ōmbāl— ‘immerse’. Pk. oṁbālaï ‘dips, covers’, °lia—; M. õ;baḷṇẽ, omaḷ° ‘to dip and wring, wash slightly’. ōla— see next.
2560 *ōllanī— ‘spiced milk’. Pk. ollaṇī f. ‘curds seasoned with cinnamon &c.’; N. olan ‘milk and curds, allowance of milk for shepherds’. Addenda: *ōllanī— ‘spiced milk’: WPah.Wkc. olƏṇ ‘a partic. sauce or soup’, J. olaṇ m. ‘soup of cooked pulse’.
2578 *kaṁsāra— ‘sweetmeat’. Pk. kaṁsāra—, kas° m., kās° n. ‘a kind of sweet’, S. kasāru m.; P. kasār m. ‘a sweet of flour, sugar, ghee and spices given at parturition’; N. kasār ‘sweet of sugar and powdered fried rice given at marriage and in- vestiture ceremonies’; B. H. kasār m. ‘a kind of sweet’; G. kãsār, kans°, kas° m. ‘a sweet of wheat flour and molasses’.
2579 *kaṁsāvatī— ‘name of a river’. [kaṁsá1?] B. kā̃sāi ‘name of a river in WBengal by Midnapore’; Or. kā̃sāi ‘name of a river in Bāleśvara district (= Kaṁ- sābatī)’. *kaṁsikā— ‘small cup’ see kaṁsá1. kakāṭikā— see kŕ̥kāṭa—.
2582 *kakudiṣṭha— ‘on the hump’. [For formation cf. *kākutstha—: loc. sg. kakúd—, stha—] Kal. rumb. kōiṣṭ ‘hump’.
2583 *kakudha— ‘hump’. 2. ‘The tree Terminalia arjuna’. [kákuda— X kakubhá—] 1. Pa. kakudha— m. ‘bull's hump, cock's comb’; Pk. kakudha—, °uha—, kaüha— m.n. ‘bull's hump, peak of mountain’; S. kūho m. ‘bullock's hump’; H. kauhā m. piece of wood supporting ridgepole; Si. kiyāva ‘bullock's hump’. — Ext. with l: M. kohḷẽ, °hāḷẽ, °hoḷẽ n. ‘bullock's hump’; — with obscure elements: S. kūhaṭu; L. kohāṭ m. (?) f., kohā̃ḍ f. ‘camel's hump’, P. kuhān. 2. Pa. kakudha— m. ‘Terminalia arjuna’, H. kauh m.
2590 *kakṣapaṭṭa— ‘loincloth’. [Cf. kakṣāpaṭa— m. Pañcat. :kákṣa—1, paṭṭa2] Pk. kacchaṭṭī—, °chuṭṭiyā—, °chōṭī f.; L. kachvaṭṭī f. ‘gusset’; P. kachoṭā m. ‘loincloth’, A. kasṭā, kāsuṭi, Or. kāchaṭā, °ṭi, H. kachauṭī f., G. kachɔṭɔ m., °ṭī f.; M. kasoṭā m. ‘tuck or end of dhoti’. Addenda: *kakṣapaṭṭa—: A. also kāchuṭi (phonet. kasuti) ‘hem of a lower garment’ AFD 217.
2591 *kakṣapuṭī, kakṣapuṭa— m. ‘armpit’ as title of a work. [kákṣa—1, puṭa—] S. kachuṛi f. ‘flank below armpit’.
2593 *kakṣyānta— ‘near the armpit’. [kakṣya—, ánta—] Wg. kačā̃t ‘near’, kačant—kṓw ‘armpit’ NTS xvii 264.
2594 *kakṣyāpōkka— ‘girdle bag?’. [kakṣya—, *pōkka—] Wg. kačƏvɔ̄́k, kočṓk ‘coat, mantle’, (Lumsden) "kuchok" ‘bag’ NTS xvii 264. KAKH see √khakkh.
2599 *kaṅkatakara— ‘comb—maker’. [káṅkata—, kará1] H. kãgherā m. ‘caste of comb—makers’, °rī f. ‘a woman of this caste’.
2600 *kaṅkataśikha— ‘comb—crested’. [káṅkata—, śíkhā—] WPah. khaś. kāgśī, śeu. kāśkī ‘a comb—like fern’, or < *kaṅkaśa— s.v. káṅkata—.
2604 *kaṅkāla— 2 ‘poor, miserable’. [Poss. same as kaṅkāla1 which in Pa. has a for ā, as in kaṅkara2] Kho. (Lor.) k *l ṅgāl ‘stupid, lazy, hard of hearing’; K. kangāl, L. kaṅgāl ‘poor’; P. kaṅgāl m. ‘beggar’ (→ H. kãgāl, °lī ‘poor’, f. ‘poverty’; B. kāṅgāl, °gāli ‘poor’, Or. kāṅgāḷa, kaṅgāḷi, OMarw. kaṅgāla, G. kãgāḷ, M. kãgāl); WPah. bhal. káṅkāl ‘poor’, Ku. gng. kaṅāw, N. kaṅgāl, °li; M. kãkāḷā ‘cruel’.
2606 *kaṅkunī— ‘a panic grain’. 2. kaṅgunī— f. ‘Celastrus paniculatus’ Bhpr. 3. *ṭaṅgunī—. [kaṅku—] 1. Paš. kaṅgunī ‘millet’, K. kangnī ‘the millet Setaria italica’, S. kaṅgiṇī f. ‘the millet Panicum italicum’, P. kaṅgaṇ m., °ṇī f., H. kākun, °kan m., kā̃kunī f. 2. WPah. bhal. kōṇī f. ‘a minute rice—like grain eaten by birds’ (< *kaṅuṇī?); Ku. kauṇī ‘millet’, N. kā̃guni, kāg°, kāũni, kāgunu, kāṅni, kāmni, Bi. (SMunger) kāun, °nī, H. kā̃gan m., kā̃gnī, kãg f., M. kā̃guṇī, °goṇī, °gṇī f. 3. Pa. —ḍaṅgula— (< *ṭaṅguna— E. H. Johnston JRAS 1931, 585); Bi. (Gaya) ṭā̃gun ‘Setaria italica, Panicum italicum’, (SW) ṭãgunī. *kāṅkunikā—; *kaṅgunītaila—. Addenda: *kaṅkunī—. 4. †;*kāgunī—: WPah.kc. kauṇe f. ‘millet’, kṭg. kauṇi f., J. kauṇī f., bhal. kōṇī f., N. kāuni, Bi. kāun Him.I 14 (but rather dissim. < *kā̃gunī, *kāṅunī as in N. kāũni). †;KAC ‘pull, fasten, tie’: †;*kacyatē.
2608 *kaṅgunītaila— ‘oil made from the millet Panicum italicum’. [*kaṅkunī—, tailá—] M. kā̃gṇel n.
2610 *kacc— 1 ‘pull’. [Cf. kácatē ‘fastens’ Dhātup., kacākaci ‘mutual pulling of hair’ MBh., kaca— m. ‘band, hem’ lex., ‘hair of head’ Kālid., kacēla— m. ‘string holding manuscript leaves together’ lex.] A. kasiba ‘to draw tight’, B. kac ‘a tying, bond’ (← Sk.?), kacā ‘to test’ (semant. cf. M. kaḍasṇī ‘binding rope ~ investigation’); Or. kacibā ‘to masturbate’. — Ext. with —akka—: H. kacaknā ‘to be sprained, be jerked’; G. kacakvũ ‘to bind tightly’; M. kaċakṇẽ ‘to pull smartly, jerk’, kaċkāviṇẽ ‘to bind tightly’.
2611 *kacc— 2 ‘crush, press’. Pk. kaccaṁta— ‘being pressed’; N. kacāk—kucuk ‘crushed (of paper)’, kac—pac ‘hotch—potch’; H. kacākac ‘densely crowded’, kac—pac f. ‘hotch—potch’; G. kacarvũ ‘to press’, kac—pac f. ‘crowd of noisy little boys’.
2612 *kacc— 3 ‘restless’. [Cf. kácati ‘shouts’ Vop., but perh. same as *kacc2] Ku. kackacāṭ ‘quarrelling’; N. kackac ‘constant grumbling’, kacmac ‘disturbed (of sleep)’; A. kaskasni ‘restlessness’, Or. kacakaca, H. kackac f.; G. kac f. ‘brawl’, kaciyārɔ m. ‘troop of discontented children’, kackac f. ‘restlessness’, M. kaċkaċ f.
2613 *kacca— 1 ‘raw, unripe’. Sh. (Lor.) kačo, kha° ‘bad’; K. kocu ‘unripe, raw, imperfect’ (← Ind. with c); S. kaco ‘raw’, L. kaccā ‘unripe, incomplete’; P. kaccā ‘raw, unbaked’ (→ H. M. kaccā); WPah. bhal. kaċċo ‘raw’; Ku. kāco ‘unripe’; N. kāco, kā̃co ‘unripe, uncooked’; A. kā̃si ‘new (of moon)’; B. kā̃cā ‘raw, unripe’, Or. kācā, kacā, kañcā, Mth. kā̃c, °ce, Aw. lakh. kācā, H. kāc, °cā, kā̃c, °cā, G. kācũ, M. kāċā. *kacca— 2 ‘mud’ see *kicca— and kaccara1. Addenda: *kacca—1: S.kcch. kaco ‘unripe, raw’; WPah.kṭg. kaċɔ. — + intensive †;niṣ—: OP. nikaccu ‘utterly imperfect’ C. Shackle.
2614 *kaccapūra— ‘a wheaten cake’. [pūra2 with?] S. kacorī f. ‘wheaten sweetmeat’, L. kacôrī f., P. kacorī f. ‘cake of wheaten pastry’; N. kacauri ‘cake of sugar and white flour’; B. Or. kacuri ‘wheaten pastry stuffed with pulse’, H. kacaurī f.; G. kacorī f. ‘wheaten sweetmeat’, M. kaċorī f. Addenda: *kaccapūra—: WPah.kṭg. kƏċɔru m. ‘small pie or wafer’.
2616 *kaccōla— ‘cup’. [Cf. *kaṭṭōra—] Pk. kaccōla—, °aya— m. ‘cup’; Bi. kacorā ‘vessel for eating from with a projecting base’ (→ N. kacaurā ‘cup’, °ri ‘small do.’); M. kaċoḷ, °ḷẽ n. ‘little metal vessel to hold rice’.
2617 *kacch— ‘measure’. S. kachaṇu ‘to measure’, kāchu m. ‘land—measurer’, °cho m. ‘measure, size’; L. kacchaṇ ‘to measure by length’; P. kacchṇā ‘to measure (esp. land)’, kacch, kācch f. ‘measurement of a field’.
2623 *kajjalakōṣṭha— ‘lamp—black container’. [kajjala—, kṓṣṭha—] P. kajlōṭhī f. ‘pot in which lamp—black is kept’.
2624 *kajjalavarta— ‘round collyrium container’. [kajjala—, *varta2] N. gajrauṭo ‘small pot for collyrium’, (Tarai) kaj°, Bi. kajrauṭā. °ṭī, H. kajlauṭī f. *kajvala— ‘firefly’ see khadyōta—.
2626 *kañcu— ‘skin of a snake’. 2. kañcuka— m. ‘corselet, jacket’ R., ‘snake's slough’ Pañcat., ‘husk’ BhP. [Poss. ← Mu. Kuiper AO xvi 307, EWA i 140] 1. Pk. kaṁcu— m. ‘snake's slough, woman's bodice’; L. awāṇ. kuñj ‘snake's slough’, P. kañj, kuñj f., WPah. khaś. sap—koċ, śeu. sap—coc, 1. rudh. sap—ganj̈, marm. sap—kos. 2. Pa. kañcuka— m. ‘snake's slough, bodice, armour’, Pk. kaṁcua— m.; N. kā̃jo ‘band of metal round joint of a khukri’; H. kā̃cū, kãcuwā m. ‘bodice, shirt’; M. kā̃ċvā m. ‘a sort of waistcoat’. kañculī—. Addenda: kañcu—. 2. kañcuka—: OMarw. kaṁcū m. ‘bodice’. kañcuka— see kañcu— Add2.
2633 *kaṭacchu—, kaḍacchaka— m. ‘ladle’ MW. Pa. kaṭacchu— m. ‘ladle, spoon’, °uka— adj.; Pk. kaḍacchu— f. ‘ladle’, kaḍucchu— m.f., °chuya—, °chaya- m.; K. kroċhu m. ‘long—handled iron stoking shovel’, krüċhü f. ‘cooking ladle’; S. kaṛchu m., °chī f., kaṇchu m., °chī f. ‘iron ladle’, L. awāṇ. kaṛchī, P. kaṛach, kaṛchā m., °chī f., WPah. bhal. kaṛċhī f.; Mth. (NETirhut) karuch ‘confectioner's spoon’; H. kaṛchā m., °chī f., karchā m. ‘iron ladle’, G. kaṛchɔ m., °chī f.; M. kaḍcī f. ‘small boiler or saucepan’, karchā m. ‘flat ladle’ (both ← H.?); Si. keṇesi ‘spoon’ Hettiaratchi Indeclinables 6. - Ext. with —l—: Ku. karchulo ‘stirring spoon’ (← Bi. or EH.); N. karchul ‘ladle’, A. karsali, Bi. karchul, H. karchul, °chal f. — X kaláśa—: Bi. (SW) kalus ‘iron spoon’, (Shahabad) kaluch, kalchā, (Saran) kalchul, (Patna) kalchulā (or dissim. < karchul &c.?), Aw. lakh. kalchul, H. kalchā m., °chī f., kalchul f., °lā m. *dhūmakaṭacchu—. Addenda: kaṭacchu— ‘ladle’ VarBr̥S.: S.kcch. kachī f. ‘ladle’.
2634 *kaṭabandhana— ‘belt’. [Cf. kaṭibandha— m. lex.: kaṭi—, bándhana—] N. kardhani, kandh° ‘belt supporting the loincloth’ (ND 72 b 23 wrongly < *kaṭidharaṇa—); Bi. kardhan, °nī ‘chain hung round waist’; Mth. karadhanī ‘girdle’; OH. kaũdhanī, kaudh° f. ‘belt’, H. kardhanī, kandh° f.
2635 *kaṭavr̥tti— ‘turning on one's side’. [kaṭi—, vr̥tti—] Mth. karauṭ ‘act of lying on the side or arm’; H. karwaṭ °wãṭ, karaũṭ f. ‘position of sleeping on one's arm or side’ with EH. r < ——.
2637 *kaṭāṅka— ‘bracelet’. [káṭa—1, aṅká—] Wg. křää̃kī, křōk ‘bracelet’ (NTS xvii 268 < káṭaka—); Paš. ar. kā̃ṛagṓ ‘armring’ IIFL iii 3, 94.
2640 *kaṭibhāga— ‘region of the waist’. [kaṭi—, bhāgá—] Aw. lakh. karihā̃u ‘loins’; OH. karihā̃wa, °hā̃ m. ‘waist, loins’, H. karhā, °hānā n.; — does not account for ā̃ of Aw. and OH.: *kaṭidhāman— though phonet. better is not semant. so satisfactory.
2644 *kaṭṭ— ‘sound or result of striking’. [Cf. kaṭakaṭā] N. kaṭkaṭi ‘pain’; B. kaṭkaṭ ‘sound of striking’; Or. kaṭakaṭa ‘sharp pain’; H. kaṭkaṭī f. ‘grinding the teeth, trouble’; G. kaṭkaṭ f. ‘teasing’; M. kaṭkaṭṇẽ ‘to cackle, fret’, kaṭkaṭ f. ‘teasing’. *kaṭṭa— 1 ‘dregs’ see kiṭṭa—.
2645 *kaṭṭa— 2 ‘young male animal’. [Cf. kaṭāha2 m. ‘young male buffalo with horns just appearing’ prob. ← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 368; *kaḍḍa—, *kēṭṭa—] Gaw. kaṭái ‘buffalo calf’, Bshk. kaṭṓr, Sh. (Lor.) k *l tu (?); K. kaṭh, dat. °ṭas m. ‘ram, sheep in general, (con- temptuous) son’; L. kaṭṭā m., °ṭī f. ‘buffalo calf’; P. kaṭṭā m., °ṭī f. ‘yearling buffalo’, kaṭṭū m. ‘young buffalo bull’, kaṭṛā m., °ṛī f. ‘young buffalo’; WPah. khaś. rudh. marm. kaṭṛu ‘buffalo calf’, bhal. kaṭṭā m., °ṭī f. ‘buffalo calf’, kaṭru n. ‘bear cub’; Ku. kāṭo ‘young buffalo bull’, kaṭyāro ‘young buffalo’; H. kaṭiyā f. ‘buffalo heifer’, kaṭrā m. ‘buffalo calf’, kaṭhṛā m. ‘young buffalo bull’; — WPah. bhal. sakaṭṭ f. ‘she—bear with young’ prob. WPah. cmpd.
2646 *kaṭṭakūṭa— ‘heap of dross’. [*kaṭṭa1 s.v. kiṭṭa—, kūṭa1] G. kāṭɔṛɔ m. ‘dross left in the furnace after smelting iron ore’.
2647 *kaṭṭājya— ‘flock of rams’. [*kaṭṭa—2, *ajya—]. K. kaṭüzü f. kaṭṭāraka— see *kartāra—.
2648 *kaṭṭōra— ‘cup’. [kaṭōra— m. lex., cf. karōṭi—, *kac- cōla—] Pk. kaṭṭōraga— m. ‘cup’, S. kaṭoro m.; L. kaṭorī f. ‘small open—mouthed cup’, P. kaṭorā m., °rī f.; WPah. bhal. kaṭori f. ‘the cup holding charcoal in a hookah’; B. kaṭorā ‘cup’, Or. kaṭora, °rā, kaṭarā; Bi. kaṭorā ‘flat dish for eating from’; OMth. kaṭora ‘cup’, H. kaṭorā m., °rī f., G. kaṭorɔ m., °rī f., M. kaṭorā m.
2652 *kaḍappa— ‘collection’. [Like kalāpa— ← Drav.] Pk. kaḍappa— m. ‘collection, bundle’; G. kaṛap m. ‘a few handfuls of plants &c. uprooted and thrown together to dry for making into bundles’, kaṛaplũ n. ‘small do.’, kaṛab n. ‘dried stalks of millet &c. used as fodder’; M. kaḍap n. ‘bundle of gram &c. picked for drying before stacking’.
2658 *kaḍḍa— ‘young male animal’. [Cf. *kaṭṭa—2, *kēṭṭa—, *pāḍḍa—] Or. kaṛā ‘castrated male buffalo’, kaṛāi ‘young buffalo cow that has not calved’, kaṛhi ‘lamb that has not borne’; Bi. kāṛā m., °ṛī f. ‘buffalo calf’, H. kāṛā m. Addenda: *kaḍḍa— cf. khaḍḍu— Add2.
2659 *kaḍḍarūpa— ‘young animal’. [*kaḍḍa—, rūpá—] Bi. kaṛrū ‘buffalo calf’. *KAḌḌH ‘pull’. [Cf. *gaḍḍhati. — Generally replaces kárṣati &c. Bloch LM 229 < kr̥ṣṭá—, Pk. kaṭṭha—; but phonet. or anal. replacement of MIA. —ṭṭh— is unexpl. With alternative k— and g— prob. non—Aryan] *kaḍḍhati; *avakaḍḍhati, *ākaḍḍhati, *utkaḍḍhati, *prakaḍḍhati.
2660 *kaḍḍhati ‘pulls, draws’. [√*kaḍḍh] Pa. kaḍḍhati; Pk. kaḍḍhaï; ‘pulls, makes a line, ploughs’; Gy. germ. kār— ‘to move’; Woṭ. kaṛ— ‘to pull’, Gaw. khaṛa—; K. kaḍun ‘to pull out’, vill. karun (mis- taken imitation of city pronunciation in which r < MIA. = vill. , whereas ḍḍ > in both), rām. kāri imper., kash. kaḍi absol., S. kaḍhaṇu, L. kaḍḍhaṇ, P. kaḍḍhṇā, WPah. bhad. kaḍḍhṇū, pan. kāḍh imper., cur. kaḍḍhṇā, N. kāṛnu, A. kāṛiba, B. kāṛā, Or. kāṛibā, Mth. Aw. lakh. kāṛhab, H. kāṛhnā (whence intr. kaṛhnā ‘to be drawn’), OMarw. kāḍhaï, G. kāḍhvũ, kāḍvũ; M. kāḍhṇẽ ‘to take out’, intr. ‘to abate’; Ko. kāḍūka ‘to remove’. Addenda: kaḍḍhati: S.kcch. kaḍhṇū ‘to take out, squeeze out (juice etc.)’; A. also kāṛhiba ‘to draw, snatch away’ AFD 142, 328.
2662 *kaṇavr̥tta— ‘corn—subsistence’. [káṇa—, vr̥ttá—] G. kaṇotũ, kaṇāytũ, kaṇtũ n. ‘monthly wages paid in corn’; — cf. Pk. kaṇavitti— f. ‘alms’.
2663 *kaṇājaka— ‘grains and goat's milk’. [káṇa—, āja—] Pa. kaṇājaka— n. ‘porridge of broken rice with sour gruel’; Ku. kaṇā ‘a kind of soup of sour milk and small grains of rice’.
2664 *kaṇāli— ‘stream of grain’. [káṇa—, āli1] M. kaṇāḷī, kanā° (with dissimilation of before ) f. ‘stream of grain or water running out’.
2666 *kaṇikaśālā— ‘grain—room’. [kaṇika—, śā́lā—] Bi. (Patna) kanisār ‘parching house’, (Gaya) kansār, Mth. kansārī, (ETirhut) kanisār, kansār.
2670 *kaṇṭa— 3 ‘backbone, podex, penis’. 2. *kaṇḍa—. 3. *karaṇḍa4. (Cf. *kāṭa—2, *ḍākka2: poss. same as káṇṭa1] 1. Pa. piṭṭhi—kaṇṭaka— m. ‘bone of the spine’; Gy. eur. kanro m. ‘penis’ (or < káṇṭaka—); Tir. mar—kaṇḍḗ ‘back (of the body)’; S. kaṇḍo m. ‘back’, L. kaṇḍ f., kaṇḍā m. ‘backbone’, awāṇ. kaṇḍ, °ḍī ‘back’; P. kaṇḍ f. ‘back, pubes’; WPah. bhal. kaṇṭ f. ‘syphilis’; N. kaṇḍo ‘buttock, rump, anus’, kaṇḍeulo ‘small of the back’; B. kā̃ṭ ‘clitoris’; Or. kaṇṭi ‘handle of a plough’; H. kā̃ṭā m. ‘spine’, G. kā̃ṭɔ m., M. kā̃ṭā m.; Si. äṭa—kaṭuva ‘bone’, piṭa—k° ‘backbone’. 2. Pk. kaṁḍa— m. ‘backbone’. 3. Pk. karaṁḍa— m.n. ‘bone shaped like a bamboo’, karaṁḍuya— n. ‘backbone’. *ūrdhvakaṇṭa—. káṇṭaka— see kaṇṭa1.
2671 *kaṇṭakaraṇa— ‘hedgehog’. [kaṇṭa—1, káraṇa—] P. ludh. kãḍērnā m. ‘hedgehog’.
2677 *kaṇṭavēlli— ‘a thorny creeper’, cf. kaṇṭavalli— f. ‘Acacia concinna’ lex. [kaṇṭa—1, vēlli—] M. kā̃ṭvel, °ṭīl, °ṭlī f., °ṭlā m. ‘a wild creeper, a variety of Momordica charantia’, kā̃ṭlẽ n. ‘its fruit’.
2678 *kaṇṭāla— ‘thorny’. [kaṇṭa1] Gy. eur. karalo ‘thorny’, H. kā̃ṭār, G. kā̃ṭāḷũ.
2683 *kaṇḍa— ‘pounding’, kaṇḍīkarōti ‘pounds, brays’ Car. [√kaṇḍ 1] Pk. kaṁḍa— m. ‘piece, fragment’; Or. kaṇḍā ‘husked grain’. — Deriv. Pk. kaṁḍārēi ‘scrapes, engraves’; M. kãḍārṇẽ, karā̃ḍṇẽ ‘to gnaw’, kãḍārṇẽ n. ‘jeweller's hammer, barber's nail—parer’. káṇḍati 1 ‘threshes’ see kaṇḍáyati.
2698 *kattara— ‘useless, old, rubbish’. 2. *kattavāra—. [Just poss. comparative of kad pejorative prefix Pāṇ.; but cf. *katta— ‘dregs’, kaccara1 ‘dirty’ with same formation in Pk. kaccavāra— as 2 above; and Sk. kātara—] 1. Pa. kattara— m. ‘weak decrepit man’, kattara—ratha- ‘an old chariot’, kattara—suppa— ‘winnowing basket’; Pk. kattara— m. ‘useless grass, sweepings, rubbish’; S. kataru m. ‘husk, bran’; Ku. kātri ‘poor clothes’. 2. Pk. katavāra— m. ‘rubbish’; H. katwār m. ‘chaff, sweepings’. *kattarayaṣṭi—.
2699 *kattarayaṣṭi— ‘mendicant's staff’. [*kattara—, yaṣṭí—] Pa. kattarayaṭṭhi— f.; — Si. katuruyaṭiya ‘walking- stick’ EGS 35, but prob. either ← Pa. or a Si. cmpd. KATTH ‘boast’. [Prob. with J. Bloch IA 92 expressive form of katháyati: EWA i 149 with lit.] kátthatē, *ākattha—.
2701 *katpuṣṭaka— ‘ill—nourished’. Cf. *kadvr̥ddha—: kad, puṣṭá—] Si. kapuṭuvā, °ṭā ‘crow’ W. Geiger BSOS viii 557. KATH ‘speak’: kathana—, katháyati, kathā́—, kathānaka—, kathita—, kathyatē; — √katth.
2706 *kathāvārttā— ‘a saying’. [kathā́—, vārttā—] S. kahāta f., P. kahāut f., N. kahāwat, °āut, H. kahāwat f., G. kah e vat f. (with e from kah e vũ s.v. katháyati); — Or. kuhāta ‘halloing’?
2709 *kadaṇḍa— ‘small stick’. [ka—3, daṇḍá—] Bi. Mth. kaı̃ṛā, kẽṛā ‘a small bit of wood on a plumb- string’.
2711 *kadarikā—, kadara— m. ‘iron goad for guiding an elephant’ lex. Paš. kuṛ. kṓri ‘dagger’ < *kāri IIFL iii 3, 97 with (?).
2713 *kadaladhānikā— ‘banana bed’. [kadala—, dhā́na—] Ku. kelāṇī ‘banana orchard’, A. kalani.
2714 *kadugdha— ‘giving poor milk’. [ka—3, dugdhá—] G. kɔdũ n. ‘old buffalo—cow yielding little or no milk’; — doubtful bec. of absence of aspiration. *kadyōta— ‘firefly’ see khadyōta—.
2716 *kadvr̥ddha— ‘ill—nourished’. [Cf. *katpuṣṭaka—: kad, vr̥ddhá2] Si. kavuḍuvā ‘crow’, inscr. pl. °ḍu W. Geiger BSOS viii 557. *kana— ‘young’, kanā́— f. ‘girl’ RV. kaniṣṭhá—, kánīyas—, kanya—; *upakanīyas—.
2722 *kanthya— ‘pertaining to a wall’. [kanthā1] Kho. khanǰ ‘wall’.
2728 *kandukara— ‘worker with pans’. [kándu—, kará1] K. kā̃dar, kā̃duru dat. °daris m. ‘baker’.
2731 *kannasī— ‘file’. S. kanãhı̃ f. ‘three—cornered file for sharpening saws’; G. kānas f. ‘file, saw’; M. kānas m.f. ‘file, saw’, kānasṇẽ ‘to file’.
2738 *kanyāṅguli— ‘little finger’. [kanya—, aṅgúli—] H. kaṅguriyā f.
2741 *kapardakara— ‘worker in cowries’. [kaparda—, kará1] S. koḍ̱yaru m. ‘seller of cowries’.
2745 *kapālāgāra— n. ‘tiled house’. [kapā́la—, agāra—]. M. kaulār n. ‘tiled roof’ (less likely than a M. deriv. of kaul with LM 146).
2754 *kapōtra— ‘pigeon’. [Cf. Pahl. kapōtar: kapṓta—] K. kōtur, dat. °taras m. ‘pigeon, dove’; — prob. ← Psht. kautar. Addenda: *kapōtra—: Md. kotaru ‘pigeon’ ← Ir.?
2759 *kabbu— ‘feeble, yielding’. [Cf. kambuka— m. ‘mean person’ lex., °bū— m. ‘thief’ W., poss., with semantic equivalence ‘chaff ~ worthless’, same as kábru— n., kambū́ka— m. ‘husk of rice’ AV.] S. kaḇāiṇu ‘to shrink, yield’; N. kābu ‘cowed, terror- stricken’; B. kābū ‘feeble, prostrate’; Or. kābū ‘feeble’, kābā ‘foolish’. kábru— see prec. *kabhalla— ‘skull’ see kapā́la—. KAM ‘desire’: kānta—1, kānti—, kā́ma—, kāmín—, kā́mya—; *utkāmayatē.
2766 *kampaka— ‘shaking’. [√kamp] Pa. kampaka— ‘trembling’; Kho. kambóx ‘branch’ BelvalkarVol 91 with (?). — (Lor.) also kamboḷ ‘thick branch’ < *kampa—ṭa—?
2776 *kamra— ‘the back’. Kho. krƏm ‘the back’ (NTS ii 262 < *kūrma2 with?). *parikamra—. Addenda: *kamra— [Cf. Ir. *kamaka— or *kamraka— ‘back’ in Shgh. čůmč ‘back’, Sar. čomǰ EVSh 26]
2777 *kayañjala— ‘a partic. tree’. N. kaı̃jal, kaı̃dal ‘the small tree Bischoffia javanica (the bark of which is used as a cure of diarrhoea)’; M. kẽjaḷ m. ‘a large timber tree used for rafters &c.’.
2778 *kar— ‘cut, dig’. [Cf. *skar—] P. karolaṇā ‘to dig up with any small instrument, poke, feel with a stick’.
2786 *karañjataila— ‘oil from the karañja tree’. [kárañja—, tailá—] M. karjel n. ‘oil made from the tree Pongamia glabra’.
2789 *karaṭataila— ‘oil of safflower’. [karaṭa—2, tailá—] M. karḍel n. ‘oil from the seed of safflower’.
2798 *karabhūṣā— ‘bracelet’. [Cf. karabhūsaṇa— n. lex.: kará1—, bhūṣā—] Pa. karabhūsā— f.; Si. karabu ‘adornment’ ES 22, but prob. ← Pa.
2807 *karīṣa— 2 ‘a measure of land’. [Same as kárīṣa1, lit. ‘the amount of manure required’?] Pa. karīsa— n. ‘a measure of seed, the amount of land requiring that seed’; Si. kiriya ‘extent of ground for sowing eight bushels of rice’. Addenda: *karīṣa— 2 ‘a measure of land’. [~ Drav. DED 1057]
2808 *karīṣāsa— ‘place where dung is thrown’. [kárīṣa—1, ā́sa2] N. karā̃so ‘rubbish shoot at the back of a house, ground round a house’.
2821 *karkaramr̥ttikā— ‘stony ground’. [karkara—2, mŕ̥ttikā—] Bi. kãkrŏṭiyā ‘soil mixed with coarse gravel’.
2824 *karkuṭaka— ‘dog’. [Cf. kurkurá—] Paš. ar. pläguṛṓ, dar. l aguṛā́ ‘puppy’ IIFL 3, 141.
2826 *karkṣī— ‘accursed she—bear’. [For pejorative — with animals cf. Shughni xūrn ‘crow’ < *ku—warana— and Lith. kóvarnis ‘raven’ beside várna ‘crow’: — or ka—3, r̥kṣī—] Bshk. kä̃c̣h f. ‘she—bear’ AO xviii 239, Tor. kēṣ.
2833 *karṇakasthaka— ‘standing at the side’. [kárṇaka—, stha—] Paš. kanā́sta ‘side lintel of door frame’ IIFL iii 3, 94.
2834 *karṇakāṣṭhaka— ‘projecting piece of wood’. [kárṇa—, kāṣṭhá—] H. kaneṭhā m. ‘wooden washer at inner end of the driver's wooden seat at an oil press’.
2835 *karṇakīla— ‘projecting peg’. [kárṇa—, kīla—] Bi. kanaila ‘the outer pins which join the two bars of the yoke of the plough’, kanailī ‘stud worn in the cartilage of the ear’.
2839 *karṇapuṣya— ‘an ear—ornament’. [Cf. N. cmpd. kan- phul: kárṇa—, púṣya1] Bi. kanausī ‘a ring in the ear worn by men and boys’.
2840 *karṇamarda— ‘touching the ears as a sign of disgrace or repentance’. [Semant. cf. H. kān pakaṛnā: kárṇa—, marda—] P. kanauḍ m. ‘shame, bashfulness’, °ḍā adj.; H. kanaũḍ m. ‘shame, shyness, stigma’, °ḍā, kanaũṛā ‘ashamed, disgraced’.
2842 *karṇavaṭikā— ‘side—cord’. [kárṇa—, vaṭa2] WPah. bhal. k *l nɔṛi f. ‘knots between upper and lower parts of a snow—shoe, rope pegs to which the distaff in a spinning—wheel is attached’.
2844 *karṇavyādhikā— ‘piercing the ears’. [kárṇa—, vyādhín—] H. kanwāī f.
2846 *karṇasphōṭikā— ‘ear boil’. [kárṇa—, sphōṭa2] Ku. gng. kanphoṛi.
2847 *karṇākṣi— ‘side—glance’. [kárṇa—, ákṣi—] Mth. kanakhī, H. kanakhī, kankhī f., kanā̃khī (infl. by ā̃khī).
2853 *karta— 3 ‘knife’. [Cf. Av. karƏta—, °ti— ‘knife’: √kr̥t 1] B. kāti ‘shell—cutter's saw’, kātān ‘large sacrificial knife’; Or. katā ‘small billhook’, kātī ‘knife’; Bi. Mth. kāt ‘brazier's cutters’; H. kāt m. ‘shears for shearing sheep, cock's spur’, °tā m. ‘knife for cutting bamboos’, (kattā m. ‘small curved sword’, kattī f. ‘knife’, kaṭṭī f. ‘small sword’ ← EP.); G. kātũ n. ‘knife’, °tī f. ‘knife, saw’; M. kātī f. ‘cleaver’. — Or < *kārti—.
2855 *kartati 2 ‘spins’. [New formation (cf. kartana2) re- placing kr̥ṇátti, *kr̥ntati2: √kr̥t 2] Pk. kattaï ‘spins’, Gy. eur. kat—, Sh. kaṭóĭki̯, K. katun, S. kataṇu, L. kattaṇ, P. kattṇā, WPah. bhal. kattṇū, Ku. kātṇo, N. kātnu, A. kāṭiba, B. kāṭā, H. kātnā, OMarw. kātaï, Si. kaṭinavā. — X gupháti q.v. Addenda: *kartati2: S.kcch. katṇū ‘to spin’, WPah.kṭg. (kc.) katṇõ;.
2860 *karttāra— ‘knife’, kaṭṭāraka— m. Rājat. [From acc. of karttr̥—1: √kr̥t 1] Pk. kaṭṭārī— f., °raya— n. ‘knife’; Ash. katarä́ ‘dagger’, Pr. kátƏrƏ (Kt. kṭå m., Wg. kaṭā́ NTS xvii 270, rather < *karta3); Dm. kaṭēr ‘dagger’, °rī ‘small do.’; Tir. katā́ri ‘knife’ (← Ind. or Psht. AO xii 182); Paš. kā́ṭare ‘spear’ IIFL iii 3, 101; Gaw. kaṭā́ro ‘large knife’, muṣ—kaṭā́rī ‘dagger’, Kal. katā́r; Kho. (Lor.) kutér ‘knife, dagger’; Bshk. kāṭ e r ‘knife’ AO xviii 239, Sv. kaṭā́rēi; Phal. kaṭōro m. ‘dagger’; Sh. koh. gur. kaṭār f., (Lor.) katāro ‘long knife’ (?), gil. khaṭār f., khăṭa̯ru̯ m. ‘knife’ (with unexpl. kh—), S. kaṭāro m.; P. kaṭār f. ‘dagger’, °rā m. ‘large do.’, °rī f. ‘small do.’, Ku. kaṭāri , °rī, N. kaṭār, °ri, A. kaṭārī; B. kāṭār ‘dagger’, °ri ‘bill- hook’, kātāri ‘shears’; Or. kaṭār ‘dagger’, °rī ‘khukri’, °ra ‘chopper, billhook’, kātāri ‘goldsmith's scissors’; Mth. kaṭār ‘dagger’, Bhoj. kaṭārī, H. kaṭār m., °rī f.; OMarw. kaṭāri f. ‘knife’; G. kaṭār, °rī f. ‘dagger’, M. kaṭār f. *cullīkarttāra—. karttr̥— 1 m. ‘one who cuts’. [√kr̥t 1] *karttāra—, karttr̥kā—; śilākarttr̥—. Addenda: *karttāra—: S.kcch. kaṭār f. ‘dagger’, WPah.kṭg. kƏṭār m.
2865 *kartyakāṣṭha— ‘wood for cutting’. [kartya—, kāṣṭhá—] N. kacyāṭ, kacceṭ ‘firewood ready cut up’.
2866 *kartyā— ‘knife’. 2. *kr̥tyā—. [Cf. kr̥tí2 and Psht. čāṛa ‘knife’ < *kartyā— EVP 19: √kr̥t 1] 1. Sh. kačí f. ‘scissors’, K. köċü f. ‘betelnut scissors’; N. kaciyā ‘sickle’, A. kāsi, B. kāci; Or. kaciā ‘big scythe’; Bi. kaciyā ‘toothed sickle’; H. kaciyā ‘reaping- hook’. 2. Pk. kiccā— f. ‘cutting’. Addenda: *kartyā— [Cf. Ir. *kartyā— in Shgh. čã̤d ‘knife’]
2872 *karpaṭagandha— ‘smell of cloth’. [karpaṭa—, gandhá—] P. kapṛā̃dh f. ‘smell of burnt cloth’, H. kapṛāhand f.
2873 *karpaṭapaṭṭikā— ‘fold of cloth’. [karpaṭa—, paṭṭa2] P. kapṛauṭī f. ‘a few folds of cloth’; H. kapṛauṭī f. ‘straining through cloth’.
2874 *karpaṭamr̥ttikā— ‘wrapping in cloth and clay’. [karpaṭa—, mŕ̥ttikā—: cf. mod. cmpds. H. kapaṛmiṭṭī, M. kapaḍlep] Bi. kãpṛauṭ, kap° ‘jeweller's crucible made of rags and clay’; H. kapṛauṭī f. ‘wrapping in cloth with wet clay for firing chemicals or drugs, mud cement’.
2875 *karpaṭavayana— ‘cloth weaving’. [karpaṭa—, vayana—] Mth. (NETirhut) kaparnī ‘shuttle in a loom’ or poss. haplology from mod. cmpd. cf. Bi. kaparbinī.
2878 *karpāsakāṣṭha— ‘cotton plant wood’. [karpā́sa—, kāṣṭhá—] H. kapseṭhā m., °ṭhī f. ‘dried cotton plant stems for fuel’.
2879 *karpāsabīja— ‘cotton seed’. [karpā́sa—, bı̄́ja—] G. kapāśiyā m.pl. ‘cotton seed’ → S. kapāsyo m. Addenda: *karpāsabīja—: S.kcch. kapāsyā m.pl. ‘cotton—seeds’.
2883 *karbarāṅga— ‘having a spotted body’. [Cf. kar- burāṅga— m. ‘a species of fly or bee’ lex.: karbará—, áṅga—] Si. kabaran̆ga ‘panther’ or perh. a Si. cmpd.
2884 *karbiśa— ‘variegated’. [Cf. karbu—, karbará— with same colour—suffix as kapiśá—, *dhūmaśa—] Aw. lakh. kabisā ‘yellow clay’; G. kābas m. ‘dregs of oil’ (?) — X kalmāṣa—: Si. kamisa ‘variegated colour’ (GS 30 < kalmāṣa—). karbu— see karbará—.
2890 *karmakāṣṭhikā— ‘using a stick to make work’. [kárman—1, kāṣṭhá—] P. kamāṭhī, kameṭhī f. ‘beating’?
2893 *karmán— 2 ‘working’. [√kr̥ 1] Sh. kramōnu̯ ‘hardworking’, m. ‘labourer, farmer’ (< *karmāṇaka—); Si. (SigGr) kamuṇa ‘artisan’.
2894 *karmayati ‘works’. [kárman1] Pk. kammaï ‘does barber's work’ (cf. B. kamānā s.v. *karmāpayati); Sh. kramóĭki̯ ‘to use, employ, spend’ (→ Ḍ. kr *l m— ‘to work’).
2897 *karmāpayati ‘works, earns’. [kárman1] NiDoc. kam̄av́eti ‘causes to work, works’; Pk. kammāvēi ‘earns, works’; K. kamā̆wun ‘to work, earn, smelt (metal)’; S. kamāiṇu ‘to work, earn, slaughter’; L. kamāvaṇ ‘to work, earn’, P. kamāuṇā, WPah. cam. kumāṇā, khaś. bhal. kamāṇū; Ku. kamūṇo ‘to work, cultivate’, N. kamāunu; B. kāmāna ‘to earn, shave’; Or. kamāibā ‘to work, earn’; Mth. kamāeb ‘to serve, weed (a field)’; OAw. kamāvaï ‘earns’, H. kamānā; G. kamāvvũ ‘to help to earn’, °māvũ ‘to earn’, M. kamā̆viṇẽ. Addenda: *karmāpayati: S.kcch. kamāyṇū ‘to earn’, WPah.kṭg. kƏmauṇõ;.
2899 *karmāraśālā— ‘smithy’. [karmā́ra—, śā́lā—] Mth. kamarsārī;—Bi. kamarsāyar?
2903 *karyatē ‘is done’. [Formed after act. karṓti and pass. caus. kāryatē: √kr̥ 1] Pa. kayyati ‘is done’, Pk. kajjaï, pres. part. kajja- māṇa—, S. kajaṇu.
2904 *karva— ‘perverse, left’. [Cf. kharvá—] L. khet. kabbā ‘left—hand’; P. kabb f. ‘crookedness’, kabbā ‘crooked, perverse, obstinate’. — Ext. with —ṭa—: Bshk. kōr ‘left—hand’? — Pk. kavvāḍa— m. ‘right hand’ (though with same suffix as khalvāṭa— s.v. kharvá—) is semant. difficult. — Kaf. forms with k— listed under kharvá— perh. < *karva—.
2912 *kalaṅkakāra— ‘calumny’. [Cf. kalaṅkakara— ‘calum- niating’ MW.: kalaṅka—, kāra1] A. keleṅkār ‘accusation of some immoral act, scandal’.
2921 *kalaśavarta— ‘circular vessel’. [kaláśa—, *varta2] L. kalhoṭā m., °ṭī f. ‘earthen jar for storing grain’.
2945 *kalpiya— ‘suitable’, kalpya— VarBr̥S. [√kl̥p] Pa. Pk. kappiya— ‘suitable’; Si. käpa ‘suitable (esp. for offering to god or demon), an offering’.
2954 *kallara— ‘salt barren soil’. S. kalaru m. ‘salt soil’, kalarāṭhu ‘impregnated with salt’; L. kallur m. ‘salt barren soil’, P. kallar m. — Conn. doubtful with Pa. kalala— n. ‘mud’; P. kallar m. ‘manure’; Si. kalal ‘dirt, mud’. *kalli— ‘bud’ see kali2. Addenda: *kallara— [~ Drav. DED 1145] *kalli— see kali2 Add2.
2962 *kavā— ‘cry’. [√] L. f. ‘noise’?
2975 *kaṣāyati ‘reddens, dyes’. [kaṣāyita— ‘reddened’ Bālar.: kaṣāya—] Pa. kāsāyita— ‘stained’; Pk. kasāia— ‘red—yellow’; Or. kasāibā ‘to dye red’.
2976 *kaṣāyarasa— ‘of astringent flavour’. [kaṣāya—, rása—] S. kasāro ‘id.’ or < *kaṣāra— s.v. kaṣāya—, but in either case a loan word bec. of —s—.
2979 *kaṣyatē ‘is scratched’. [√kaṣ] K. kaśun (past tense impersonal) ‘to itch, scratch oneself’. — See kaṣati. KAS ‘go, move’: kásati, kāsa—, kāsayati; *avakasati, *avakasta—, útkasati, *utkasta—, *utkāsayati, *niṣka- sati, *niṣkasta—, niṣkāsa—, niṣkāsayati, vikāsa—.
2980 *kasaṭa— ‘dirt, dregs’. [Cf. *kasiṅgala—] Pa. kasaṭa— m. ‘leavings, dregs’ (also ‘bitter, nasty’ see kaṣāya—); N. kasar ‘sediment, dregs’.
2982 *kasiṅgala— ‘rubbish’. [Cf. kásāmbu— n. ‘(prob.) rubbish’, Pa. kasambu— n. ‘rubbish’: see *kasaṭa—.] P. kahigal f. ‘plaster of mud and chaff’; N. kasiṅar ‘dirt, rubbish’. kasēru— see kaśēru—.
2983 *kastambha— ‘small stem’. [kastambhı̄́— f. ‘prop for supporting carriage—pole’ ŚBr.: ka—3, stambha—] M. kāthãbā m. ‘plantain offshoot, sucker, stole’. kastambhı̄́— see prec.
2988 *kāṁsyakara— ‘worker in bell—metal’. [See next: kā́ṁsya—, kará1] L. awāṇ. kasērā ‘metal worker’, P. kaserā m. ‘worker in pewter’ (both ← E with —s—); N. kasero ‘maker of brass pots’; Bi. H. kaserā m. ‘worker in pewter’.
2990 *kāṁsyakuṇḍikā— ‘bell—metal pot’. [kā́ṁsya—, kuṇḍa1] N. kasaũṛi ‘cooking pot’.
2992 *kāṁsyabhāṇḍa— ‘bell—metal pot’. [kā́ṁsya—, bhāṇḍa1] Pa. kaṁsabhaṇḍa— n. ‘brass ware’; M. kāsā̃ḍī, °sãḍī f. ‘metal vessel of a partic. kind’.
2995 *kākaciti— ‘collection of crows’. [kā́ka—, cíti—] K. kāway f.; — very doubtful.
2996 *kākutstha— ‘on the top of the head’, kākúd— f. ‘palate’ RV, kākubh— Naigh. [For semant. change ‘top of head ~ palate’ see tā́lu—, mūrdhán—: kakúd—, stha—] Ash. kōstä́, kṓstu ‘the top of the head’ (NTS ii 262 < kūṭastha—). kākúd— see prec.
2998 *kākka— ‘senior male relative’. [← Drav.: Kan. kakka ‘uncle’, Tel. kakka ‘daddy’, Mal. kākke ‘mother's brother’] Gy. eur. kako m. ‘uncle’; Paš. kākū́ ‘boy’, kākī ‘girl’; Sh. (Lor.) kāko ‘elder brother’, kāki ‘elder sister’; K. kākh, dat. kākas m. ‘one's own father, elder male rela- tive’, kākañ f. ‘his wife’; S. kāko m. ‘elder brother’, kākiṛo m. ‘uvula’; L. kākī f. ‘pupil of eye’; P. kākā m. ‘elder brother, father's slave, son or grandson of a Sikh prince, little child’, kākī f. ‘little girl, pupil of eye’; WPah. bhal. kāk ‘brother’, paṅ. kakkā ‘uncle’; Ku. kakā hon. pl. ‘uncle’, kākhī ‘aunt’; N. kāko ‘father's younger brother’; A. kakā ‘grandfather’, kakāi ‘term of address for an older relative or elderly man’; B. kākā ‘father's younger brother’, kākī ‘his wife’; Or. kākā, kakāī ‘father's younger brother’, kāku—mā ‘his wife’; Mth. kakkā ‘father's brother’; H. kākā m. ‘father's younger brother’; G. kākɔ, usu. hon. pl. °kā m. ‘father's brother’, °kī f. ‘his wife’, kāku ‘pet name for a boy’, kākliyā m.pl. ‘mother's brother’; M. kākā m. ‘father's brother, elderly cousin’, °kī f. ‘his wife’. kākṣība— see ākṣika—. kākhōrda— see kharkhōda—. Addenda: *kākka—: WPah.kṭg. kāk m. ‘father's brother (used in the Khaś tribe)’. †;*kāgunī— see *kaṅkunī—.
3000 *kāṅkuka—, kāṅguka— m. ‘a kind of corn’ Suśr. [kaṅku—] S. kā̃gaṛu m. ‘Holcus saccharatus, stubble’, kā̃giṛī f. ‘wheat stalk, seed of Abrus precatorius’.
3001 *kāṅkunikā— f. ‘a woman who lives on panic seed’. [*kaṅkunī—] Kt. kakŕiũ, kagóı̃—štrī ‘widow’, Wg. kakŕü̃, Pr. tƏkyǘn, čkyṳ̄, Dm. kāṅgun (zāmi); Paš. lauṛ. kāṅgunı̄́ ‘widow’, °nā́ ‘widower’, weg. g unı̄́ ‘widow’, lauṛ. kāmunī ‘widow, woman with no husband’; Gaw. kāṅgunı̄́ ‘widow’; Sh. kagū́ni̯ f., °nu̯ m., gur. kavūni f., °nu̯ m. KĀṄKṢ ‘wish for’: kā́ṅkṣati, kāṅkṣā—, kāṅkṣin—; *upakāṅkṣā—, prakāṅkṣita—.
3005 *kāṅga— ‘having a poor body’. [ka3 or kā—, áṅga1] G. kā̃gũ ‘weak, delicate’.
3006 *kāṅgārikā ‘poor or small brazier’. [Cf. kāgni— m. ‘a small fire’ Vop.: ka3 or kā—, aṅgāri—] K. kā̃gürü , kā̃gar f. ‘portable brazier’ whence kangar m. ‘large do.’ (or < *kāṅgāra—?); H. kā̃grī f. ‘small portable brazier’. kāṅguka— see *kāṅkuka—.
3008 *kāca— 2 ‘black’. [kācalavaṇa— n. ‘black salt’ lex.] Wg. kāčә́, Niṅg. kāċә́ ‘black’, Shum. xaċƏ < kh— NTS xvii 263.
3010 *kācapātra— ‘glass vessel’. [kācá—1, pā́tra—] NiDoc. kayavatra (Burrow KharDoc 81 to be read as kaśa° = kaj'a°?).
3011 *kācahāra— ‘bearer of a carrying—pole’. [kāca—3, hāra—] Pa. kājahāraka— m.; Pk. kāhāra— m. ‘carrier of water or other burdens’, n. ‘carrying—pole’; K. kahar m. ‘palanquin—bearer’, S. kahāru m.; P. kahār m. ‘palan- quin—bearer, water—carrier’; N. kahār ‘a class of culti- vators who also act as bearers’; B. kāhār ‘a low caste of palanquin—bearers and water—carriers’; Or. kāhāḷa, °āra, kāā̃ḷa, °ā̃ra ‘a low caste of bearers’, Bhoj. kahār, Aw. lakh. kahār, kaharawā; H. kahār m. ‘palanquin- bearer, water—drawer’; M. kahār m. ‘palanquin—bearer’. *kācca— ‘glass’ see kācá1. Addenda: *kācahāra—: G. kahār m. ‘litter—bearer’. *kācca— see kācá1 Add2.
3012 *kāccakāra— ‘glass maker’. 2. *kāccakara—. [*kācca- s.v. kācá—1, kāra—1, kara1] 1. Or. kacarā ‘dealer in glass bangles’, M. kā̃ċār, °rī, kãċār, °rī m. ‘maker of glass bangles’. 2. H. kãcerā m. ‘glass—worker’.
3017 *kāṭa— 2 ‘stick, penis’. [Cf. *kaṇṭa3] Pa. kāṭa—kōṭacikā— ‘penis and vulva (as term of abuse)’; Gy. eur. kar m. ‘penis’, karoró m. ‘small do.’, S. kāṛu m., H. kāṛh m., G. kāṛ m.; M. kāḍ n. f. ‘straw’, kāḍī f. ‘little stick, blade of grass’, kāḍūk n. ‘little stick’.
3020 *kāṇākṣa— ‘one—eyed’. [kāṇá—, ákṣi—] Ko. kāṇso ‘squint—eyed’.
3021 *kāṇiya— ‘blindness’. [kāṇá—] Pk. kāṇiya— n. ‘eye disease’; Kho. (Lor.) kām ‘blindness’.
3022 *kāṇṭa— ‘having thorns’. 2. kāṇṭaka— ĀpŚr. [kaṇṭa1] 1. Paš. kā̃ṛ ‘porcupine’ (cf. kaṇṭakaśrēṇi—, kaṇṭa- kāgāra—). 2. S. kā̃ḍo ‘thorny’, Si. kaṭu. — Deriv.: S. kā̃ḍero m. ‘camel—thorn’, °rī f. ‘a kind of thistle’ ( < *kāṇṭatara—?).
3024 *kāṇḍakara— ‘worker with reeds or arrows’. [kā́ṇḍa—, kará1] L. kanērā m. ‘mat—maker’; H. kãḍerā m. ‘a caste of bow— and arrow—makers’.
3025 *kāṇḍārā— ‘bamboo—goad’. [kā́ṇḍa—, ā́rā—] Mth. (ETirhut) kanār ‘bamboo—goad for young elephants’ < *kaṛ̃ār.
3036 *kāpaṇa— ‘wretched booth’ [ka3 or kā—, āpaṇá—] M. kāvaṇ n. ‘a hut made of leafy branches’.
3055 *kāra— 5 ‘live coal’. [Cf. *skāra—, kṣārá1] Sh. gil. kā̃ru̯ m. ‘charcoal’, (Lor.) kār e (m. pl.?).
3056 *kāra— 6 ‘ear’. [Connexion with kárṇa— is not clear] Wg. kār ‘ear’ (← Kho. kār), Kt. kōr, Dm. kâar Morgenstierne FestskrBroch 150, NTS xii 173; — Ash. karmuṭä́ ‘ear’, Kt. karmútƏ ‘lobe of ear’, Gaw. kumtak ‘ear’ NTS ii 261 (or poss. all three < karṇapattraka—). kāra— 7 m. ‘tax’ see kara2. Addenda: *kāra—6: Kho. kār ‘ear’ certainly not ← Wg. BKhoT 69.
3060 *kārayati 2 ‘calls’. [Aor. akāriṣam RV.: √kr̥ 2] N. karāunu ‘to call out’ (< *karāh—, P. karāhṇā ‘to groan’, H. karāhnā): very doubtful. — Gy. gr. kar— ‘to call’ (ND 76 b 47), wel. &c. khār— does not belong. kāravallī— see next.
3063 *kārāghara— ‘prison house’. [kārāgr̥ha— n. Kālid.: kārā—, ghara—] Pk. kārāghara— n., OB. kāhara ODBL 282.
3069 *kārti— ‘knife’. [Cf. Bal. kārč < *kārti—, Pahl. kārt < *kārti— or °ta—. For the series kr̥tí—2: *karta3 or °ti—: *kārti— cf. Gk. kardi/a: Goth. haírtō: Gk. kh=r and Sk. hŕ̥d—: hā́rdi. — √kr̥t 1] Ash. kāṭa f. ‘knife’, Kt. kṭå, Wg. kaṭā́; S. kātī f. ‘large knife or dagger’, °tu m. ‘large knife, tool for cutting edges of books’; L. mult. khet. kātī f. ‘knife’; WPah. bhal. kāt, pl. °tā̃ f. ‘shears for shearing sheep’; Si. kätta, pl. käti ‘billhook’ (early loan with t, not ). - Forms of B. Or. Bi. Mth. H. G. M. alternatively < *kartá3. Addenda: *kārti— [Cf. Shgh. čād ‘knife’, EVSh 25, 40]
3085 *kālakr̥ttika— ‘black—skinned’. [kāla—1, kŕ̥tti—] WPah. cam. kaḷōttī ‘black bear’.
3087 *kāladhānya— ‘black rice’. [kāla—1, dhānyà—] Bi. karhannī ‘a variety of rice with small black grains’.
3088 *kālapattra— ‘letter of ill—luck’. [kālá—2, páttra—] G. kāḷotrī f. ‘unlucky news, letter of mourning’.
3105 *kālyaka— ‘timely’. [kālya—] K. kôju , abl. kāji m. ‘the morning meal’. — Ext. (+?): Pk. kallēuya— m.n. ‘morning meal’; Bi. kaleū, °ewā ‘midday meal’; Mth. kalau, °auā ‘main meal taken at midday’; H. kalewā m. ‘light morning meal’. Addenda: *kālyaka—: WPah.kṭg. kɔlli f. ‘morning meal’, J. kalewā m.
3106 *kālyavēlā— ‘morning time’. [kālya—, vḗlā—] WPah. bhal. kalwēhl f. ‘midday’, kalwēhlei f. ‘return of cows from grazing at midday’.
3107 *kāvaraka— ‘crow’. [Cf. N. kupaṅkhi ‘crow’; Lith. kóvarnis ‘raven’ IIFL iii 3, 199] Paš. dar. xāwarā́, weg. kawarṓ ‘crow’. Addenda: *kāvaraka— [Cf. Ir. *kuwarana— in Shgh. xū̆rn, Yid. xworn ‘crow’]
3109 *kāvikā— ‘scum’. Pk. kāvī— f. ‘green substance’; N. kāi ‘coating sticking to the side of a vessel in which milk or other liquid is kept’; B. kāī ‘starch’ (ODBL 320 < kvātha—); Or. kāi ‘fuller's earth, natron’, kāī ‘starch’; H. kāī f. ‘green scum on stagnant water’; G. kāī f. ‘thin layer or covering’.
3111 *kāvyakāra— ‘poet’. [kā́vya—, kāra1] Pa. kavyakāra— m., Si. (SigGr) kiviyar. KĀŚ ‘shine’: *kāśaka—, kā́śatē, kāśayati, *kāśira—; abhyavakāśa—, avakāśá—, ávakāśatē, *avakāśana—, ākāśá—, utkāśatē, *utkāśyati, prakāśá—, prakāśatē, prakāśana—, prakāśayati, prakāśita—, vikāśa—.
3113 *kāśaka— ‘watching’. [√kāś] Kal. kaċa—wir ‘the god of hunting’ NTS xiii 229 with (?).
3116 *kāśira— ‘bright’, kāśíla— Pāṇ., kāśin— MBh. [√kāś] Ash. kaširä́ ‘white’, Kt. kašerƏ, Wg. kešerá, Pr. kƏšír: all ← Dard. with š. But Niṅg. kä̃sirә́ ← Kaf.? kāśīśa— see kāsīsa—. kāśmarya— see kārṣmaryà—.
3121 *kāṣṭhakuṭaka— ‘wooden frame’. [kāṣṭhá—, kuṭī—] S. kāṭhoṛo m. ‘wooden frame of a saddle, bottle frame’, °ṛī f. ‘wooden furniture’; G. kaṭhɔṛɔ m. ‘after part of a ship’.
3122 *kāṣṭhakūṭa— ‘wooden ploughshare’. [kāṣṭhá—, kū́ṭa1] Bi. kaṭhaur ‘country plough used in indigo culture’.
3123 *kāṣṭhaghaṭa— ‘wooden framework’. [kāṣṭhaghaṭita- ‘made of wood’ MW.: kāṣṭhá—, *ghaṭa3] S. kaṭahaṛo m. ‘railing’; P. kaṭahiṛā m. ‘carved framework over a door’; H. kaṭhṛā m. ‘wooden cage’; G. kaṭh e ṛɔ m. ‘wooden railing’; M. kaṭhḍā m. ‘wooden railing or framework’; — N. kaṭero ‘shed’, A. kāṭharā wooden cage for animals' or < *kāṣṭhaghara—.
3124 *kāṣṭhaghara— ‘wooden hut or frame’. [kāṣṭhá—, ghara—] P. kaṭaihrā m. ‘wooden railing before a window’; B. kāṭharā, kāṭurā ‘wooden house or cell, wooden or bamboo enclosure’; H. kaṭhahrā, kaṭhrā m. ‘large wooden cage’; G. kaṭhārɔ, °ṭherɔ m. ‘wooden railing’, M. kaṭārā m.; — N. kaṭero ‘cowshed’, A. kāṭharā wooden cage for animals' or < *kāṣṭhaghaṭa—.
3125 *kāṣṭhadhāna— ‘having woody grains’. [kāṣṭhá—, dhānā́1] M. kāṭhā̆ṇ n. ‘pulse, legumes’?
3126 *kāṣṭhapātra— ‘wooden bowl’. [kāṣṭhá—, pā́tra—] N. kaṭhauti ‘small wooden vessel’; Bi. kaṭhaut, °tā, °tī ‘flat wooden pan for cooling syrup in’; H. kaṭhautā m., °tī f. ‘wooden bowl’, M. kāṭhvat, kāthvaṭ. f.
3127 *kāṣṭhapādukā— ‘wooden shoe’. [kāṣṭhá—, pā́dukā—] Pa. kaṭṭhapādukā— f., Pk. kaṭṭhapāuyā— f., Or. kaṭhaü. — Other NIA. forms point to *khaḍaāuā—. It is prob. that *khaḍa— is < an AMg. type *kāḍha— (see WPah. s.v. kāṣṭhá—) < *kāṭha— < kāṭṭha—: K. khrāv, khāv f., P. khaṛāũ f., Ku. khaṛāū, N. kharāu; A. kharam ‘sandal’; B. khaṛam ‘wooden sandal’; Or. khaṛāū, khaṛam ‘wooden clog’, EBi. kharām, kharāoni, Mth. kharāõ;, kharāoni, kharām, H. khaṛāū̃ f. (→ Bi. khaṛāõ;), G. khaṛā f., M. khaḍā̆v, °ḍā̃v f. kāṣṭhabhārika— m. ‘wood—carrier’ Kathās. [kāṣṭhá—, bhārika—] See *kāṣṭhahāra—. Addenda: kāṣṭhapādukā— id. Dhūrtaviṭasaṁvāda.
3129 *kāṣṭhavaṁśa— ‘woody bamboo’. [kāṣṭhá—, vaṁśá—] H. kaṭausī, kaṭvā̃sī f. ‘a firm and woody bamboo’.
3130 *kāṣṭhavāṭa— ‘wooden fence’. [kāṣṭhá—, vāṭa1] N. kaṭhwār ‘a wooden screen’.
3131 *kāṣṭhahāra— ‘wood—carrier’. [kāṣṭhá—, hāra—] Pa. kaṭṭhahāra—, °rin— ‘collecting wood’; Pk. kaṭṭha- hāra—, °aya— m. ‘wood—carrier’; S. kāṭhyāro m. ‘wood- seller’; A. kāṭharīyā ‘woodman’; B. kāṭhuriyā ‘wood- seller’, Or. kāṭhaharā, kāṭharā, kāṭhahariā, °ṭhariā, °ṭhuriā; H. kaṭhaharā m. ‘wood—cutter’, G. kaṭhiyārɔ m., °rī, °raṇ f. ‘his wife’. — All except Pa. may be < kāṣṭhabhārika—.
3137 *kāsayati ‘causes to move’. [√kas] Kho. (Lor.) kaseik ‘to cause to walk, walk (a horse) up and down’; K. kāsun ‘to take away, remove, pare’; S. kāhaṇu tr. ‘to drive’, intr. ‘to rush’ — See kásati.
3147 *kiṁvēlaka— ‘untimely’. [kím, vḗlā—] P. kivelā ‘untimely, out of season’.
3150 *kikka— ‘infant’. [*kīkk— ‘scream’?] S. kiko m. ‘baby’; G. kīkɔ m. ‘boy’, °kī f. ‘girl’.
3151 *kikkara— ‘Acacia arabica’. 2. *kiṅkara—. [kiṅkarāla—, °kirāla— m. lex.] 1. L. P. kikkar m., °rī f.; H. kīkar, °kaṛ m. ‘A. arabica’, kīkrī ‘saw—like’, f. ‘edging shaped like the leaf of this tree’. 2. M. kı̃kar f. ‘a variety of Acacia’; — P. kiṅgarī f. ‘indented figure traced on the border of a garment’. kikhi— see khiṅkhirī—. *kiṅkara— ‘Acacia’ see *kikkara—. kiṅkarāla— see *kikkara—.
3153 *kicca— ‘mud, dirt’. 2. *kacca—2. 3. *khacca—. [Cf. Drav. words quoted s.v. *gicc— and further groups s.vv. kiṭṭa— and kaccara1, and *cikka2] 1. Phal. kičal ‘mud’, číčal ‘clay’; Ku. kīc ‘mud, dirt’, B. kicā, kicaṛ, Mth. kīc, kı̄̃c; H. kicpic f. ‘mud’, kicṛā m. ‘gummy secretion of eyes’, kicṛāhā ‘muddy’; G. kīc, kīcaṛ m. ‘mud’, M. kicaḍ m. 2. Paš. kačaṭā́ ‘piece, bit’; Mth. kāc, kāc—kīc ‘mud, filth’. 3. Dm. khača ‘dirty, bad’; Gaw. khaċ, khas ‘bad’; Kal. khāčä ‘bad, dirty (?)’; Sv. khaco ‘dirty, bad’; Phal. khāču ‘bad’ (?), khāčo ‘a lie’, khā́čulo ‘dirty, bad’. kiñculaka— ‘worm’ see *kēñcuka—. KIṬ ‘fear’: *kiṭyatē. Addenda: *kicca—. 1. S.kcch. kicaḍ m. ‘mud’, H. Brj. kīc, kīcaṛ m., Ko. kiċkiċu ‘muddy’. — H. kicṛā ‘secretion from eye’ cf. Ko. piċċaḍa id. (< piccaṭa—, see *piccikā—) S. M. Katre. — S.kcch. phonet. k+caṛ AKŚ xviii.
3155 *kiṭana— ‘a tick’. [kiṭibha— m. ‘bug, louse’ lex., °aka- m. ‘louse’ Divyāv.] WPah. bhal. kiṛn m., kiṛni f. ‘an insect that sticks to the teats of cattle’; N. kirnu, obl. °nā ‘dog or cattle tick’; — Ku. kino ‘tick’, N. cam—kinu ‘a kind of small body louse’ perh. < *kirno rather than kiṇa2. kiṭibha— see prec.
3158 *kiṭyatē ‘is afraid’. [kḗṭati Dhātup.: √kiṭ] A. kiṭāiba ‘to be alarmed, take up arms for defence’.
3167 *kiyatta— ‘how great?’. [~ kíyant— as iyattaká— RV. ~ iyant—] Pa. kittaka— ‘how much or many?’, Pk. kittiya—, Ash. ċīt, Wg. kiti; Paš. dar. weg. kuti ‘anything’; Gaw. kata ‘how many?’, Bshk. kīte, Phal. katī, K. kūtu , dat. kṳ̄tis, pl. kaiti , kash. kyutŭ ; L. kittı̃ ‘how much?’, awāṇ. kittī ‘how many?’; P. kitt ‘what?’; A. ketek ‘how much?’, H. kittā, kitā; M. kitı̃ ‘how much?’, kitī ‘how many?’, Si. ketek (or ke + tek ‘up to’?). — Ext. with —n—: P. H. kitnā, L. P. bhaṭ. kitṇā; — with —r—: L. kitrā, OMarw. kītarāka; — with —l—: L. kittlā. Addenda: *kiyatta—: S.kcch. kitrī ‘how much?’, kitrāk ‘how many?’, WPah.kc. ketri; kṭg. (kc.) ketti ‘how much? how many? some’; kṭg. ketrɔ, kc. ketṇo ‘how much?’, G. keṭlī, pl. keṭlāk, Md. kitak.
3168 *kiyattama— ‘having how much?’. [kíyant—] K. kṳ̄tyumu ‘consisting of how many?’; L. kitv ā̃ ‘having what share?’.
3179 *kila— ‘scattering, ray’. [kīlā— f. ‘flame’ lex. (perh. for *kila—), —kira— in cmpd. ‘scattering’ Pāṇ., kiriká- ‘sparkling’ VS.: √kr̥̄ 1] M. kīḷ n. ‘lustre (of gems)’. kilakilā— see kilikilā—.
3184 *kilāsa— 2 ‘defective’. Pa. kirāsa— ‘fraudulent, false’ (cf. kērāṭika— s.v. kirāṭa—); M. kiḷśā, kiḷośī ‘weakly, sickly’.
3192 *kīkkati ‘screams’. [Onom. cf. *kūkkati] S. kīkaṇu ‘to scream’, kīka f. ‘scream’, kīkāiṇu ‘to make squeak’, kīkiru m. ‘screamer’; P. kikiāuṇā ‘to scream’, H. kīknā, kikiyānā, kīk m.; G. kikiyāṛɔ m., °ṛī f. ‘shrill cry’; M. kı̃k, kı̃kṇī, kı̃kḷī f. ‘shriek’.
3194 *kīṭarūpa— ‘worm’. [kīṭá—1, rūpá—] OM. kīraḍuṁ n. ‘small serpent’ < *kīḍaruṁ.
3195 *kīṭikāgāra— n. ‘insects' nest’. [kīṭá—1, agāra—] G. kiṛiyārũ n. ‘ants' nest’. *kīḍa— ‘stake’ see kīla1.
3206 *kukka— 1 ‘dog’. [Onom.: cf. *kutta—1, kurkurá—] Pk. kukka— m., °kī— f., H. kukkā m.; Si. kukkā ‘puppy’. Addenda: kukka—1: WPah.kṭg. kukṭu m. ‘small dog’, poet. kukṭe f. ‘bitch’.
3207 *kukka— 2 ‘defective’. S. kuku m. ‘crop which has remained without form- ing ears’; L. kukk, pl. °kã f. ‘a date which has shrivelled on the tree’; G. kukɔ m. ‘contemptuous term for a coin, rounded piece of tile used by girls in play’; M. kukā m. ‘term of reproach for an adult but still childish fellow’.
3212 *kukkusa— ‘chaff’. [Cf. kukūla— m. ‘chaff’ Kathās. and busá1] Pa. kukkusa— ‘red powder of rice husks’; Pk. kukkusa—, kukusa— m. ‘chaff of rice &c.’; G. kuskā m.pl., °kī f. ‘chaff of rice, bran’. Addenda: *kukkusa—: A. kukuhā ‘bits of burnt grass carried about by the wind’ AFD 187; OMarw. kūkasa m. ‘chaff’.
3215 *kuṅkumapattrikā— ‘saffron letter’. [kuṅkuma—, páttra—] G. kãkotrī f. ‘invitation to a marriage party (con- veyed in a letter dyed red)’. KUC ‘bend, contract’: kucika—, *kucyatē, *kuñca—1, kuñcati, kuncikā—1, *kōcayati; *ākucyatē, *utkuc- yatē, vikuñcayati, saṁkucyatē, *saṁkōcyatē.
3219 *kuccura— ‘dog’. [Cf. kurkurá— and Par. Orm. kučuk IIFL i 263.] Wg. kuċúru ‘dog’, Bshk. kúčur m., kičir f., Woṭ. kuċúr m., kiċír f., Tor. kuǰū́ m., kiǰī f. (Grierson Tor 160 wrongly < kaulēya—), Mai. kūsar, ky. kuċára, Chil. kuċuro, kusu°, Gau. kusur, Sv. kučurṓ, Phal. kučuro; K. kuċuru m., °ċürü f. ‘puppy’.
3220 *kucchadya— ‘ill—seeming’. [ku—, *chadya—] L. kuchaj̱j̱ā ‘slovenly, dirty’. Addenda: *kucchadya—: delete entry (L.mult. kucaj̱j̱ā ‘slovenly (of women)’, OP. kucajjā is MIA. cmpd. [ku—, caryā—] replacing kucará— ‘roaming about’ RV., ‘wicked’ MBh.).
3221 *kucyatē pass. of kucáti ‘contracts’ Dhātup. and kuñcati ‘bends’. [√kuc] N. kucinu, emph. kuccinu ‘to be crushed’; B. kucāna ‘to plait, shrivel, cut into bits’; Or. kucibā ‘to thrust’, kuceibā ‘to cut into pieces’; H kucnā ‘to be contracted, be crumpled’. — Ext. with —al—: P. kucalṇā ‘to trample on’, N. kuclanu, kulcanu, H. kucalnā.
3222 *kujjati ‘rots’. [Perh. < *kūryatē < *k°rƏ—ye— = kīryatē with same semantic development, or < *k°ru—ye— beside kṛṇōti ‘hurts’ Dhātup., Pa. karati ‘cuts, hurts’] H. kujnā ‘to moulder away, rot, ferment, become old’; M. kuj̈ṇẽ ‘to lose cohesion of parts, rot, putrefy, (in games) lie out of play’, kuj̈aviṇẽ ‘to make rot’, kuj̈ḍā ‘rotten’. — See kīryatē. Addenda: *kujjati rather < pū́yati ‘is putrid’ TS. X kúthyati (T. Burrow JRAS 1967 42).
3223 *kuñca— 1 ‘curve, bend’. [√kuc] P. kuñj m. ‘corner’; A. kõ;s ‘bend, fold’; B. kũcki ‘groin’; Or. kuñca ‘crimped border of cloth’, °cā ‘pleated’; H. kū̃c f. ‘hough (of a quadruped), tendon Achilles’ (< *kuñci—?). — See *khuccā—, *khōñcā—. *kuñca— 2 ‘Abrus precatorius’ see guñjā—.
3234 *kuṭumbatva— ‘family relationship’. [Cf. kuṭumbitva- MW.— kuṭumba—] P. kuṛmatt m. ‘relationship by marriage’; — or pref. P. deriv. from kuṛam < kuṭumbin—.
3237 *kuṭṭa— 2 ‘broken, beaten’. [√kuṭṭ] Pa. kuṭṭa— ‘powder, stick’, kuṭṭa—dārūṇi n.pl. ‘wattle and daub fence’ (but see kuḍya—); L. kuṭṭ m. ‘top of a drum’; A. kuṭā ‘bit of grass or straw’; B. kuṭ, °ṭā, °ṭi ‘chip, small piece’; Or. kuṭā ‘pounded’, sb. ‘straw, grass’; H. kūṭ m. ‘macerated paper for papier maché’, kuṭṭī f. ‘chopped straw’; G. kuṭɔ m. ‘state of being beaten, a beating, roughly ground powder’; M. kuṭā m. ‘powder of dried fish’. — ext. with —kk—: N. kuṛko, °ki ‘small piece’; M. kuṭkā m. ‘small stick, piece’. *māṣakuṭṭaka—. Addenda: *kuṭṭa— 2. — Ext. —kk—: Ko. kuṛko ‘small piece’.
3238 *kuṭṭa— 3 ‘defective’. [kūṭá7 ‘hornless’: for list see kuṇṭha—] Pa. kuṭṭa—rājan— ‘subordinate prince’; Kho. (Lor.) kūto pr *l š (——?) ‘small upper ribs under armpit’; Sh. (Lor.) kūto (——?) ‘deaf’; A. kuṭula, kuṭkurā ‘short, stunted (of hair or grass)’; — Si. koṭa ‘short, curtailed’, °ṭā ‘a short man’, °ṭē ‘a stump’ or < *kuṇṭa1 (EGS 49 wrongly < Pa. koṭṭa—); — perh. B. kuṭī̆ ‘bawd’ (but see kuṭṭanī—).
3243 *kuṭṭha— ‘knee’. [Conn. √kuṭ 1 ‘bend’ Grierson Tor 162 with (?). But a long range of names for joints and limbs ‘ankle — heel — foot — leg — knee — wrist’ are characterized by the sequence of guttural — u/ō — retro- flex: *kuṭṭha—, *khuṭṭa—2, *khuḍa—1, *guṭṭha—2, *gōḍḍa—, ghuṭa—, ghuṇṭa1] Ash. kuṭä́ ‘heel’, Wg. kūṭewı̄́ NTS ii 263; Dm. khuṭṭa ‘knee’, Paš. kōṭa, Bshk. kuṭ, kuṭh, Tor. kūṭh, Kand. kūṭhu, Phal. kuṭho, khūṭu, Sh. gil. kŭṭo m. (→ Ḍ. kuṭá prob. pl.), pales. koh. kūṭhu, jij. kuṭh, K. kŏṭhu m. kuṭmalá— see kuḍmalá—. *kuṭha— 1 ‘Costus speciosus’ see kúṣṭha1. *kuṭha— 2 ‘leprosy’ see kúṣṭha2. kuṭha— 3 ‘tree’ see kuṭa2.
3245 *kuḍa— 1 ‘boy, son’, °ḍī ‘girl, daughter’. [Prob. ← Mu. (Sant. Muṇḍari koṛa ‘boy’, kuṛi ‘girl’, Ho koa, kui, Kūrkū kōn, kōnjē); or ← Drav. (Tam. kur̤a ‘young’, Kan. koḍa ‘youth’) T. Burrow BSOAS xii 373. Prob. separate from RV. kŕ̥tā— ‘girl’ H. W. Bailey TPS 1955, 65. — Cf. kuḍáti ‘acts like a child’ Dhātup.] NiDoc. kuḍ'aǵa ‘boy’, kuḍ'i ‘girl’; Ash. kū́ṛƏ ‘child, foetus’, istrimalī—kuṛä́ ‘girl’; Kt. kŕū, kuŕuk ‘young of animals’; Pr. kyǘru ‘young of animals, child’, kyurú ‘boy’, kurı̄́ ‘colt, calf’; Dm. kúŕa ‘child’, Shum. kuṛ; Kal. kūŕ *l k ‘young of animals’; Phal. kuṛī̆ ‘woman, wife’; K. kūrü f. ‘young girl’, kash. kōṛī, ram. kuṛhī; L. kuṛā m. ‘bridegroom’, kuṛī f. ‘girl, virgin, bride’, awāṇ. kuṛī f. ‘woman’; P. kuṛī f. ‘girl, daughter’, P. bhaṭ. WPah. khaś. kuṛi, cur. kuḷī, cam. kǒ;ḷā ‘boy’, kuṛī ‘girl’; — B. ā̃ṭ—kuṛā ‘childless’ (ā̃ṭa ‘tight’)? — X pṓta1: WPah. bhad. ‘son’, kūī ‘daughter’, bhal. ko m., koi f., pāḍ. kuā, kōī, paṅ. koā, kūī. *kuḍa— 2 ‘wall’ see kuḍya—. kuḍapa— see kuḍava—. Addenda: *kuḍa— 1 [Same Drav. root as in kuḍmalá— q.v.]
3248 *kuḍḍha— ‘defective’. [Cf. Pk. kuḍhiya— ‘blunt, fool’: see list s.v. kuṇṭha—] L. kuḍḍhā ‘having horns pointing inwards’; H. kūṛh ‘stupid’.
3249 *kuḍma— ‘bud’. M. kõ;b, °bā m., °bī f. ‘young shoot’, kõ;beṇẽ ‘to sprout’; Si. kumu ‘unopened flower’. kuḍmalá—.
3252 *kuḍyapāda— ‘foot of wall’. [kuḍya—, pā́da—] Pa. kuḍḍapāda— m. ‘lower part of lath and plaster wall’; M. kuḍvā m. ‘ledge along the bottom of a wall’, kuḍāvā m. ‘wall of wattle and daub’.
3253 *kuḍyāntara— ‘divided by wall’. [kuḍya—, ántara1] G. kuṛãtar, kuṛā̃trɔ m. ‘partition wall’ ( for !).
3254 *kuḍha— ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] Pk. kuḍhiya— ‘blunt’, m. ‘fool’. Addenda: *kuḍha— [Perh. < kr̥dhú ‘small, deficient’ RV., Ir. *kr̥du— in Shgh. čūr d ‘crooked’, Pers. kul, Yazgh. ḱi d]
3260 *kuṇṭa— 1 ‘defective’. [Cf. Kan. kuṇṭa ‘cripple’, Tel. kuṇṭi ‘lame’. — See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] Pk. kuṁṭa— ‘humpbacked, dwarfish, minus a hand or arm’, kuṁṭāra— ‘withered’; L. kuṇḍā m. ‘a bullock whose horns have been turned’, kuṇḍī ‘crooked (of buffalo's horns)’; P. kuṇḍ ‘blunt’; Si. koṭa ‘short, cur- tailed’ (keṭa ‘a short woman’) or < *kuṭṭa3. *kuṇṭa— 2 ‘corner’ see *khuṇṭa2. KUṆṬH ‘be lame or dull’: kuṇṭha—, kúṇṭhati, kuṇṭhita—.
3267 *kuṇḍaka— ‘husks, bran’. Pa. kuṇḍaka— m. ‘red powder of rice husks’; Pk. kuṁ- ḍaga— m. ‘chaff’; N. kũṛo ‘boiled grain given as fodder to buffaloes’, kunāuro ‘husk of lentils’ (for ending cf. kusāuro ‘chaff of mustard’); B. kũṛā ‘rice dust’; Or. kuṇḍā ‘rice bran’; M. kũḍā, kõ;° m. ‘bran’; Si. kuḍu ‘powder of paddy &c.’ Addenda: kuṇḍaka— in cmpd. kaṇa—kuṇḍaka— Arthaś.
3270 *kuṇḍha— ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] Pk. kuṁḍha—, koṁ° ‘slow, stupid’; — koṁḍhullu— m. ‘owl’ see úlūka—.
3275 *kutta— 1 ‘dog’. [Onom.: cf. Sogd. 'kwt, Shgh. kut ‘dog’, Sant. kutu kutu ‘sound made in calling a puppy’] Pk. kutta— m., °tī— f. ‘dog’, S. kuto m., L. P. WPah. cam. kuttā m., °tī f., N. (children) kuti, B. kuttā, °tī, Or. kutā, °tī, Aw. lakh. kutawā, H. kuttā m., °tī, °tiyā f., Marw. kuto m., G. kuttɔ m., °tī f., M. kutte— in cmpds. *kauttika—; *kuttira—, *kuttūra—. Addenda: *kutta— 1 [Cf. Ir. *kuta— in Shgh. kud m., kid f. ‘dog’ EVSh 40, Sar. kūd m. kid f., Yid. kwod m., kƏč (< *kutačī—)] S.kcch. kauto m. ‘dog’, WPah.kṭg. kvtti f. ‘bitch’, Garh. kūtī, Ku. kutiyā.
3276 *kutta— 2 ‘rent, lease’. Pk. kutta— n. ‘rent, lease’; Ku. kūt ‘rent in kind’, N. kut ‘hire of land’; Or. kuta ‘letting for a fixed rental’; H. kūt m. ‘survey, valuation’.
3277 *kuttira— ‘dog’. [*kutta1] WPah. bhad. bhal. kutar m., °trī f., pāḍ. kōtar m., °tĕr f., paṅ. kuttar m., °trī f., Or. kutari f., OG. kūtiraü m.; G. kutrɔ m., °rī f., °rũ n. ‘a wretched dog’; M. kutrā m., °rī f., °rẽ n.; — L. kutīr f. ‘a pack of dogs’?
3278 *kuttūra— ‘puppy’. [*kutta1] Sh. (Lor.) kutūro m. ‘puppy’, °ri f. ‘pet name for a girl’; L. kutūrā m., °rī f. ‘puppy’, P. katūrā m., °rī f.
3279 *kuttha— 1 ‘rotten’. [< *kuth—ta—? — √kuth] Pk. kutthaï ‘boils, makes rot, rots (?)’, kutthaṇa— n. ‘rotting’; H. kuthrā m. ‘putrefaction’.
3280 *kuttha— 2 ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] Or. kuthā ‘blunt’. KUTS ‘abuse’: kutsáyati.
3282 *kuthati ‘rots’, kuthita— ‘stinking’ Suśr. [kúthyati ‘rots’ Dhātup. — √kuth] Pa. kuthati ‘boils, is rotten’, °thita— ‘boiled, rotten’ (cf. kuthana— n. ‘digestion’); Pk. kuhaï ‘rots, stinks’, kuhia— ‘rotted, stinking’; N. kuhunu ‘to rot’, Or. kuhibā, M. kuhij̈ṇẽ.
3290 *kunta— 2 ‘defective’. [Cf. esp. Ir. *kunta—, see s.v. kuṇṭha— and list there given] S. kundu ‘stupid, slow of understanding’.
3292 *kuntha— 1 ‘groan, grunt’. [√kunth] B. kõ;th, kõ;t ‘groan, grunt’; Or. kunthā sb. ‘groaning, straining’.
3293 *kuntha— 2 ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha1] L. kundh m. ‘an unskilled person’, (Shahpur) ‘un- skilful’; Or. kunthā ‘blunt’.
3301 *kubba— ‘hump’. [Poss. < *kubra—, cf. kubhrá— m. ‘humpbacked bull’ MaitrS.: of NIA. forms is an IA. suffix and not integral to the word as suggested by PMWS 43 and EWA i 232. Prob. belongs to the group s.v. kubjá—] K. kọ̆bu m. ‘hump on back’, kö̆bü f. ‘humpbacked’, kŏbun ‘to become humpbacked’; S. kuḇu m. ‘hump’, °ḇo ‘humpbacked’; L. kuḇ m. ‘bend, curve, distortion’, kuḇḇā ‘humpbacked’, awāṇ. kubbā; P. kubb m. ‘hump on back’, °bā adj.; WPah. bhad. bhiḍ. kubb n. ‘hump on back’, H. kub m., kubbā adj.; — ext. with —ḍa—: Pk. kubbaḍa— ‘humpbacked’; K. kŏburu m., °bürü f. ‘one who has become humpbacked’; S. kuḇiṛo ‘bentbacked’; P. kubṛā ‘humpbacked’, Ku. kobṛo; N. kubro ‘hump- backed, bent with age’; Bi. kūbaṛ ‘a crooked beam’; H. kubaṛ m. ‘hump on back’, kubṛā adj. (→ Mth. kubaṛ, kubaṛāh), G. kubṛũ; M. kubaḍ n., kubḍā adj. Addenda: *kubba— [Cf. Ir. Shgh. kūp ‘camel's hump’]: WPah.kṭg. kūb m. ‘hump’, kubṛɔ ‘hump—backed’; J. kūb m. ‘hump’.
3302 *kubhāga— ‘ill luck’. [ku—, bhāga—] M. khā̃d—kuhā, °kuvā m. ‘inauspicious mark on the shoulder of a horse’, adj. ‘having such a mark’. kubhrá— see *kubba—.
3311 *kumbhakāramr̥ttikā— ‘potter's clay’. [kumbha- kāra—, mŕ̥ttikā—] Bi. kumr(h)auṭī.
3314 *kumbhasthala— ‘elephant's frontal globe’. [kum- bhá—1, sthála—] Si. kum̆butalaya ‘place of an elephant's frontal globes’.
3318 *kuyūkā— ‘small louse’. [ku—, yū́kā—] K. kŏv f. ‘a small kind of louse (red in colour and a great biter)’. *KUR ‘scrape’. [Cf. √kṣur] *kura—, *kōraṇīya—, *kōrati; — *kōraḍa—?
3319 *kura— ‘scraping’. [√*kur] L. kur m. ‘ploughshare’ but see kūṭa3 — Ext. P. kurelnā ‘to poke’; H. kurelnā ‘to dig’; — H. kurednā, kurod° ‘to scrape’; — M. kuraċṇẽ ‘to nip off with the nails’, kurtuḍṇẽ (+ toḍṇẽ < trōṭayati?).
3321 *kuraṅga— 2 ‘of poor colour’. [ku—, raṅga1] Kho. kuraṅg ‘light chestnut colour’ BelvalkarVol 92 (with same origin for kuraṅgá1?). kuraṇṭa—, kuraṇḍa— see kuruṇṭa—.
3325 *kurasya— ‘with poor juice’. [kurasa— ‘having a bad taste’ W. — ku—, rasya—] S. kurso ‘tasteless’. kuruṭa— see next.
3334 *kulati ‘hurts’. [kr̥ṇā́ti, °ṇṓti ‘hurts, kills’ Dhātup., kr̥ṇvati Naigh. — √kr̥̄ 2] S. kuraṇu ‘to smart’; H. kulnā ‘to hurt, ache’.
3337 *kulapañjī— ‘genealogical tree’. [kúla—, pañjī—] B. kulaji, °luji, °laci, °luci ‘genealogy’ ODBL 446.
3339 *kulāgāra— n. ‘family house’. [kúla—, agāra—]. OG. kuḷāra n. ‘wife's family house’. Addenda: *kulāgāra—: Ko. kuḷāra id.
3344 *kulī— ‘gargling’. 2. *kullī—. [Onom.] 1. B. kuli, Or. kuḷi; Mth. kurī ‘act of rinsing the mouth’; M. kuḷī f. ‘mouthful of water’. 2. N. kullā ‘gargling’, B. kulli, Or. kuli, H. kullā. — Deriv.: Ku. kulnā ‘mouth—wash; — A. kulkuliba ‘to gargle’; H. kulkulā m. ‘gargling’.
3347 *kululi— ‘outcry’. [Onom., cf. ululí—] A. kuruli ‘screech of an owl’; M. kululī f. ‘outcry’; — deriv. vbs.: L. kurlāvaṇ ‘to lament, cry out (esp. of birds)’; P. kurlāuṇā ‘to shriek’; N. kurlanu ‘to cry out loud’; A. kuruliyāiba ‘to screech as an owl’; Or. kurulibā, kuruṛibā ‘to shout, laugh loudly in glee’. Addenda: *kululi— [Cf. also kúrara— ‘osprey’ onom. ac. EWA i 235]: Pk. kurulaï ‘caws’, OP. kurulāvaṇu ‘to cry (of crane), lament’.
3351 *kulyakāra— ‘basket—maker’. [kulya—, kāra1] Si. kuluvara, °uyara ‘basket—maker, worker in straw’.
3353 *kulla— 1 ‘neck, back, buttock’. Pk. kulla—, kōla— m. ‘neck’, kulla— m.n. ‘buttock’; L. kullhā m. ‘that part of a bullock's hump on which yoke rests’; P. kullā m. ‘hip, buttock’; H. kulā m. ‘hip, buttock, waist’; G. kulɔ m. ‘hip, buttock’; M. kulā, kullā, °āṇā, kulhā, °āṇā m. ‘buttock’, kolẽ n. ‘hump of buffalo’. — B. kolā ‘having an inflated throat’? — Si. kulala ‘neck’? *kulla— 2 ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] See kulva—.
3354 *kulla— 3 ‘pot’. [kulija— n. ‘a partic. vessel’ Kauś., ‘a measure’ Pāṇ., kulharī—, °rikā— f. ‘pot’ Bhpr.: prob. with kúlāla— and other ‘pot’ words s. v. kuṭa1 ← Drav.] Pk. kullaḍa— n. ‘small vessel, fireplace’, kulluḍiā— f. ‘pitcher’, kullūria—, kullaria— m. ‘sweetmaker’, °riyā— f. ‘his shop’; G. kulṛī, kullī f. ‘earthen pot, scrotum’. *kullī— ‘gargling’ see *kulī—. Addenda: *kulla—3: OMarw. (Vīsaḷa) loc.sg.m. kūlhaṛaï ‘pot’.
3360 *kuvārdra— ‘moist’. [ku—, ārdrá—] Or. kāũdā ‘slightly moist’ (for metathesis of u — ā, cf. kāũr < kumārá—).
3361 *kuvēlā— ‘bad time’. 2. *kuvēlya— ‘untimely’. [ku—, vḗlā—] 1. P. kuveḷ f. ‘lateness’. 2. K. kŏvizi, kŏzi adv. ‘at a bad or inauspicious time’ (< °vērya—?); L. koel ‘unsuitable, untimely’; — P. kuveḷā ‘late’ (with from kuveḷ above). *kuvēlya— see prec.
3366 *kuśalakāra— ‘greeting’. [kúśala—, kāra1] N. kusāri ‘friendly greeting’; — doubtful.
3382 *kustha— ‘out of place’. [ku—, stha—] G. kuthɔ m. ‘disorder, confusion’.
3383 *kusthala— ‘bad place’. [ku—, sthála—] G. kuthlɔ m., °lī f. ‘the being out of order’, kathaḷvũ, °alvũ ‘to be put out of order, be spoilt’. — See kuṣṭhala—. KUH ‘deceive’: kuha—1, kuhana—.
3386 *kuha— 2 ‘fog, mist’, kuhēḍī—, °ḍikā—, kuhēlikā—, kūhā— f. lex. Kho. (Lor.) koi dik ‘to rain while the sun is shin- ing’ (?); A. kowā—mowā, kū̃wā—kū̃he ‘haziness’; B. ko ‘fog, mist’; Bi. kūhā ‘morning fog’; Mth. kuh ‘fog, mist’; M. kuhā ‘dampness of weather, ground, etc.’ — Various ext.: L. kuhīṛ, koh° m. ‘mist, fog, haze’; P. kuhīṛ f. ‘fine rain, mist’; Ku. kohṛo ‘mist, fog’, B. kohāṛā, Or. kuhuṛi, H. kuhṛī f., kūhṛā m.; — Sh. gur. kăurĭh m. ‘mist’ (?); P. kuhur m., °hīr f. ‘fog, mist’, Ku. kwīro, N. kuhiro, kui°, H. kohar f., kū̆hrā m., kuherī f.; — A. kū̃walī ‘haziness’. *kuhavarṣa—. Addenda: kuha—2: A. kuwali ‘fog’ AFD 223.
3388 *kuharayati ‘coos’, kuharita— n. ‘cry of the kōkila bird’ lex. B. kuharā ‘to coo’; Or. kuharibā, kuhur° ‘to coo, lament plaintively’; H. kuharnā, kah° ‘to groan’. kuhali— see *khilli—.
3389 *kuhavarṣa— ‘misty rain’. [*kuha—2, varṣá— (the latter very doubtful)] P. kuhāssā m. ‘mist, fog’, Bi. kuhes, °sā, Mth. (NETirhut) kuhes, (SBhagalpur) kūhassā. kuhēḍī— see *kuha2. ‘cry out’: kávatē, *kavā—.
3390 *kūkkati ‘screams’. 2. *kūkkā— ‘scream’. [Onom. cf. *kīkkati, to be separated from *krukṣati] 1. Pk. kukkaï, kok° ‘calls, challenges’; S. kūkaṇu ‘to screech’; L. kūkaṇ ‘to scream’, P. kūkṇā, H. kūknā; M. kukṇẽ, kũk° ‘to crow’. 2. S. kūka f. ‘scream’, L. P. kūk f., H. kūk, kok f. — Deriv. S. kūkiṛo m. ‘consternation’, kūkāraṇu ‘to screech’. kūcı̄́— see kūrcá—. Addenda: *kūkkati [Poss. < *kuhukk—: cf. kuhurava- (kuhūrava— Naiṣ.) m. ‘cry of the kōkila’ MBh., kuharita— n. (*kuharayati) lex.; kuhakuhārāva— m. ‘cry of the cātaka’ Bālar., kuhakārāva— m. ‘neighing’ HPariś., kuhakka— m. ‘a musical measure’ MW.] OP. kuhakaṇu ‘to coo (of the kōkila)’; OMarw. (Vīsaḷa) absol. koki ‘summoning’.
3403 *kūpakastambha— ‘stem of a mast’. [kūpa—2, stambha—] G. kuvātham m. ‘mast of a ship’.
3404 *kūpakhani— ‘pit’. [kū́pa—1, khaní—] P. kūhaṇ f. ‘grain pit’; — X khūh < *khūha—: khūhaṇ, °huṇ m. ‘well, mine, pit’.
3405 *kūpaghaṭa— ‘well frame’. [kū́pa—1, *ghaṭa3] H. kohaṛ m. ‘frame of the mouth of a well’.
3406 *kūpatya— ‘belonging to the hollow or valley’. [kū́pa1] Sh. (Lor.) kuyič, °yoč ‘people of the king's country’?
3415 *kūrma— 2 ‘roof’. 2. *kaurma—. [Poss. same as kūrmá1, kaurma— ‘appertaining to a tortoise, *like a tortoise shell’?] 1. A. kum ‘portion of a roof midway between ridge- pole and eaves’. 2. Ash. klōm ‘roof’, Kt. křum; — Kho. krƏm ‘back’ NTS ii 262 with (?): see *kamra—; — Paš. *krōnd— IIFL iii 3, 111(< */aurmānta—?) in lauṛ. lūnd ‘roof’, gul. kundūr, lagh. ṣōnd, nir. l ūn, kuṛ. l ēn, ar. plen, obl. plendƏ. KŪL ‘burn’ see √kūḍ.
3417 *kūliya—, kū́lya— ‘belonging to a bank’ VS. [kū́la1] Sh. kūlyo with gen. ‘along the bank of’ (sina̯ kūlyo ‘along the bank of the river’); Or. kūḷiā ‘situated on the bank’. kū́lya— see prec. *kūlyā— ‘channel’ see kulyā́—. kūhā— see *kuha2. KR̥ 1 ‘do’: kara—1, karin—, karṓti, kártavya—, kártum, kárman—1, *karmán—2, karmā́ra—, karmín—, karmiṣṭha—, karmı̄́na—, *karyatē, kāra—1, kāraṇa—, kārayati1, kā́ri—, kārita—, kārín—, *kāríya—, kārú—, kārmá—, kārmaṇá—, kārmika—, kāryà—, kāryatē, kāryin—, kr̥ṇṓti, —kr̥t—3, kr̥tá—1, kŕ̥ti—1, kr̥tya—, kr̥tvā́, kriyátē, kriyā́—; adhikaraṇı̄́—, adhikarōti, *anukarya—, apa- kāra—, apakr̥ta—, araṁkarōti, áraṁkr̥ta—, ākāra—, ākāraṇa—, ākārayati, ā́kr̥ta—, upakaraṇa—, úpakarōti, upakāra—, upakāriṇī—, upakr̥ta—, upakr̥tya—, upa- skara—1, upā́karōti, niṣkarōti, parikarman—, pari- ṣkāra—, prakaṭá—, prakaraṇa—, prákarōti, prákr̥ta—, prakr̥ti—, pratikarman—, pratikārin—, pratikr̥ti—, *pratikr̥tya—, *praskara—, *praskarōti, víkaṭa—, vikāra—, víkr̥ta—, viprakāra—, vyākaraṇa—, saṁkaṭá—, saṁkārayati, *saṁkr̥ta—1, sáṁkr̥ti—, sáṁskarōti, s*lṁskāra—, sáṁskr̥ta—, sáṁskr̥ti—, satkr̥—, sahakāra—; — *carati2, √skr̥. KR̥ 2 ‘call’: karuṇa—, kārá—2, *kārayati2, kīrtí—; *utkīra—; — √kīrt. kr̥ka— see kr̥kāṭikā—.
3421 *kr̥ta— 2 ‘mat’. [See káṭa—1. — √kr̥t 2] Pk. kiḍiyā— f. ‘small door’; S. kiṛu m. ‘thatched roof’, kiṛo m. ‘hurdle placed in bottom of a boat’, kiṛī f. ‘mat of woven wattles’; L. kiṛā m. ‘reed matting’, kiṛī f. ‘reed hut’; P. kiṛā m. ‘screen of matted straw’; G. kaṛɔ m. ‘large mat’.
3422 *kr̥ta— 3 ‘scattered’. [√kr̥̄ 1] Si. vī—kaḷa ‘one who has sown rice’ ES 22.
3423 *kr̥taka— ‘knife’. [√kr̥t 1] Bashg. kaŕå ‘knife’ Rep1 63 with (?).
3429 *kr̥tyagharikā— ‘court—house’. [kr̥tyá—, ghara—] S. kaccaharī f. ‘court—house’, P. kacaihrī, N. kacahri, A. kāsāri, B. kāchāri, Or. kacerī, Mth. kacaha, Bhoj. H. kacaharī f. (→ G. M. kacerī f.).
3433 *kr̥ntati 2, kr̥ṇátti ‘spins’ AV. [√kr̥t 2] Pa. kantati, Pk. kaṁtaï, Or. kā̃tibā, G. kā̃tvũ, M. kā̃tṇẽ, kāt° (LM 308 < *kartati 2). — X gupháti q.v.
3435 *kr̥ntana— 2 n. and adj. ‘spinning’. [√kr̥t 2] G. kā̃tṇũ n. ‘spinning’; M. kā̃taṇ, kā̃tīṇ, kāt° f. ‘an insect (arachnid?) like a spider’. — See kartana2. KR̥P ‘lament’: kr̥paṇá—, kr̥pā́—, *krapyati; - kr̥cchrá—?
3439 *kr̥mivraṇa— ‘maggoty sore’. [kŕ̥mi—, vraṇá—] M. kivyeṇ, °vaṇ, °van n.; — deriv. kivaṇyā, °anyā, kinā ‘having maggoty sores’.
3445 *kr̥ṣaṇa— ‘pulling, ploughing’. [kr̥ṣáti: √kr̥ṣ] Pa. kasaṇa— n. ‘ploughing’; Paš. nir. keṣení ‘plough’; WPah. bhal. kiśni f. ‘knotted string for tightening or loosening a drum’; Or. kasṇā ‘ploughshare’, kasaṇi, °suṇi ‘drawing tightly, string, ring used by archers for protecting fingers’; H. kasan m. ‘pain, torture’. — See karṣaṇa—.
3459 *kēñcuka— ‘worm’. [kiñculaka—, kiñcilaka— m. ‘earth- worm’ lex.] A. kẽsu, kesu ‘earthworm’, B. kẽcuā, °co, °cui; Or. keñcu, °cuā ‘earthworm, tape—worm’; H. kẽcuā m. ‘earthworm’.
3460 *kēṭṭa— ‘child’. [Cf. *kaṭṭa—2, *kaḍḍa—] Paš. weg. keṭalā́, lagh. kiṭ° ‘boy, son’; Shum. kyēṭa ‘boy’, °ṭī ‘girl’; Ku. keṭo ‘boy, son, puppy, kitten’, °ṭī ‘daughter’; N. keṭo ‘boy, son’, °ṭi ‘girl, daughter’; — Si. keṭṭu ‘thin, meagre’? Cf. OM. kelā ‘pupil’. *kēḍ— ‘play’ see *khēḍ—. Addenda: *kēṭṭa— [Cf. cāṭa—, cēlla—]: †;*gurjarakēṭṭa—, †;*daridrakēṭṭa—.
3461 *kēḍa— ‘stick, twig’. WPah. bhad. kèṛu ‘firewood’, bhiḍ. kèṛõ; n. pl. ‘pieces of wood’; Ku. keṛo, pl. kyāṛā m. ‘thin stick’, N. pāt- kerā ‘leaves and twigs’; Bi. kerā ‘small bundle of crop given to village artisan at the division’; H. keṛā m. ‘tender twig, sapling’. Addenda: *kēḍa— ‘stick’. [Poss. der. from sáṁkirati, OP. sakelaṇu ‘to collect (firewood)’; C. Shackle p. 32 derives the OP. verb from *kēḍa—] J.C.W.
3467 *kērayati ‘scatters’. 2. kēláyati ‘throws, sends’ Dhātup. [√kr̥̄ 1] 1. P. kerṇā ‘to pour, scatter, spread’; N. kernu, kerāunu ‘to strike out’; H. kerānā, kirānā (or der. kiráti) ‘to sift, winnow’; — altern. < 2 below: S. keraṇu, kerāiṇu ‘to throw down’; Bi. Mth. (Tirhut) kĕraunī ‘weeding, hoeing’. 2. P. kalāuṇā ‘to winnow’; N. kelāunu ‘to sift’; B. kelāna ‘to strip off, lay bare’; Or. keḷāibā ‘to sift husks out of fried rice’; Mth. (SBhagalpur) kĕlaunī ‘hoeing’; H. kilānā ‘to winnow’. — See kiráti. *kērāva— ‘pea’ see kalāya—.
3468 *kērita— ‘scattered’. [Pp. of *kērayati. — √kr̥̄ 1] P. kerī f. ‘kiln dust, pounded bricks’. kḗlati see *khēḍ—. kēláyati see *kērayati. kḗli— see *khēḍ—.
3476 *kaiḍikā— ‘a small sheep’. [kā—, ēḍa—] Kho. kéḷi ‘sheep’ BelvalkarVol 91, (Lor.) ‘ewe three or four or more years old’.
3482 *kōkāṅga— ‘having a wolf's body’. [kṓka—, áṅga1] A. kuwāṅ ‘wolf’.
3486 *kōkka— ‘nail’. [→ Par. kūk IIFL i 265] Pk. kokkāsa— m. ‘the name of a carpenter’; Ash. kōkā́ ‘nail, peg’, Wg. (Lumsden) "kokhchu", Paš. kōkū́; S. koko m. ‘small nail, pin’, kokaṇu ‘to tack, stitch together’, koka f. ‘stitch’; L. kokā m. ‘hobnail, tack’; P. kokā m. ‘a very small nail’, kok f. ‘basting’; N. kokai kā̃ṭi ‘nails’; H. kokā m. ‘tack, nail, thorn, spike of plaintain, bud’; M. kõ;kā m. ‘spike of plaintain’; Si. kokka, pl. koku ‘hook’, keki ‘hook for picking fruit’ < *kokkiā.
3488 *kōcayati ‘contracts’ [saṁkōcayati MBh. — √kuc] S. koiṇu ‘to draw in (the belly), save, economize’, koa f. ‘economy’.
3489 *kōcc— ‘thrust, pierce, dig’. Wg. Kt. kuč— ‘to dig’, Pr. kučƏ—, Dm. kōč—, Paš. kēči— IIFL iii 3, 88, Kal. kōč—; P. kucalnā ‘to bruise, crush’, kucrā ‘broken to pieces’; Ku. kocṇo ‘to pene- trate’; N. kocnu ‘to thrust, force into’, kocārnu ‘to thrust’, kucelnu ‘to stir up’; H. kocnā, kū̆c°, kõ;c°, kū̃c° ‘to pierce, rip’; G. kocvũ ‘to pierce’, kocrũ ‘having holes’. — Prob. separate from Dm. kučāy— ‘to scratch oneself’; Paš. kučeyā ‘itch’; Kal. kučh— ‘to scratch’, Kho. kuc̣ēi—, Gaw. kuċa— NTS xii 172. Addenda: *kōcc—: cf. *kucyatē.
3490 *kōjava— ‘fleecy cloth’. Pa. kōjava— m. ‘rug or cover with long hair, fleecy counterpane’; Pk. kōyavaya— m. ‘coverlet made of cloth stuffed with cotton—wool’; Si. kon̆du ‘made of goat's hair’ EGS 50. Addenda: *kōjava—, cf. kaucapaka— m.n. ‘kind of rug’ Arthaś.
3492 *kōṭa— 2 ‘breaking’. [√kuṭ 2] Bi. asāṛhī kor ‘hoeing of sugarcane in June—July’; — Or. koṛi ‘spade’ < *kōṭikā—.
3494 *kōṭana— ‘breaking’. [√kuṭ 2] Bi. (Gaya) koṛan, (SMunger) koṛnī ‘ploughing of millet when one foot high’, (Camparan) koran ‘hoeing’; Mth. (SBhagalpur) koṛan ‘digging’.
3499 *kōṭiprāpta— ‘having reached the top’. [kṓṭi—1, prā́pta—] Pa. kōṭippatta— ‘perfected’, Si. keḷapat Geiger EGS 49, but prob. Si. cmpd. after Pa.
3502 *kōḍamba— ‘pot’. [← Drav. see kuṭa1] Pa. kōḷamba— m. ‘pot’; Pk. kōlaṁba— m. ‘dish’ (cf. kollara— m.); Niṅg. kōṛmṓ ‘pitcher’; M. koḷãbẽ n. ‘pot with large opening’.
3503 *kōḍi— ‘a score, twenty’. [J. Przyluski RoczOrj iv 231 ← Austro—as. (Mahle kuri, Birhar kuṛi, Kharia kori, Juang koḍi: prob. same as word for ‘man’, i.e. ‘20 fingers’) whence → Drav. (Kurukh kūrī, Malto koṛi, Kui kōḍe)] K. kuri f. ‘a score’, S. P. koṛī f. (PhonPj 118 < kṓṭi1), N. kori, A. kuri, B. kuṛi, Or. koṛi, H. koṛī f., G. kũḍī f., M. koḍ, °ḍī f. *kōḍḍ— ‘dig’ see *khōdd—. Addenda: *kōḍi—: S.kcch. koḍī ‘20’.
3505 *kōṇakāṣṭha— ‘corner wood’. [kōṇa—, kāṣṭhá—] B. konāṭh ‘a piece of bamboo or wood bound on the hips of a roof to close the thatch at each corner’.
3506 *kōṇasītā— ‘furrow from corner to corner’. [kōṇa—, sı̄́tā—] Bi. kŏnsī, °siyā ‘ploughing from corner to corner’, Mth. kŏnsiyā.
3507 *kōṇṭa— ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] Pa. koṇṭa— m. ‘man of dirty habits’.
3508 *kōṇṭha— ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] Pa. koṇṭha— ‘crippled’; Pk. koṁṭha— ‘slow, stupid’; Paš. kōṇḍā́ ‘bald’, Kal. rumb. kōṇḍa ‘hornless’. *kōṇḍala— ‘ring’ see kuṇḍalá1.
3509 *kōta— ‘garlic’. Kt. ‘edible garlic, chive’; Dm. kuwŕéi, kuwéŕi ‘name of a plant, garlic (?)’ NTS xii 175; Kal. kōla ‘edible garlic’.
3510 *kōttha— ‘belly’. [Cf. *kōtthala—, kṓṣṭha1?] Pk. kottha— ‘pertaining to the belly’; Or. kothā ‘corpulent’, kothala, °thāḷa ‘pot—bellied’; — X *gōdda- in kodā, °dāḷiā ‘id.’?
3511 *kōtthala— ‘bag’. [Cf. *kōttha—] Pa. kotthalī— f. ‘sack (?)’; Pk. kotthala— m. ‘bag, grainstore’ (kōha— m. ‘bag’ < *kōtha?); K. kŏthul, °lu m. ‘large bag or parcel’, kothüjü f. ‘small do.’; S. kothirī f. ‘bag’; Ku. kuthlo ‘large bag, sack’; B. kūthlī ‘satchel, wallet’; Or. kuthaḷi, °thuḷi, kothaḷi, °thiḷi ‘wallet, pouch’; H. kothlā m. ‘bag, sack, stomach (see *kōttha—)’, °lī f. ‘purse’; G. kothḷɔ m. ‘large bag’, °ḷī f. ‘purse, scrotum’; M. kothḷā m. ‘large sack, chamber of stomach (= peṭā ċā k°)’, °ḷẽ n. ‘sack’, °ḷī f. ‘small sack’; — X gōṇı̄́—: S. ǥothirī f. ‘bag’, L. gutthlā m.
3512 *kōtr— ‘dig’. 2. *khōtr—. [See list s.v. *khōdd— and √*khuṭ 1] 1. G. kotarvũ ‘to dig, carve’, kotar n. ‘cave, den’; — N. kotranu ‘to scratch’ < *kōtraḍ—? 2. S. khoṭranu ‘to dig, carve’; L. poṭh. khotarṇā ‘to poke about’ (X khánati in khanotarṇā ‘to poke, dig up with any small instrument’), awāṇ. khōtruṇ ‘to scratch, dig’, G. khotarvũ ‘to dig, scratch’, khotarṇā̃ n. pl. ‘old errors raked up’; — N. khotar ‘burnt sediment of milk’ < *khotraḍ—. Addenda: *kōtr—. 2. *khōtr—: S.kcch. khotarṇū ‘to scratch (for itching)’, P. khoṭnā ‘to dig, scratch, poke’.
3519 *kōppara— ‘coconut, skull’. [Cf. *khōppa1] Bshk. kōpar ‘top of head’; S. kopiro m. ‘coconut’, °rī f. ‘skull’; L. kōpar m. ‘a large head’, kōprī f. ‘skull, crown of head’; N. koparā ‘pan (usu. brass)’; Or. koparā ‘a skull—like earthen vessel’; G. koprũ n. ‘coco- nut’ (ṭoprũ n. ‘id.’ orig. an echo word of the type B. ghoṛā—ṭoṛā ODBL 176); M. koprā m. ‘small iron pot’. Addenda: *kōppara—: Pk. kuppara— m. ‘skull’ (see karpara—).
3520 *kōpyatē ‘is made angry’. [Pass. of kōpáyati ‘shakes’ RV., ‘makes angry’ MBh. — √kup] Pk. koppaï ‘is angry’, Or. kopibā, OAw. kopaï.
3521 *kōpha— ‘lump, hill’. [< Ār. *kaupha—, Av. kaofa—, OPers. kaufa— ‘mountain’.] Pr. ‘high mountain’, Kt. ‘hump’ NTS xv 260.
3522 *kōbb— ‘strike’. 2. *kōmb—. [Cf. *cōbb—] 1. S. koḇaṇu ‘to beat ground level’, koḇo m. ‘rammer’; P. kobā m. ‘wooden or iron beater for leather’; A. kob ‘blow with a striking or cutting instrument’, kobāiba ‘to strike, whip’; Or. kobā ‘wooden rammer’, kobā—kobī ‘mutual beating’; M. kubalṇẽ ‘to beat’; — B. kopāna ‘to strike, dig, cut, chop’ X copāna— < *cōpp—. 2. M. kõ;bṇẽ, komṇẽ ‘to thump, thrust, force in, cram in’. Addenda: *kōbb—. 2. *kōmb—: Ko. khombtā ‘thrusts’.
3524 *kōmh— ‘wither’. 2. *kurumm—. 1. Pk. kummaṇa—, kuimāṇa— ‘withered’; S. kūmāijaṇu, °māṭijaṇu, pp. °māṇo ‘to wither’, L. kumāvaṇ, pp. °māṇa, P. kumlāuṇā, kam°; N. kumhlāunu, kuml° ‘to fade, wither’, OAw. kuṁbhilāi, H. kumhlānā, kumbhil°, kumbhl°; M. kõ;bṇẽ, komṇẽ, °meṇẽ, °mej̈ṇẽ, °maj̈ṇẽ, °māiṇẽ, °māvṇẽ, °malṇẽ. 2. Pk. kurumāṇa— n. ‘withering’; L. kurmāvaṇ, pp. °māṇa ‘to wither’; G. karmāvũ, pp. °māyũ ‘to fade, wither, pine away’.
3525 *kōya— ‘inside of fruit’. N. koyo ‘stone or kernel of fruit’; H. koyā m. ‘pulp of jackfruit’; M. koy f., koyãḍā m. ‘mango stone’, koyāḷ ‘having a fully formed kernel (of a mango)’.
3526 *kōra— ‘fresh, new, unused’. K. kōra ‘brand new, unused, unwashed’; S. koro ‘new, unwashed, blank’; L. korā ‘fresh, unused (of a pot), simple, stupid’; P. korā ‘new (of a pot), un- bleached, unwashed, untaught’; Ku. koro ‘unused, dry, rough’; N. koro ‘raw’; B. korā ‘rough, uncleaned, unbleached’; Or. korā ‘new (of cloth), unbleached’, k° lugā ‘unbleached calico’; H. korā ‘new, unhandled, unwashed, simple, poor’; G. korũ ‘new, unwashed, unused’; M. korā ‘new, just made, unused’. Addenda: *kōra— [← Drav. see kuḍmalá— Add2] S.kcch. koro ‘blank’, WPah.kṭg. kṓrɔ ‘straight’ (Him.I 23 why ṓ?), J. korā ‘plain, unused’, OP. nikoru ‘quite pure’ (+ intensive †;niṣ—).
3528 *kōraḍa— ‘whip’. [√*kur?] P. koraṛā, koṛā m. ‘whip’, N. korrā (koraṛā ← H.), B. koṛā, Or. koraṛā, koṛā, kuṛā, H. kolṛā, koṛṛā, koṛā m., G. kɔrṛɔ, koyṛɔ, kɔḍḍɔ m., M. korḍā m.
3529 *kōraṇīya— ‘to be scraped’. [√*kur] Ku. kornī ‘dried portion of food stuck to a pot’; — N. kurāuni ‘id., milk boiled till nearly solid’ < *kōrā- paṇīya—?
3530 *kōrati ‘scrapes’, kōrita— ‘scraped out of the ground’ Bhpr., ‘pounded’ W. [√*kur] Ḍ. koroina ‘to dig’; Wg. kōri— ‘to bite’, krö— ‘to chew’; Paš. lauṛ. kōr—, gul. kūr— ‘to dig’; S. koraṇu ‘to scrape or scoop out’; P. kornā ‘to dig, excavate, cut’; B. korā, kurā ‘to scrape, grate, scratch out, powder, gnaw’; Or. koribā, kur° ‘to scrape, rasp, comb’; H. kornā ‘to dig or scrape or scoop out’; G. korvũ ‘to scoop, carve, bore a hole’; M. korṇẽ ‘to scoop, engrave, cut gradually off’; — altern. < kōṭáyatē: N. kornu ‘to scratch, tear, comb’; A. koriba ‘to hoe’, korokiba ‘to scoop out’. - With expressive redup. H. kakornā ‘to scrape’. Addenda: *kōrati: S.kcch. korṇū ‘to bore (a hole)’; WPah.kṭg. kornõ; ‘to bore, drill’, kurnõ; ‘to be bored’. kōla— see krōḍá— Add2.
3531 *kōrā— f. ‘edge, side, direction’. S. kora f. ‘edge, binding, tape’; P. kor f. ‘edge, hangnail’; Mth. kor ‘boundary’; H. kor f. ‘edge, tip’ (in latter sense prob. < kṓṭi1); G. kor f. ‘edge, direc- tion’; M. kor f. ‘side, direction’.
3533 *kōla— 4 ‘curved, crooked’. [Cf. kaula— m. ‘worshipper of Śakti according to left—hand ritual’, khōla3 ‘lame’ s.v. khōra1. Prob. < *kaura— (IE. *qou—lo— cf. WP i 371?) in Khot. kūra— ‘crooked’ BSOS ix 72 and poss. Sk. kōra— m. ‘movable joint’ Suśr.] Ash. kṓlƏ ‘curved, crooked’; Dm. kōla ‘crooked’, Tir. kṓolƏ; Paš. kōlā́ ‘curved, crooked’, Shum. kolā́ṇṭa; Kho. koli ‘crooked’, (Lor.) also ‘lefthand, left’; Bshk. kōl ‘crooked’, Tor. kōl (Grierson Tor 161 < kuṭila—: rejected by Morgenstierne AO xii 181), Phal. ulo; Sh. kōlu̯ ‘curved, crooked’. kōlaka— see kakkōla—.
3536 *kōlhu— ‘machine for pressing sugarcane or oilseeds’. Pk. kolluga—, kolhua— m. ‘sugarcane press’, S. kolū m., P. kolhū, kuhulū m. ‘oilpress, sugarcane press’; WPah. bhal. kṑlū m. ‘oilpress’, N. kol; Or. kohliā, kolihā, °liā ‘sugarcane press’; Bi. kolh, °hū, (Gaya) kelhū ‘oilpress’, Mth. kōlh, Bhoj. kōlhu ; H. kolhū, kolū m. ‘sugarcane press, oilpress’; G. kohlu m. ‘sugarcane press’. — Deriv.: B. Or. kalu ‘oil—man (by caste)’, H. kolū m. *kōlhuvagāra—, *kōlhuśālā—. Addenda: *kōlhu—: WPah.kṭg. kóllhu m. ‘sugar—cane or oil press’.
3537 *kōlhuvagāra— ‘mill house’. [*kōlhu—, agāra—] P. kolhār m. ‘oil factory’; Bi. kolhuār ‘sugarcane mill and boiling house’.
3538 *kōlhuśālā— ‘pressing house for sugarcane or oilseeds’. [*kōlhu—, śā́lā—] Bi. kolsār ‘sugarcane mill and boiling house’. kōvidāra— ‘Bauhinea variegata’ see kuddāla2.
3544 *kōṣati ‘strikes’. [Cf. inf. niṣkōṣṭum, aor. nirakōṣīt Vop. — √kuṣ] Kho. (Lor.) kōšik (?) ‘to slaughter’, L. kōhaṇ, awāṇ. kṑvuṇ.
3548 *kōṣṭharūpa— ‘like a room’. [kṓṣṭha—2, rūpá—] B. kuṭru ‘tent’.
3549 *kōṣṭhāṁśa— ‘share of store’. [kṓṣṭha—2, áṁśa—] Pa. koṭṭhāsa— m. ‘share, portion’, adj. ‘divided into’ (ā felt as contraction of a—a and preserved before ṁs; consequent āṁs > ās: cf. re—establishment of prefix ā before MIA. double consonant, e.g. Pk. āṇavēdi < *āṇṇ° replacing aṇṇ— < Sk. ājñ—); Si. koṭasa, kohoṭa ‘share, part, piece’.
3552 *kōṣma— ‘warm’. [Cf. kōṣṇa—, kavōṣṇa— ‘warm’ Pāṇ. - ka—3, ūṣmán—] Sh. (Lor.) kūš ‘damp (of ground, etc.)’ (? — ‘tepid > cool > damp’?); S. koso ‘hot, warm’; L. kōsā ‘luke- warm’, m. ‘fever’; P. kōssā ‘lukewarm’; A. kuhumīyā ‘tepid’; M. kõ;baṭ, komaṭ ‘warmish’. Addenda: *kōṣma—: S.kcch. koso ‘hot’. *kōstambarī— see kustumbarī— Add2.
3553 *kōṣya— ‘to be struck’. [√kuṣ] S. kosu m. ‘slaughter’, kosaṛu ‘fit for slaughter’; L. kōs f. ‘animal fit only for killing’. *kōstambarī— ‘coriander’ see kustumbarī—. *kōhaṇḍa— ‘gourd’ see kuṣmāṇḍa—. *kōhala— ‘gourd’ see kuṣmāṇḍa—.
3563 *kauttika— ‘pertaining to dogs’. [*kutta—] L. kotī m. ‘dog—keeper, gamekeeper’.
3573 *krandaka— ‘challenger’. [krandana— n. ‘challenging’ lex. — √krand 1] K. konu m. ‘a summoner sent by her people to invite a bride to visit from her husband's house’.
3576 *krapyati ‘howls’, or with expressive doubling *krap- pati. [kŕ̥patē, aor. akrapiṣṭa ‘howls, weeps’ RV., krápatē ‘sympathizes with’ Dhātup. — √kr̥p] Paš. kuṛ., Shum. l ap— ‘to cough’ (semant. ‘howl ~ cough’ cf. krádatē); Kho. krophik, pres. kraphim ‘to crow’. KRAM ‘step’: kráma—, krámaṇa—, kramatē, *kra- mīkrama—, krā́mati, caṅkramaṇa—; atikrámaṇa—, áti- kramati, átikrānta—, atikrāmayati, anukrama—, abhíkramati, ākrámaṇa—, ā́kramatē, ākrānta—, utkrámaṇa—, útkramati, *utkramyati, utkrāma—, utkrāmayati, upakrama—, nikrámaṇa—, níṣkramati, niṣkrānta—, parākrama—, parikramaṇa—, párikra- matē, *pratikramati, vikrama—, vyatikrama—, saṁ- kramá—, saṁkrānti—.
3580 *kramīkrama— ‘trampling’. [√kram] Kt. kŕamkŕam ‘threshing floor’, Pr. kƏmkƏm: doubtful. kramu—, °uka— see kr̥muká—.
3582 *krayakāra— ‘making a bargain’. [krayá—, kāra1] Bshk. l äyar— ‘to sell’ AO xviii 243.
3586 *kriṁśati ‘presses, torments’. [~ kliśnā́ti like ban- dhati ~ badhnā́ti. — √*kriś] L. awāṇ. krijjhuṇ ‘to fret’: more prob. < krúdhyati X klíśyatē. krími— see kŕ̥mi—. kriyátē see karṓti.
3588 *kriśati ‘presses’. [Pres. st. formed from aor. subj. — *kriś, √kliś] WPah. roh. kriśṇõ; ‘to comb’. — See *kriśyatē.
3589 *kriśnāti ‘presses’. [kliśnā́ti ‘torments’ MBh., sáṁ- kliśnāti ‘presses together’ ŚBr. — √*kriś, √kliś] Kal. rumb. kriẓnim ‘I knead, crush’ with < ž after kr—? — See *krēśayati.
3590 *kriśyatē ‘is pressed’. [~ klíśyatē ‘is troubled’ MBh. — √*kriś, √kliś] K. krēśun, pp. kryūśu ‘to long for’.
3591 *kriṣṭa— ‘distressed’. [~ kliṣṭa—. — √*kriś, √kliś] K. krēṭh, dat. °ṭhas m. ‘pain, trouble’, krūṭhu ‘painful, difficult’, krēṭhun ‘to be hard’. KRĪ ‘barter’: krayá—, krayaṇa—, krayāṇaka—, krīṇā́ṭi, krēya—; níṣkrīṇītē, vikrayá—, *vikrāpayati, *vikri- ṇāti, vikrīta—, vikrīyatē. — *vēcc—. KRĪḌ ‘sport’. [In NIA. replaced or crossed by words to be found s.v. *khēḍ—] krı̄́ḍati, krīḍana—.
3595 *krukṇa— ‘curved, twisted’. [krukta— ‘curved’ W. - √kruñc] WPah. bhal. kukṛū m. ‘reel of spun thread’; H. kūknā ‘to wind, twist’, kūkrī, kuk° f. ‘skein’; M. kukḍẽ n. ‘quantity of thread drawn from a spindle’.
3596 *krukṣati ‘shouts’. [From aor. ákrukṣat RV. — √kruś] Wg. kr̥č— ‘to bellow’ NTS xvii 267 < *krukṣya—. — Prob. to be separated from onom. *kukkati. KRUÑC ‘curve’: *krukṇa—, krúñca—.
3599 *krudhati ‘is angry’. [From aor. subj. (2 sg. krudhaḥ AV.): √krudh] Kho. kruik ‘to be displeased or sulky’; — cf. Pk. kuhaṇa— ‘angry’.
3603 *krūrāśanikā— ‘feeding on raw flesh’. [krūrá—, áśana—] Or. kurāiśuṇī ‘name of a popular village goddess’.
3605 *krēśa— ‘pressing’. [~ klēśa—: √*kriś, √kliś] Wg. krē̃ċ ‘empty millet straw’ < ‘*threshing’.
3606 *krēśayati ‘presses’. [~ klēśayati ‘torments’ R.: √*kriś, √kliś] Dm. kr e ṣem ‘I knead (flour, etc.) with < š after kr—. — See *kriśnāti. krōñca— see krúñca—.
3614 *krōṣṭā— f. ‘calling’. [√kruś] S. koṭha f. ‘invitation’, koṭhaṇu, °ṭhāiṇu ‘to send for’, koṭho m. ‘a call, messenger’. krṓṣṭu— see krōṣṭŕ̥—.
3616 *klava— ‘fear’. [klávatē ‘fears’ Dhātup. — √klav] S. kaü m. ‘fear, dread’ < *krava—?
3618 *klāvyatē ‘is frightened’. [klávatē ‘fears’ Dhātup., klavita— ‘uttered hesitatingly’ SaṁhUp. — √klav] M. kāvṇẽ, kāvhṇẽ ‘to be frightened out of one's wits’ or < *klavyati. — Deriv. kāvrā ‘terrified’ or < kātara—.
3619 *klitta— ‘wet’. [~ klinna—. — √klid] K. k°tu ‘wet, juicy’, katun ‘to become moist’. *aklitta—. KLID ‘wet’: *klitta—, klídyati, klíndati, klinna—, klēdayati, klēdu—; *aklitta—.
3643 *kṣaṇati ‘is sifted, is strained, falls’. 2. Pp. *kṣata—2. 3. *kṣaṇana— ‘the being sifted etc.’. 4. Caus. *kṣāṇayati. 5. Pp. *kṣāṇita—. 6. *kṣāṇa—2. 7. *kṣāṇana—. [Cf. MIr. šan—, past st. šata— ‘to spread, scatter, shake, pour out’ H. W. Bailey BSOS vii 777 and Morgenstierne IIFL ii 209. MIr. š— poss. < OIr. š— or —, i.e. IE. k̂s— or qs—. Kaf. č— < IE. qs—. Paš. forms with čh— are ← Ind. which, with possible excep- tion of K. with ch (not ċh) and S. with kh—, has general- ized ch—.— √*kṣan 2] 1. Kho. c̣honik ‘to beat down, shake down’ (Bel- valkarVol 89 < kṣaṇṓti with which it collides); K. chanun ‘to be sifted’; S. chaṇaṇu ‘to be strained (whence tr. to strain), to drop (of fruit)’; P. chaṇnā ‘to be sifted’; H. channā ‘to be strained’; G. chaṇvũ ‘to filter, strain’ (tr. < intr. after past); — prob. S. khaṇaṇu ‘to lift, take up’ assuming semantic change: ‘sift — toss up - lift’? 2. Paš.kuṛ. ċhāy— ‘to fall’; S. khayo pp. of khaṇaṇu in 1. 3. S. chaṇiṇī f. ‘sifting’. 4. Wg. čãṛ—, čãṛe— ‘to pour out’, Ash. činā—; Dm. c̣hāṇ— ‘to pour, sow, throw’; Kho. (Lor.) c̣anik ‘to knock down fruit from a tree’, (Morgenstierne) c̣hanik; K. chānun ‘to sift, strain, shake down’; S. chāṇaṇu ‘to strain, sift, let drop, pluck’; L. chāṇaṇ ‘to strain’; P. chāṇnā ‘to sift, strain, choose’; WPah. bhal. ċhāṇnū ‘to sift’, Ku. chāṇṇo; N. chānnu ‘to strain, sort’; B. chānā ‘to knead, mould’; Or. chāṇibā ‘to sift, strain’; H. chānnā ‘to sift’; G. chāṇvũ ‘to filter, strain’. — Sh. c̣haṇóĭki̯ ‘to send’ rather < práhiṇōti. 5. B. chāni ‘fine cut straw mixed with oilcake’; - poss. also words for ‘empty’ IIFL iii 3, 49: Paš. čhāni, Phal. čheṇiko, Bshk. c̣han, K. chọ̆nu (< *kṣaṇaka—?). 6. Pk. chāṇa— n., °ṇī— f. ‘husking rice’; Gy. as. čani, čanri ‘sieve’; S. chāṇu m. ‘bran’, °ṇo m. ‘strainer’, °ṇī f. ‘metal strainer’; P. chāṇā m. ‘scattering, sowing’; N. chān ‘choice’. 7. Pk. chāṇaṇa— n. ‘sifting’, S. chāṇiṇī f.; L. chāṇaṇī f. ‘sieve’, P. chāṇnī f., WPah. bhad. ċhānnu n., bhal. ċhāṇnu n.; Bi. channā ‘sieve or strainer placed over receptacle for juice in a sugar—cane mill’; Bhoj. chananā ‘strainer’. See *utkṣānayati. *kṣaṇana— see prec. Addenda: *kṣaṇati. 1. S.kcch. khaṇṇū ‘to lift up’. 4. *kṣāṇayati: S.kcch. chāṇṇū ‘to sift’, WPah.J. chāṇnu. 6. *kṣāṇa—2: S.kcch. aṭe—chāṇū, °cheṇū f. ‘sieve’. 7. *kṣāṇana—: WPah.kṭg. chāṇni f.
3654 *kṣapitavāṭa— ‘enclosure for lost animals’. [kṣapita—, vāṭa1] B. khõ;yāṛ, khũy° ‘pound for stray animals, pen for cattle’.
3665 *kṣāṇa— 1 ‘burnt’. [avakṣā́ṇa— TS. — ~ *jhāna—: √kṣai] S. khāṇo pp. ‘burnt, envious’ from which was formed pres. st. khāmaṇu ‘to burn, be envious’ after type sāmaṇu ~ sāṇo, etc. *kṣāṇa— 2 ‘sifting’ see *kṣaṇati. *kṣāṇavartaka—. *kṣāṇana— ‘sifting’ see *kṣaṇati. *kṣāṇayati ‘sifts’ see *kṣaṇati.
3666 *kṣāṇavartaka— ‘straining vessel’. [*kṣāṇa— s.v. *kṣaṇati, *varta2] Bi. (Shahabad) chanauṭā ‘iron sieve with a handle’, Mth. (NWTirhut) sanauṭā. *kṣāṇita— ‘sifted’ see *kṣaṇati.
3670 *kṣāpayati 2 ‘destroys, throws away’. [See kṣapayati. - √kṣi 2] K. chāwun ‘to throw’; S. khāiṇu ‘to wear away’.
3676 *kṣārakūṭa— ‘ash—heap’. [kṣāra—1, kūṭa2] WPah. jaun. chōrōṛ ‘ash—heap’; — Mth. chāur ‘dust, ashes’ < *chārur?
3677 *kṣāradhānikā— ‘receptacle for ashes’. [kṣārá—,1 dhā́na—] N. kharāni ‘ashes’.
3678 *kṣāramr̥tti—, kṣāramr̥ttikā— f. ‘saline soil’ KātyŚr. Com. [kṣārá—1, mŕ̥ttikā—] M. khārvaṭ f.
3686 *kṣipya— ‘to be thrown out’. [√kṣip] Or. khipa ‘spittle ejected when chewing betel, pressed betel dregs left in mouth’ perh. semant. in- fluenced by kṣı̄́vyati s.v. kṣáuti.
3689 *kṣirati ‘flows’. [~ *jhirati 1. — Formed from kṣárati after type tárati ~ tirátē. — √kṣar] Pk. khiraï ‘drips, drops, falls’; H. khernā ‘to flow, pass away’ (whence e?); M. khirṇẽ ‘to flow (of semen or urine), pine away’, tr. ‘to cause to flow through, strain, sift’. — Pk. pp. khiriya— ‘fallen’; H. kherī f. ‘afterbirth’.
3691 *kṣīṇakūṭin— ‘having a worn ploughshare’. [kṣīṇá—, kūṭa3] Bi. khinauri ‘an old or worn plough, a plough with a small worn block’.
3692 *kṣīṇāsrava—, kṣīṇāśrava— m. ‘Buddhist saint’ BHSk. [kṣīṇá—, āsrava—] Pa. khīṇāsava—, Si. kiṇasavayā EGS 43, but ← Pa.
3698 *kṣīrarukṣa— ‘name of a tree’. [kṣīravr̥kṣa— m. ‘com- mon name of four trees’ Suśr. — kṣīrá—, *rukṣa—] Si. kiriruka ‘the tree Buchmania latifolia’.
3699 *kṣīravaṭa— ‘milk cake’. [kṣīrá—, vaṭa3] Bi. khirwarā, khiraurā ‘cake of rice flour prepared in hot water’.
3706 *kṣuṭati ‘gets loose’. [√*kṣuṭ] Pk. khuḍaï ‘is separated, is broken’; S. chuṛaṇu ‘to get loose, be fired, (semen) to be emitted’; B. chuṛāna ‘to discharge, shoot’.
3707 *kṣuṭyatē ‘is released’. [√*kṣuṭ] Pk. chuṭṭa— ‘released’, and poss. khuṭṭa— ‘broken’ (cf. chuṭṭha— ‘thrown’); P. chuṭṭ ‘except’, chuṭṭaṛ ‘forsaken’; N. chuṭṭo ‘separate’, H. chuṭṭā; G. chuṭũ, chuṭṭũ ‘loosened’, M. suṭā; — Pk. chuṭṭaï ‘is released’, khuṭṭaï ‘becomes less, is broken’; S. chuṭaṇu ‘to get loose’; L. chuṭṭaṇ ‘to get loose, run’; P. chuṭṭṇā ‘to be freed’; WPah. roh. ċhuṭṇõ; ‘to slip away, be left behind’; Ku. chuṭṇo ‘to be released’; N. chuṭnu ‘to get loose, come to an end’; A. suṭiba ‘to run’; B. chuṭā ‘to get loose, run away, run’; Or. chuṭibā ‘to run’; Mth. chūṭab ‘to go away’; OAw. chūṭaï ‘escapes’, H. chūṭnā; Marw. chuṭṇo ‘to get loose’, G. chuṭvũ, M. suṭṇẽ; — S. chuṭī f. ‘freedom’, P. chuṭṭī f. ‘leave’ (→ H. G. chuṭṭī f.); N. chuṭ ‘separation’; A. suṭī ‘leave’; B. Or. chuṭi ‘leave, dismissal’; M. suṭī f. ‘remission’. — Ext. with —kk—: S. chuṭkaṇu ‘to be fired off’; H. chuṭkānā ‘to release’; G. chuṭko m. ‘escape’; M. suṭakṇẽ ‘to vanish’. Addenda: kṣuṭyatē: S.kcch. chūṭā poṇu ‘to disperse’; WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ċhv́ṭṇõ; ‘to be discharged, get loose, run away’; J. chuṭṇu.
3709 *kṣutta— ‘crushed’. 2. *kṣuttikā— ‘powder’. [~ kṣuṇṇa—. — √kṣud] 1. S. chūto m. ‘remnants of sugarcane, tooth—stick with frayed end’ (with ū fr. pres. st. *chū < *kṣudati?). 2. Ash. šutı̄́ ‘ashes’; Kt. šüt ‘earth’; Kho. c̣huti ‘soil, dust, mud’. KṢUD ‘trample’. [For list of poss. enlargements of IE. *sqeu— see √sku] kṣuṇṇa—, *kṣutta—, *kṣudati, *kṣudyatē, kṣudrá—, *kṣundati, kṣulla—, kṣōda—, kṣōdita—; *avakṣōdati, *ākṣuṇṇa—, *ākṣundati, *nikṣutta—, *vikṣuṇatti, vikṣuṇṇa—, *vikṣōda—, vikṣōdayati. Addenda: kṣutta—. 2. *kṣuttikā—: Kho. c̣huti ‘soil’ BKhoT 67. KṢUD: †;kṣōdya—.
3710 *kṣudati ‘crushes’. [√kṣud] Pk. chuaï ‘grinds, presses’; S. chuo m. ‘remnants of sugarcane, tooth—stick with frayed end’ < *chuio?
3711 *kṣudyatē ‘is crushed’. [√kṣud] Pk. khujjaï ‘rejects’ (or < *skudyatē?), chujjaï ‘is crushed’; H. khūjhā m. ‘sediment, refuse’ (jh?).
3714 *kṣudratātaputra— ‘father's younger brother's son’. [kṣudratāta—, putrá—] B. khuṛutā ‘father's younger brother's children’ < *khuṛāutā ODBL 503 perh. after jeṭhutā < jyēṣṭha- putra—.
3717 *kṣundati ‘crushes’. [Cf. kṣuṇátti Pāṇ., kṣṓdati ‘presses against’, kṣōdáyati ‘agitates by stamping’ RV.: √kṣud] Pk. khuṁdaï ‘pounds, grinds’; A. khundiba ‘to pound, pulverize’; Or. khundibā ‘to ram in’; H. khū̃dnā ‘to trample on, paw up’; G. khũdvũ ‘to trample on’, khũdṇũ n. ‘running about’. Pk. chuṁdaï ‘pounds, attacks’; K. ċhunun ‘to throw down, place, pour, thrust into, apply’ (← Ind.); G. chũdvũ ‘to trample, tread’; M. sũdṇẽ ‘to crush, trample’; Si. sin̆dinavā, hi° ‘to express oil’, sin̆denavā ‘to be pressed out (of oil), be dried up (of water in well or river)’. Ext. with —l—: H. khũdalnā ‘to trample under foot’ → M. khũdaḷṇẽ ‘to tread mortar, treat roughly, shake and toss’ (or poss. < skúndatē). — X khura—: M. khurã- daḷṇẽ, khurũd° ‘to trample, crush’. — X rundhati q.v. KṢUP ‘press’. [For list of poss. enlargements of IE. *sqeu— see √sku] *kṣupyatē; *avakṣōpa—. Addenda: *kṣundati: S.kcch. khūndhṇū ‘to trample’; WPah.kṭg. ċhúnṇõ; ‘to crush, break, destroy’ (X chinná— Him.I 69).
3719 *kṣupyatē ‘is pressed’. [kṣupati ‘is depressed, is afraid’ R. — √kṣup] Dm. c̣hup— ‘to wash (clothes)’, Kal. rumb. c̣hūp—, Phal. c̣hup—.
3721 *kṣubhati ‘shakes’. [Cf. kṣubhita— MBh., Pa. saṅkhu- bhati ‘is agitated’. — √kṣubh] Pk. khubhaï, khuhaï ‘is agitated, is afraid’; S. khuhaṇu ‘to be tired’; — Pa. chubhati ‘throws out’; Pk. chubhaï, °bhēi, chuhaï ‘throws, pours’. — X chupáti q.v.
3725 *kṣumbati ‘smiles’. Kho. c̣hum— ‘to smile’; Kal. Kho. c̣hum ‘a smile’.
3726 *kṣumbhati ‘shakes’. [kṣubhnā́ti MBh. — √kṣubh] Pk. khuṁbhaṇa— ‘shaking’; Kho. (Lor.) čhūmik (c̣h—?) ‘to clean wool or cotton or hair by beating, stuff into’; K. chŏmbun ‘to thresh grain by striking stalks against a post’; H. khūmnā ‘to wax old’; — with MIA. ch—: Ku. chumṇo ‘to stun, husk out grain slowly’. — X *jhaṭ— or *jhamp1: H. jhūmnā ‘to shake’? KṢUR ‘cut, scrape’: kṣurá—, *kṣuraṇa—, kṣuráti, kṣurapra—, *kṣōrayati, kṣaura—, kṣaurī—, *cikṣurati; *niḥkṣurati, *niḥkṣōrayati, *prakṣurikā—; — √*kur, √chur.
3728 *kṣuraṇa— ‘scraping’. [√kṣur] Bi. mag. khurnī ‘a kind of spade’.
3733 *kṣullasyāla— ‘wife's younger brother’. [kṣulla—, syālá—] A. khulxāli ‘wife's younger brother’, °lnī ‘wife's younger sister’; — perh. an A. cmpd. kṣuvant— see kṣáuti.
3734 *kṣēḍati ‘provokes’. Pk. khēḍaï ‘drives off’, khēḍaṇa— n. ‘pursuing’, khēḍia— m. ‘rude man’; K. chērun ‘to irritate’; S. cheṛaṇu ‘to taunt’; H. cheṛnā ‘to provoke’ → N. cheṛnu ‘to irritate’.
3743 *kṣēpyajāla— ‘casting net’. [kṣēpya—, jā́la—] Mth. khapiyār.
3746a *kṣairaka— Add. 14424.
3753 *kṣōrayati ‘scrapes’. [√kṣur] H. chornā ‘to cut’; G. khorvũ ‘to stir up’, chorvũ ‘to dig out’.
3757 *kṣauradaśamī— ‘tenth day on which the ceremony of shaving is performed’. [kṣaura—, daśamı̄́—] H. khorsī f. ‘ceremony of shaving the head on the tenth day of mourning a death’. kṣaurī— see kṣaura—.
3758 *kṣṇavīti ‘sneezes’. [Cf. kṣáuti and IE. *qsneu— WP i 502] Pr. čne— ‘to sneeze’ NTS xv 289; — very doubtful. *kṣvaṭ ‘six’ see ṣáṣ—.
3760 *kha—ul— ‘be heated’. P. khaulaṇā ‘to be heated, boil’, N. khaulanu, H. khaulnā. KHAKKH ‘laugh’: khákkhati. khakkhaṭa— see kakkhaṭa—.
3762 *khakkhālayati ‘rinses’. 2. *khaṅkhālayati. [Onom. rather than < *kṣalkṣāl—, *kṣaṅkṣāl— intens. of √kṣal since both K. and M. have kh] 1. K. khŏkhalun ‘to cleanse, be rinsed in water and shaken about’; Ku. khakolṇo ‘to gargle’; N. khakālnu ‘to rinse’. 2. P. khãghālṇā, ghã° ‘to rinse (a vessel)’; H. khãgālnā, khãg(h)ārnā ‘to rinse’; G. khãkhāḷvũ ‘to wash vigor- ously’, khãkhoḷvũ ‘to rinse, rummage’, khãkhorvũ ‘to scatter’, khãkhervũ ‘to shake off dust’, khãgãḷvũ ‘to rinse the mouth in the morning’; M. khãgāḷṇẽ ‘to shake about in water’.
3763 *khaṅkh— ‘cough, hawk’. 2. *khaṅkhār—. [Onom., cf. *khāṭkāra—] 1. S. khaṅghi f. ‘cough’, khaṅghaṇu ‘to cough’, L. khaṅgh, khagg f., khaṅghaṇ, khaggaṇ vb., P. khaṅgh f., khaṅghṇā vb. (PhonPj 117 < kā́satē); WPah. bhal. khaṅkh f. ‘coughed’, khaṅkhu n. of pp. ‘coughed’; Or. khãkhã ‘cough’; M. khẽk f., khẽkṇẽ vb. — Ext. with ——: G. khā̃khaṛiyũ n. ‘cough’. 2. P. khaṅkhārṇā ‘to cough’; A. khẽkhār ‘expectora- tion’; B. khā̃kār ‘hawking’, Or. khãkāra, H. khãkār m., khãkārnā vb.; G. khãkhār, °rɔ m. ‘hoarseness’, khãkhārvũ ‘to hawk, neigh’; M. khãkārṇẽ, khā̃kar° ‘to hawk’. *khaṅkhālayati see *khakkhālayati. KHAC ‘project, be studded’: *khacyatē. Addenda: *khaṅkh—: S.kcch. khaṅgh f. ‘cough’, khaṅgharo m. ‘sound of gargling, phlegm’.
3764 *khacc— ‘sink down or back’. M. khaċṇẽ ‘to sink down’; — N. khackanu ‘to subside, grow less’; G. khackāvũ ‘to shrink back, be stopped’. *khacca— ‘dirt’ see *kicca—.
3765 *khaccara— ‘mule’. 2. *kaccara—2. [← (through Psht. qačara or Bal. xačar?) a Turk. dial. form such as qačïr ultimately ← Ir. *xaratara— (cf. IA. khara1) in Sogd. g rtr'k, Khot. khaḍara W. B. Henning BSOAS xi 723] 1. Paš. dar. xáčir, kuṛ. kačero ‘mule’, S. khacaru m., °ri f., P. khaccar f. (→ N. khaccar; H. khaccar m. ‘mule’, khacrā ‘hybrid, of mixed parentage’; G. khaccar n. ‘mule’, M. khaċar, khẽċar n.). 2. L. kaccur m., °cir f. Addenda: *khaccara—: WPah.kṭg. kháċċƏr f. ‘mule’, J. khācr f.
3766 *khacyatē ‘be set, be studded’ [khacati ‘projects’ Kathās., khacayati ‘fastens’ Dhātup., khacita— ‘inlaid’ MBh. — √khac] H. khacnā ‘to be fastened, be set, be studded’; M. khaċṇẽ ‘to set (jewels, &c.)’; — H. khac f. ‘crowd, crush’; G. khac ‘tightly’. *khañc— ‘pull’ see *khiñc—.
3767 *khañca— ‘basket’. N. khā̃c ‘basket for carrying birds (such as quails)’; B. khā̃cā ‘hen—coop’; Mth. khā̃cā ‘large basket of tamarisk twigs’, °cī ‘small do.’; H. khā̃cā m. ‘hen—coop’ (→ P. khā̃cā m.).
3774 *khaṭīmr̥ttikā— ‘chalk and earth’. [Cf. A. khari- māṭi ‘chalk’. — khaṭikā—, mŕ̥ttikā—] B. khaṛiṭi ‘chalk and earth, plastering mud walls to make them smooth’.
3776 *khaṭūkara— ‘bracelet—maker’ [khaṭū—, kará1] Or. khaṛurā ‘caste of bracelet—makers’.
3778 *khaṭṭa— 2 ‘wound, sore’. N. khāṭo ‘scab, scar’, khaṭiro ‘boil’, khaṭirā—paṭirā ‘boils and other skin diseases’; M. khaṭ n. ‘ulcer’.
3790 *khaḍḍa— ‘hole, pit’. [Cf. *gaḍḍa— and list s.v. kartá1] Pk. khaḍḍā— f. ‘hole, mine, cave’, °ḍaga— m. ‘one who digs a hole’, °ḍōlaya— m. ‘hole’; Bshk. (Biddulph) "kād" (= khaḍ?) ‘valley’; K. khŏḍ m. ‘pit’, khö̆ḍü f. ‘small pit’, khoḍu m. ‘vulva’; S. khaḍ̱a f. ‘pit’; L. khaḍḍ f. ‘pit, cavern, ravine’; P. khaḍḍ f. ‘pit, ravine’, °ḍī f. ‘hole for a weaver's feet’ (→ Ku. khaḍḍ, N. khaḍ; H. khaḍ, khaḍḍā m. ‘pit, low ground, notch’; Or. khãḍi ‘edge of a deep pit’; M. khaḍḍā m. ‘rough hole, pit’); WPah. khaś. khaḍḍā ‘stream’; N. khāṛo ‘pit, bog’, khāṛi ‘creek’, khāṛal ‘hole (in ground or stone)’. — Altern. < *khāḍa—: Gy. gr. xar f. ‘hole’; Ku. khāṛ ‘pit’; B. khāṛī ‘creek, inlet’, khāṛal ‘pit, ditch’; H. khāṛī f. ‘creek, inlet’, khaṛ—har, °al m. ‘hole’; Marw. khāṛo m. ‘hole’; M. khāḍ f. ‘hole, creek’, °ḍā m. ‘hole’, °ḍī f. ‘creek, inlet’. khaḍḍukā— see khaṭū—. Addenda: *khaḍḍa—: S.kcch. khaḍḍ f. ‘pit’; WPah.kṭg. kháḍ m. ‘hole in the earth, ravine’, poet. khāḍ (obl. —o) f. ‘small stream’, J. khāḍ f.
3793 *khaṇḍaka— 3 ‘sword’. [Perh. of same non—Aryan origin as khaḍgá2] Pk. khaṁḍa— m. ‘sword’ (→ Tam. kaṇṭam), Gy. SEeur. xaṛo, eur. xanro, xarno, xanlo, wel. xenlī f., S. khano m., P. khaṇḍā m., Ku. gng. khā̃ṛ, N. khā̃ṛo, khũṛo (X churi < kṣurá—); A. khāṇḍā ‘heavy knife’; B. khā̃rā ‘large sacrificial knife’; Or. khaṇḍā ‘sword’, H. khā̃ṛā, G. khā̃ḍũ n., M. khā̃ḍā m., Si. kaḍuva.
3794 *khaṇḍaghara— ‘ruined house’. [khaṇḍá—1, ghara—: altern. NIA. words < *khaṇḍitaghara—] P. khaṇḍhar m. ‘dilapidated house or town, stony worthless ground, stony bed of a torrent’; Bhoj. khãṛhar ‘dilapidated house’; H. khaṇḍ(h)ar, khãṛ(h)ar m. ‘dilapidated building, ruins of town or village’, also adj. ‘dilapidated’, m. ‘broken ground, chasm, hole’ (in these senses perh. ext. with —ra— of khaṇḍá1).
3798 *khaṇḍitaghara— ‘ruined house’. [khaṇḍitá—, ghara—] G. khãḍiyar, °yer n. ‘ruins’.
3799 *khaṇḍitāgāra— ‘ruined house’. [khaṇḍitá—, agāra—] Ku. gng. khanyār. *khaṇḍī— ‘cloth’ see *khaṇḍu2.
3801 *khaṇḍu— 2 ‘cloth’. 2. *khaṇḍī—. [Cf. *khadda—, *khāru—: ← Drav. cf. Tel. kaṇḍuvā ‘upper garment’; Kol. khanḍva ‘cloth’, Nk. khanḍa, Prj. ganḍa: see DED 85] 1. B. khā̃ṛuyā ‘small piece of coarse cloth’; Or. khaṇḍuā ‘shawl’; Si. kaḍa ‘bit of cloth’ (or < khaṇḍá1). 2. N. khā̃ṛi ‘homespun cloth’, Bi. khā̃ṛī, khaṇḍā ‘woman's sāṛī’.
3802 *khaṇḍuśālā— ‘sugar factory’. [khaṇḍu—1, śā́lā—] H. khãṛsāl, °ār f. ‘sugar factory or shop’.
3803 *khadakhada— ‘bubbling noise’. [Onom.] N. khatkhat ‘effervescence’, khatkanu ‘to effervesce’, H. khadkhadānā, G. khadkhadvũ, M. khadkhadṇẽ. khadáti see *khaḍaka—. Addenda: *khadakhada—: Ko. khatkhati ‘boiling’.
3807 *khadd— ‘drive away’. P. khadeṛṇā ‘to drive away’; N. khadernu ‘to force back’; H. khadeṛnā ‘to drive away’ (→ N. khadeṛnu); G. khadvũ ‘to rush’, khadaṛvũ, °deṛvũ ‘to drive fast’.
3808 *khadda— ‘coarse cloth’. 2. *khaddara—. [Cf. *khaṇḍu—2, *khāru—] 1. N. khādi ‘rough cloth’; B. khādi ‘small piece of cloth’; H. G. M. khādī f. ‘thick coarse cotton cloth’. 2. L. khaddar, khaḍḍar m. ‘coarse cotton cloth’, P. khaddar m., H. khādar f.
3815 *khandati ‘laughs’. [Cf. Pahl. xandītan ‘to laugh’ and other Ir. forms in IIFL ii 33* and 422. — √*khand] Kt. Wg. kan— ‘to laugh’, Ash. kōn—. khánya— see khānya—.
3816 *khappa— 1 ‘cover’. N. khāpnu ‘to put one thing on another, make over- lap’; A. khāp ‘layer’; B. khāpā ‘to become adjusted’; Or. khāpa ‘sheath’; Mth. khāp, khappā ‘cover’; H. khāp f. ‘sheath’, khapānā ‘to fit into’. — S. khipa f. ‘scabbard’. Addenda: *khappa— 1 ‘cover’. [~ Drav. DED 1024]
3817 *khappa— 2 ‘hole’. [Cf. *khōppa2] S. khapu, °po m. ‘notch, nick’; L. khappā m. ‘hole’; P. khappā m. ‘cavity in a wall, narrow passage in a hill’; M. khāp f. ‘notch, nick’. *khampa— ‘shard, tile’ see kharpara—. Addenda: *khappa— 2 ‘hole’. [~ Drav. DED 1026]
3822 *kharapāla— ‘donkey—driver’. [khara—1, pālá—] Paš. kharwāl.
3823 *kharabhaka— ‘hare’. [‘longeared like a donkey’: khara1?] N. kharāyo ‘hare’, Or. kharā, °riā, kherihā, Mth. kharehā, H. kharahā m.
3825 *kharasrōtas— ‘having a rough stream’. [khára—2, srṓtas—] Or. kharasuā ‘having a swift current, name of a river in Orissa’.
3833 *kharvānta— ‘left hand’. [Cf. *mūlānta—. — kharvá—, ánta—] Wg. kā̃wā̃t dōšt ‘left hand’. KHAL 1 ‘shake’: khálati1; — *khalakhala—, *khala- bhala—. *KHAL 2 ‘rise’: *khalati2, *khālayati.
3838 *khalati 2 ‘rises’. 2. *khālayati. [Cf. khaḍaka—] 1. Gy. pal. kílăr ‘climbs’, klaúăr ‘raises’, klínnă ‘ladder’. 2. K. khālun, khārun ‘to make ascend’. — Gy. pal. ḳōlăr ‘rides, embarks’, ḳlaúăr ‘gives a mount to’.
3841 *khalapr̥ṣṭha— ‘threshing floor’. [khála—1, pr̥ṣṭhá—] Si. kalaviṭa ‘threshing floor’? *khalabhala— ‘shaking’ see khálati 1.
3842 *khalamāsa— ‘unlucky month’. [khala—2, mā́sa—] H. kharwā̃s m. ‘name of the months Pūs and Cait in which doing auspicious actions is avoided’.
3843 *khalavāṭa— ‘enclosure for threshing floor’. [khála—1, vāṭa1] L. khalvāṛā m. ‘threshing floor’, awāṇ. khalāṛā ‘barn’; P. khalvāṛā, °veṛā m. ‘threshing floor’; M. khaḷvāḍī f. ‘enclosed space containing several threshing floors’, khaḷevāḍī re—formed after pl. khaḷẽ.
3850 *khallabhastrikā— or *khallayantrikā— ‘leather bellows’ [khalla1—, bhastrā— or yantrá—] N. khalā̃ti ‘bellows’.
3852 *khavaka— ‘shoulder—blade’. [Poss. < *skapa— cf. Lat. scapula— LM 317] Pk. khavaya— m. ‘shoulder’, P. khavā m.; H. khawā m. ‘shoulder, shoulder—blade’; M. khavā m. ‘shoulder- blade’; Ko. khavo m. ‘shoulder’. — G. khā̆m f., khabhɔ m. ‘shoulder’ X *skambha2?
3855 *khasa— 2 ‘rough’. 2. *khasara—. [For similar words see kakkhaṭa—] 1. B. khas ‘harsh, rough (to touch)’, khaskhas, Or. khasakhasiā; H. khaskhas f. ‘harsh sound’; — A. khahaṭā ‘rough’; — B. khasṛā ‘rough draft’? — N. khaskhas ‘tickling in the throat’, khasmasāunu ‘to have a sore throat’; A. kahmah ‘rubbing sound’. 2. K. khasuru m. ‘gravel’; S. khahuro ‘rough’; N. khasro ‘rough, coarse, thick’. khasa— 3 ‘a partic. tribe’ see khaśa—.
3856 *khasati 1 ‘falls, slips’. [√*khas 1] Pk. khasaï, khasaphasaï ‘slips, falls’; N. khasnu ‘to fall’; A. khahiba ‘to fall off’; B. khasā ‘to fall off, slip away’; Or. khasibā ‘to drop off’; Mth. khasab ‘to fall, slip’, OAw. khasaï ‘drips, slips’; H. khasnā ‘to sink, fall’; G. khasvũ ‘to slide, move, go to a distance’; M. khasṇẽ ‘to sink down’. — Ext. with —kk—: N. khaskaṇu ‘to slip away’, H. khasaknā; — with ——: Or. khasaṛibā ‘to slip’; — with —r—: Ash. kaser— ‘to be tired’, Dm. khasár—; Shum. kaser ‘tired’, Gaw. khasarı̄́; Or. khasa- ribā ‘to slip’. Addenda: *khasati1: G. khasvũ ‘to move, slide’; Ko. khasu ‘sprain’; Md. kassanī ‘slips’, kahanī ‘sweeps away, winds round’, kehenī ‘slips from the hand’.
3857 *khasati 2 ‘rises’. 2. Pp. *khasta—. 3. Caus. *khāsa- yati. [√*khas 2] 1. Sh. gur. khăžyōnu̯ ‘to ascend’, K. khasun. 2. K. khothu , khotu pp. ‘ascended’. 3. K. khāsun ‘to lift up’. *khasta— ‘risen’ see *khasati 2.
3858 *khass— ‘snatch’. S. khasaṇu ‘to snatch, take by force, ravish’, L. khassaṇ; P. khassṇā, khasoṭṇā ‘to pluck out’, H. khasoṭnā. khājika— see khadikā—.
3859 *khāṭkāra— ‘clearing the throat’. [khāṭkarōti Pāṇ., cf. *khaṅkh—: onom. with —kāra3] Pa. kakkārēti ‘hawks’, Ku. khakārṇo; N. khakār ‘phlegm’, khakārnu ‘to hawk’, H. khakārnā, M. khākarṇẽ.
3860 *khāḍa— ‘a hollow’. [Cf. *khaḍḍa— and list s.v. kartá1] S. khāṛī f. ‘gulf, creek’; P. khāṛ ‘level country at the foot of a mountain’, °ṛī f. ‘deep watercourse, creek’; Bi. khārī ‘creek, inlet’; G. khāṛi , °ṛī f., °ṛɔ m. ‘hole’. — Altern. < *khaḍḍa—: Gy. gr. xar f. ‘hole’; Ku. khāṛ ‘pit’; B. khāṛī ‘creek, inlet’, khāṛal ‘pit, ditch’; H. khāṛī ‘creek, inlet’, khaṛ—har, °al m. ‘hole’; Marw. khāṛo m. ‘hole’; M. khāḍ f. ‘hole, creek’, °ḍā m. ‘hole’, °ḍī f. ‘creek, inlet’. *khāḍayati ‘makes stand’ see khaḍaka—. khāḍga—, *khāḍgin— see khaḍgá1.
3861 *khāṇḍavavatī— ‘containing sugar—candy’. [Cf. khāṇ- ḍava— m.n. ‘sugar—candy’ MBh. — khaṇḍu1] OAw. khaṁḍoī f. ‘a sweetmeat’.
3866 *khādadhana— ‘payment in food’. [khādá—, dhána—] Bi. khaihan ‘food given to a serf in return for labour’.
3868 *khādanapara— ‘devoted to eating’. [Cf. *adapara—. — khādana—, pára—] M. khāṇorā ‘gluttonous’.
3869 *khādanāntra— [khādana—, *antra1] S. khāṇā̃ḍro m. ‘cookhouse’.
3877 *khāru— ‘a kind of cloth’. [Cf. *khaṇḍu—2, *khadda—] P. khārvā m. ‘coarse red cloth’; N. kharuwā ‘a coarse cloth’; A. khāruwā ‘coarse red cotton cloth’, B. khāruyā, Or. khārū̆ā, Bi. khāruā̃; Bhoj. kharuā ‘grey cloth’; H. khārū̆ā, °rwā m. ‘coarse red cloth’; G. khārvũ n. ‘red cloth’, °ruī f. ‘garment worn by widows’; M. khārvā m. ‘coarse red cloth’, °vẽ n. ‘loin—cloth made of it’. khārkhōṭa— see kharkhōda—. *khāla— ‘trench’ see khalla2. *khālayati ‘raises’ see *khalati 2. *khāsayati ‘causes to rise’ see *khasati 2. khikhi— see next.
3879 *khiṅga— ‘strong?’ Pk. khiṁga— ‘dissolute’; P. khiṅgā ‘stout, able- bodied’. Addenda: khiṅga— (v.l. khiḍga—, ṣiḍga—) ‘libertine’ lex.
3881 *khiñc— ‘to drag, pull’. 2. *khēñc— formed as tr.? 3. *khaiñc— with ai from aı̃c— < *atiyañcati. 4. *khañc—. [Cf. *ghīcc—, *phiñc— (< *prakhiñc—??)] 1. P. khiñjṇā ‘to pull’, khiccṇā (after type siñj— ~ sicc- < siñcáti ~ sicyátē), N. khı̃cnu, B. khı̃cā; Mth. khı̄̃cab ‘to beat (clothes in washing)’; OAw. khı̄̃caï ‘drags’; H. khı̄̃cnā ‘to pull’ whence khicnā ‘to be pulled’; OMarw. khīc— ‘to pull’, G. khı̃cvũ. 2. P. khẽj f. ‘pulling’; B. khẽcā ‘to pull’, Or. kheñcibā, H. khẽcnā (→ K. khē̃cun ‘to drag’), OMarw. khec—, M. kheċṇẽ. 3. P. khaı̃c f. ‘pulling’; N. khaı̃cnu ‘to pull’, Mth. khaicab, H. khaı̃cnā, OMarw. khaı̃caï; G. kh e_ c f. ‘pulling’; M. khaı̃ċṇẽ ‘to pull’. 4. Pk. khaṁcaï ‘pulls’, okkhaṁcijjaï ‘is pulled’; K. khunzun, khṳ̄nzun ‘to pluck out (feathers or hair)’; Or. khā̃cibā ‘to draw tight’; OAw. khāṁcaï ‘pulls’; — N. khā̃cnu ‘to fold’? *khiṭṭa— ‘rust’ see kiṭṭa—. Addenda: *khiñc—. 1. WPah.kṭg. khínċṇõ;, kh e_ nċṇõ;, khánċṇõ; ‘to draw, pull, scratch’. 2. *khēñc—: S.kcch. khẽcṇū, khaı̃cṇū ‘to pull, draw (water)’.
3882 *khiḍ— ‘be open, expand’. 2. *khiḍḍ— 2. 3. *khiṇḍ—. 4. *khil—. 5. *khill—. 6. *khēḍ— tr. ‘open up, plough’. [Cf. khēṭita— ‘ploughed’ lex.] 1. S. khiṛaṇu ‘to blossom’; L. khiṛaṇ ‘to open (of a flower)’, awāṇ. khiṛuṇ; P. khiṛnā ‘to bloom’, caus. °ṛāuṇā; — G. khiṛ f. ‘valley, mountain pass’. 2. P. khiḍāuṇā ‘to scatter’; Mth. khiṛāeb ‘to spread’. 3. S. khiṇḍaṇu ‘to be scattered’, caus. °ḍāiṇu; L. awāṇ. khiṇḍuṇ ‘to spread’ intr.; P. khiṇḍaṇā ‘to be scattered’, caus. °ḍāuṇā, H. khiṇḍnā, khı̄̃ḍnā, caus. khı̃ḍānā; — M. khı̃ḍ f. ‘mountain pass’. 4. L. khiḷaṇ ‘to open’, intr. ‘smile’; OAw. khilaï ‘blossoms’; H. khilnā ‘to open, break out, bloom’, caus. °lānā. 5. S. khillaṇu ‘to laugh’; L. caus. khilāraṇ ‘to spread, stretch’; P. khillarṇā ‘to be scattered’, caus. khilāraṇā; G. khīlvũ ‘to bloom, expand’, caus. khilavvũ. 6. Pk. khēḍaï ‘ploughs’, pp. °ḍia—, °ḍaṇa— n. ‘plough- ing’; S. kheṛaṇu ‘to plough’, Or. kheṛibā; G. kheṛvũ ‘to plough, drive’, °ṛaṇ m. ‘cultivator’, °ṛāṇ n. ‘arable land’. *utkhiḍ—. *khiḍḍ— 1 ‘play’ see *khēḍ—. *khiḍḍ— 2 ‘open, expand’ see *khiḍ—. Addenda: *khiḍ—. 5. *khill—: WPah.kṭg. khílṇõ; ‘to blossom’.
3883 *khiḍḍakara— ‘player’. [*khiḍḍ—1, kará1] Pk. khiḍḍakara— m. ‘player, conjuror’, Si. kiḍiyarayā. *khiṇḍ— ‘open, expand’ see *khiḍ—. KHID ‘tear, press’: khidyatē, khinna—, khēda—, khēdayati, *khēdyatē; útkhidati, *nikhāda—, *nikhā- dana—.
3886 *khila— 2 ‘lump, boil’. 2. *khilla—. 3. *killa—. [Poss. conn. with kīla1 ‘tumour’ MBh.: semant. cf. *khuṇṭa1] 1. Pa. khiḷa— ‘callosity’; N. khil ‘corn, callosity, hard centre to a boil’; B. khil ‘clot forming on a teat when milking’, M. khīḷ f., °ḷā m. 2. Pk. khilla— m. ‘boil’; G. khīl m. ‘pimple’. 3. L. awāṇ. kil ‘pimple’, P. kill m. khilyá— see khilá1. *khill— ‘open, expand’ see *khiḍ—. *khilla— ‘boil’ see *khila2. Addenda: khila— 2 m. ‘*callosity’ in ‘insoluble problem in algebra’ Gol., ‘obduracy’ Lalit., ‘appendix’ (in khilakāṇḍa— n. Vd.), adj. ‘defective’ BhP. [khila2, *khilla— (khilīkr̥ta— ‘powerless, baffled’ Kāv., †;akhila- ‘entire’ Kāv.) is hardly separable from khilá1 ‘uncultivated land’, khilyá— (khilīkr̥ta— ‘impassable’ Kālid., khilībhūta— ‘deserted’ Car.) J.C.W.] *khill— see *khiḍ— Add2.
3887 *khilli— ‘roll esp. of betel leaf’. [Cf. kuhali— m., °lī— f. ‘betel leaf’ lex.?] N. khili ‘packet, roll (esp. of betel leaf)’; A. khilā ‘leaf, betel leaf’; B. khili ‘roll (esp. of betel)’; Or. khila ‘bundle’; H. khīlī f. ‘betel leaf prepared for chewing’.
3888 *khis— ‘slip’. [Cf. √*khas 1] Pk. khisaï ‘slips’; S. khisaṇu, pp. khitho ‘to fall in fortune, sleep’ (< *khiss—?); H. khisnā ‘to sink, fall’; G. khisvũ ‘to slide, go to a distance’ (whence caus. khesavvũ); M. khisṇẽ ‘to move aside’. — Ext. with —kk—: S. khiskaṇu ‘to slip’, P. khiskaṇā ‘to slip away’, H. khisaknā. Addenda: *khis—: S.kcch. khisṇū ‘to move’, WPah.kṭg. khísƏkṇõ; ‘to crawl’; G. khasvũ ‘to move, slide’ (rather < *khasati 1).
3889 *khiss— ‘grin, snarl’. Pk. khiṁsā— f. ‘blame’, khiṁsaē ‘blames’; P. khīs f. ‘grin’; Ku. khīs ‘ridicule’; N. khisi, khissi ‘mockery, scorn’, khisyāunu ‘to mock’; Mth. khīs ‘anger’, khisiāeb ‘to be fretful’; H. khīs f. ‘mockery’, khīsnā ‘to mock, grimace, show the teeth’, khisyānā ‘to grin’. *khīl— ‘play’ see *khēḍ—. khı̄́la— see kīla1. *khīlati ‘fastens’ see kı̄́lati. *khīlla— ‘stake’ see kīla1. *khīllati ‘fastens’ see kı̄́lati.
3890 *khucc— ‘pierce, tear’. 2. *khōcc—. 3. *khuñc—. 4. *khōñc—. [Poss. formations fr. *sku—c—. For list of poss. enlargements of IE. *sqeu— see √sku] 1. Gaw. kuċa— ‘to scratch’, kuċi— ‘to wish’ (< ‘*to itch’?); P. khuccṇā ‘to be enjoyed sexually’; WPah. bhal. khuċnū ‘to copulate’; OG. khūcaï; ‘pierces’. 2. Gaw. kōċi— ‘to wish’; H. khoc f., °cā m. ‘stab’; M. khoċ f. ‘dint’. 3. B. khũcāna ‘to prick’, khũci ‘inserting new thatch in old’, khũcṛāna ‘to stir a fire’; Or. khuñcibā ‘to poke’, khuñca ‘peg’; G. khũcvũ ‘to pierce’, khũc m. ‘indenta- tion’. 4. P. khõ;c f. ‘cut, tear’; A. khõ;siba ‘to stab’, khõ;sriba ‘to loosen earth with a pointed instrument’; H. khõ;cnā ‘to thrust’, khõ;cā m. ‘stab’, °cī f. ‘stuffing’, khõ;cālnā ‘to scratch’, khõ;caṛ m. ‘an officious person’; M. khõ;ċṇẽ, °ċarṇẽ ‘to thrust in’, khõ;ċaḷṇẽ ‘to dint’.
3891 *khuccā— ‘bend’. [< *skuc— beside √kuc?] S. khuca f. ‘hock, hollow behind ankle, tendon Achilles’. — See *kuñca—1, *khōñcā—. *khuñc— ‘tear, pierce’ see *khucc—. *KHUṬ ‘break, pierce’: *khuṭati, *khuṭyatē, *khuṇṭ- ati, khúṇḍatē1, *khōṭayati; *ākhuṭati, *ākhōṭa- yati, *niṣkhōṭayati.
3892 *khuṭati ‘breaks, pierces’. 2. *khuṇṭati. 3. *khuṭ- yatē. 4. *khōṭayati. 5. khúṇḍatē 1, khuṇḍáyati, khōḍayati ‘breaks in pieces’ Dhātup. [Cf. *utskr̥ta—. — √*khuṭ] 1. Pk. khuḍaï ‘is broken, is separated’, °ḍēi ‘breaks’, pp. khuḍia—, khulia—; M. khuḍṇẽ ‘to pluck, tear’. 2. H. khū̃ṭnā ‘to block, hinder’; G. khũṭvũ ‘to pluck off’; M. khũṭṇẽ ‘to pluck with the nails, be obstructed’. 3. Pk. khuṭṭaï ‘is broken’, khuṭṭa— ‘broken’ (see also *khuṭṭa4); Phal. khuṭū́m ‘I stumble’; M. khuṭṇẽ ‘to pluck’, khūṭṇẽ ‘to be obstructed’. 4. Pk. khōḍaya— m. ‘pressing the skin with fingernails’; S. khoṛaṇu ‘to drive into’; Mth. Bi. (N of Ganges) khornā, °nī ‘grain—parcher's poker’, (S of Ganges) khoṛnā, °nī; G. khoṛvũ ‘to tear, break, bury’. 5. Pk. khuṁḍaya— ‘tripped up’; B. khõ;ṛā, khũṛā ‘to dig’ (or < *khōḍḍ—). Addenda: *khuṭati. 2. *khuṇṭati: WPah.kṭg. khv́ṇḍhṇõ; ‘to break, pinch’ (see also *khuṇṭha— Add2). 4. *khōṭayati: WPah.kṭg. khóṛnõ; ‘to dig, scratch, engrave’ — see *khōdd— Add2.
3893 *khuṭṭa— 1 ‘peg, post’. 2. *khuṇṭa—1. [Same as *khuṭṭa2? — See also kṣōḍa—.] 1. Ku. khuṭī ‘peg’; N. khuṭnu ‘to stitch’ (der. *khuṭ ‘pin’ as khilnu from khil s.v. khı̄́la—); Mth. khuṭā ‘peg, post’; H. khūṭā m. ‘peg, stump’; Marw. khuṭī f. ‘peg’; M. khuṭā m. ‘post’. 2. Pk. khuṁṭa—, khoṁṭaya— m. ‘peg, post’; Dm. kuṇḍa ‘peg for fastening yoke to plough—pole’; L. khū̃ḍī f. ‘drum—stick’; P. khuṇḍ, °ḍā m. ‘peg, stump’; WPah. rudh. khuṇḍ ‘tethering peg or post’; A. khũṭā ‘post’, °ṭi ‘peg’; B. khũṭā, °ṭi ‘wooden post, stake, pin, wedge’; Or. khuṇṭa, °ṭā ‘pillar, post’; Bi. (with —ḍa—) khũṭrā, °rī ‘posts about one foot high rising from body of cart’; H. khū̃ṭā m. ‘stump, log’, °ṭī f. ‘small peg’ (→ P. khū̃ṭā m., °ṭī f. ‘stake, peg’); G. khū̃ṭ f. ‘landmark’, khũṭɔ m., °ṭī f. ‘peg’, °ṭũ n. ‘stump’, °ṭiyũ n. ‘upright support in frame of wagon’, khū̃ṭṛũ n. ‘half—burnt piece of fuel’; M. khũṭ m. ‘stump of tree, pile in river, grume on teat’ (semant. cf. kīla1 s.v. *khila2), khũṭā m. ‘stake’, °ṭī f. ‘wooden pin’, khũṭaḷṇẽ ‘to dibble’. Addenda: *khuṭṭa— 1. 2. *khuṇṭa—1: WPah.kṭg. khv́ndɔ ‘pole for fencing or piling grass round’ (Him.I 35 nd poss. wrong for ṇḍ); J. khuṇḍā m. ‘peg to fasten cattle to’.
3894 *khuṭṭa— 2 ‘leg’. [Perh. same as *khuṭṭa1 ‘peg’, but see word—group s.v. *kuṭṭha—] Ku. khuṭo ‘leg, foot’, °ṭī ‘goat's leg’; N. khuṭo ‘leg, foot’, khuṛkilo ‘ladder’ (< *khuṭ+kilo ‘peg’ < kīla1). *khuṭṭa— 3 ‘lame’ see khōra1. Addenda: *khuṭṭa—2: WPah.poet. khvṭe f. ‘leg (of a domestic animal)’; J. khuṭi f.pl. ‘legs’; Garh. khuṭu ‘foot’.
3895 *khuṭṭa— 4 ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] Pk. khuṭṭa— ‘broken’, khuṭṭaï ‘is broken, is worn out’ (but khuḍaï ‘breaks’, pp. khuḍia— < *khuṭati); Gy. pal. kúrtă ‘short’, gr. khurdo ‘small’, wel. xuredō ‘small, short, dwarfish’ (rather than < kṣudrá—, but rt, rd < MIA. ṭṭ is doubtful, since wel. vārdō ~ MIA. aṭṭa- < *ārta2 may be ← or X Pers. ārd); Ḍ. khuṭa, f. °ṭi ‘short’, Sh. khŭṭo; S. khuṭaṇu ‘to fall short, fail’, khuṭalu ‘bankrupt’; L. khuṭṭaṇ ‘to be finished’; P. khuṭṭṇā ‘to be diminished, be finished’; H. khūṭnā ‘to be worn out’; G. khuṭvũ ‘to be exhausted’; M. khuṭṇẽ ‘to lack’. *nikkhuṭṭa—; *khuṭṭahala—. Addenda: *khuṭṭa— 4 [Cf. Ir. Shgh. kut m., kat f. ‘short’. Sang. and Wkh. kuṭ prob. ← IA. — Av. kuta(ka)— would not explain Shgh. t EVSh 41]
3896 *khuṭṭahala— ‘worn—out plough’. [*khuṭṭa—2, hala—] Bhoj. khuṭahrā m. ‘an old or worn plough’. *khuṭyatē ‘is broken’ see *khuṭati. *khuḍa— 1 ‘hoof, heel’ see khura—. *khuḍa— 2 ‘lame’ see khōra1. khuḍaka— ‘ankle—bone’ see khura—.
3897 *khuḍḍha— ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] L. khuḍḍā ‘blunt, crooked—horned’, awāṇ. khuḍḍhā ‘blunt’. *khuṇṭa— 1 ‘peg’ see *khuṭṭa1. Addenda: *khuḍḍha—: Md. kuḍa ‘twisted’. *khuṇṭa— 1 see *khuṭṭa1 Add2. *khuṇṭati see *khuṭati Add2.
3898 *khuṇṭa— 2 ‘corner’. 2. *kuṇṭa—2. [Cf. *khōñca—] 1. Phal. khun ‘corner’; H. khū̃ṭ m. ‘corner, direction’ (→ P. khũṭ f. ‘corner, side’); G. khū̃ṭṛī f. ‘angle’. - X kōṇa—: G. khuṇ f., khū̆ṇɔ m. ‘corner’. 2. S. kuṇḍa f. ‘corner’; P. kū̃ṭ f. ‘corner, side’ (← H.). *catuṣkhuṇṭa—; *catuṣkuṇṭa—, *ṣaṭkuṇṭa—. *khuṇṭati ‘breaks’ see *khuṭati.
3899 *khuṇṭha— ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] P. khuṇḍh m. ‘stump, old man’, khuṇḍhā ‘blunt’; Or. khuṇṭa, °ṭā ‘withered branch’; OG. khuṁṭa ‘impotent, eunuch’, G. khũṭṛɔ m. ‘entire bull used for agriculture but not for breeding’, (Kathiawar) khũṭ m. ‘Brahmani bull’. *khuṇṭhahala—. Addenda: *khuṇṭha—: S.kcch. khūṇḍh ‘slow—witted’; WPah.kṭg. khv́ṇḍh m. ‘any object broken into pieces, stump’; khv́ṇḍhṇõ; ‘to break, pinch’ (see also *khuṇṭati s.v. khuṭati Add2); Garh. khuṇḍu ‘blunted’.
3900 *khuṇṭhahala— ‘worn or blunt plough’ [*khuṇṭha—, halá—] Bi. (Shahabad) khũṭehrā ‘plough with small worn block’.
3901 *khuṇḍa— ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] L. khuṇḍā ‘blunt, crooked—horned’; P. khuṇḍī ‘crooked—horned’; N. khũṛo ‘blunt’, H. khuṇḍā. khúṇḍatē 1 ‘breaks’ see *khuṭati. khúṇḍatē 2 ‘is lame’ see khōra1. khudáti see *khōdd—. *khuddati ‘asks’ see *khōjja—.
3902 *khundha— ‘humpbacked’. [Cf. the ‘hump’ group s.v. kubjá— and the ‘defective’ group s.v. kuṇṭha—] G. khū̃dhi f. ‘hump on the back’, khū̃dhũ ‘hump- backed’.
3903 *khubja— ‘humpbacked’. [See kubjá—] Pa. khujja— ‘humpbacked, small, inferior’; Pk. khujja—, °jaya—, °jiya— ‘humpbacked, bent’; M. khuj̈ā ‘dwarfish’; Si. kuda ‘humpbacked’ or < kubjá—.
3904 *khubba— ‘hump’. [See *kubba— and list s.v. kubjá—] M. khubā m. ‘any projection on the body, esp. shoulderblade and hip’, khubaṛ n. ‘hump on back, knuckle, joint’. *khumbha— ‘jar’ see kumbhá1.
3905 *khumm— ‘bend’. Pk. khummia— ‘bent’; N. khumle, khomle ‘bent’, khumre ‘decrepit, old’, khumcinu ‘to be bent’; A. khum ‘bundle made by folding over two ends of cloth’.
3907 *khuraghāta— ‘hoof disease’. [khura—, ghāta—] Or. khurhā ‘foot—and—mouth disease of cattle’ (= Or. cmpd. khurā—ghā); — ext. with —ḍa—: WPah. bhal. khurāṛu n. ‘foot disease among cattle’.
3908 *khurapāśa— ‘foot rope’. [khura—, pā́śa—] B. khuraśī ‘noose tied to the forefeet of cattle’; H. khurwā̃s m. ‘hobble’.
3909 *khuramr̥ttikā— ‘hoof dust’. [khura—, mr̥ttikā—] Or. khurāṭi ‘dust raised by the hoofs of cattle’.
3912 *khūha— ‘pit, well’. [kū́pa—1 X khḗya—, khanati X guhā1?] K. khuhu m. ‘Persian well’, kash. khūhu ‘well’; S. khūhu m. ‘well’, khuhī f. ‘small well’; L. khūh m. ‘well’, awāṇ. khū̀; P. khūh, °hā m. ‘well’, WPah. bhal. khūho, cur. khūhā, paṅ. khūī, khaś. khū̀e obl. — Influenced by two meanings of kū́pa1 ‘pit’ and kūpa2 ‘mast’: S. khūho m. ‘mast of a boat’, L. khūhā m. *khūhakhānaka—, *khūhakhānya—. Addenda: *khūha—: S.kcch. khūvo m. ‘well’. *khēñc— see *khiñc- Add2.
3913 *khūhakhānaka— ‘well—digger’. [Cf. kūpakhā— m. Pāṇ., °khānaka— m. Kathās. — *khūha—, khānaka—] S. khūhāṇo m.
3914 *khūhakhānya— ‘dug out from a pit’. [*khūha—, khānya—] P. khuhānā, khuāhnā m. ‘a place from which earth is dug’. *khēñc— ‘pull’ see *khiñc—.
3918 *khēḍ— ‘play’. 2. *khēḍḍ—. 3. *khiḍḍ—1. 4. *khīl—. 5. *khill—. 6. *khēl—. 7. *khēll—. 8. kēl— or *kēḍ—. [If krı̄́ḍati, already in RV. (krı̄́ḷati, °ḷā́—, °ḷí— f., °ḷú—), is of non—Aryan origin (see in last instance A. Master BSOAS xii 363 and F. B. J. Kuiper Festschr. A. Debrunner 242: EWA i 279 with earlier lit.), then these forms may stem from the same source. If krı̄́ḍati is IE., it has crossed with these, e.g. Pk. kiḍḍaï, killaï ~ kīḍaï. Sk. kḗlati ‘trembles’ Dhātup., kḗli- f. ‘amorous play’ Mn., khḗlati ‘shakes’ R., khēlāyáti ‘plays’ Bhaṭṭ., khēli— f. ‘sport’ Gīt. may be connected. kṣvḗlati ‘jumps, sports’ R., kṣvēli—, °ikā— f. ‘play’ BhP. ac. to EAW i 296 is sanskritization of khēl—; but, although there is no form in NIA. with c̣h—, or ch—, Gy. eur. and arm. kh—, pal. k— (not x— and — < Sk. kh—) attest kṣ(v)—. H. helnā ‘to play’, if < *abhikhēl—, separates khēl— from kṣvēl— or represents a late cmpd. with MIA. kh— < kṣ(v)—] 1. Pk. khēḍaṇaa— n. ‘toy’, khēḍāvaga— ‘playing’; WPah. bhad. kheṛtu pres. part. n. ‘playing’; Or. kheṛa ‘sport, gambling’; — Si. keḷanavā ‘to play’ or < 6 or 8 below. 2. Pk. kheḍḍaï ‘plays’, °ḍā— f., °ḍa—, °ḍaya— n. ‘play’; S. kheḍ̱aṇu, kheḍ̱a f.; L. kheḍaṇ, kheḍ f., awān. caus. khiḍāvuṇ; P. kheḍṇā, khiḍāuṇā, kheḍ f.; WPah. bhal. kheḍḍu pp. n. sg. ‘it was played’; G. kheḍɔ m. ‘actor’. 3. Pa. khiḍḍā— f. ‘play’ (M. Grammont MSL xix 276 < krīḍā́—), Pk. khiḍḍa— n.; Si. kiḍuva, kiḍiya ‘sport, dancing’, kiḍī ‘dancing—girl’; — L. khiṭṭ f. ‘game’. 4. Pk. khīlāvaṇa— n. ‘toy’. 5. Pk. khillaï ‘plays’, °laṇa— n. ‘toy’; H. khillī f. ‘fun’, °lū ‘playful’. 6. Pk. khēlaï ‘plays’, °laṇa—, °ṇaya— n. ‘playing’; Or. kheḷibā vb., kheḷa, °ḷā sb.; G. kheḷɔ m. ‘itinerant actor’; M. kheḷṇẽ vb., kheḷ m.; Ko. kheḷtā. — Altern. < *khēll—: Gy. arm. eur. khel— ‘to play, dance’, pal. kḗlăr, caus. kēlauăr; K. khēlun vb., khēla, dat. khĕli f.; N. khelnu vb., khel sb.; A. khelāiba ‘to amuse’, khel ‘playing’; B. khelā, caus. khelāna, khel sb.; H. khelnā, caus. khilānā, khel m.; OMarw. khelaï vb.; — Si. kelinavā vb., keliya sb. (but if spellings with are original, then < *khēḍ—). 7. Pk. khellaï, °laṇa— n.; S. khela f.; P. khelṇā, °lhnā, caus. khilāuṇā, khal°; Or. kheli ‘sport’; Mth. khelab, Bhoj. khēlal, Aw. lakh. khēlab; OAw. khela m.; G. khelvũ, khel m. 8. Pa. kēḷāyati ‘fondles’, kēḷi— f. ‘play’; Si. keḷinavā ‘to play’, keḷiya ‘play’ if with original (or < *khēḍ— or *khēl— above or krı̄́ḍati). *abhikhēl—; *khiḍḍakara—. *khēḍḍ— ‘play’ see *khēḍ—. Addenda: *khēḍ— 1. 6. *khēl—: WPah.kṭg. khéḷɔ ‘gay’; Garh. kheḷnu ‘to play’, A. kheliba (or < 7). 7. *khēll—: WPah.kṭg. khḗl m. ‘game’, khélṇõ; ‘to play’; J. khe'l ‘game’. *khēḍ— 2 ‘plough’ see *khiḍ1.
3921 *khēdd— ‘drive, pursue’. P. khedṇā ‘to persecute, expel’; Ku. khedṇo ‘to pursue’, N. khednu, A. khediba; B. khedāna ‘to chase away’; Or. khedibā ‘to chase (an animal)’; H. khednā ‘to pursue’; — P. khedā, m. ‘pursuer’; N. khedo ‘pursuit’, A. khedā; B. H. khedā m. ‘elephant stockade’; G. khedɔ m. ‘pursuit’; — P. khedū m. ‘pursuer’, N. kheduwā. Addenda: *khēdd—: WPah.kṭg. khédṇõ; ‘to drive (e.g. cattle)’; J. khedṇu ‘to drive, hunt’. *khēl—, *khēll— see *khēḍ1 Add2.
3922 *khēdyatē ‘is fatigued’. [√khid] Pk. khejjaṇā— f. ‘fatigue, tired voice’; WPah. jaun. khej ‘fatigue’.
3924 *kheśśa— ‘a partic. sort of cloth’. K. kheś m. ‘a kind of silk cloth worn by women as a girdle’; S. khesu m. ‘thick cotton cloth’; L. khes m. ‘thick cotton shawl with coloured border’; P. khes m. ‘a kind of cloth’, °sī f. ‘small shawl’; N. khes ‘a partic. kind of cloth made in Bhadgaon’; B. kheś ‘a woollen wrapper’; H. khes, °sṛā m. ‘a figured cloth’; G. khes m., °siyũ n. ‘a cloth loosely worn over the shoulders’; M. khẽs n.m. ‘a partic. kind of cloth (cotton, wool, or silk)’. — Gy. germ. keš ‘silk, silk threads’ W.P. Schmid IF lxvi 143.
3925 *khēsārī— ‘lentil’. 2. *kēsārī— [Cf. kr̥sará—] N. khesā̆ri ‘a kind of lentil’; B. Or. khesāri ‘the pulse Lathyrus sativus’; Bi. khĕsārī, jo—khesarā ‘mixed crop of barley and peas’; Mth. khesārī ‘a kind of grain’ (°sāṛī hyper—Hindiism?); H. khesārī, khis° f. ‘Lathyrus sativus’. 2. H. kisārī f. ‘L. sativus’. *khaiñc— ‘pull’ see *khiñc—.
3926 *khōkkh— ‘bark, cough’. Pk. khokkhaï ‘barks (of a monkey)’, khokkhā— f. ‘monkey's bark’; N. khoknu ‘to cough’, khoki sb., B. khukā, H. khõ;khnā, khõ;khī f., G. khokhlɔ m., M. khokṇẽ. Addenda: *khōkkh— [Cf. *khuṅk— in Add2]
3927 *khōkkha— ‘hollow’. S. khokho m. ‘anything withered and dried up’; Or. khokho ‘sound of hollow things when struck’; H. khokhā, °kā ‘hollow, decayed’; G. khokh ‘dry and hollow’, khokhũ n. ‘outer dry crust after inside is removed’; M. khok, khõ;k f. ‘hole, bruise’; — Ext. with —r—: K. khŏkhoru , khūkh° ‘hollow’, P. khokhrā, N. khokro, H. khokrā; OMarw. khokharo m. ‘cavity’; - with —l—: P. khokhlā ‘hollow’; N. khoklo, khukulo ‘loose, slack’; H. khokhal, °khlā ‘hollow, decayed’; — with ——: H. khokaṛ; — M. khokhas n. ‘hollow grains’. Addenda: *khōkkha—: S.kcch. khokho ‘old’.
3928 *khōṅga— ‘basket’. N. khõ;go, khuṅo ‘fish—trap of basketwork’; B. Or. khuṅgi ‘small bamboo wickerwork basket’. *khōcc— ‘pierce, tear’ see *khucc—. khṓjati see *khōjja—.
3929 *khōjja— ‘mark, footprint’. 2. *khōjjati ‘tracks, seeks’. 3. *khuddati [Conn. with khṓjati ‘steals’ Dhātup. is doubtful] 1. Pk. khojja— m.n. ‘footmark’; L. khojī m. ‘tracker’; P. khoj m. ‘footprint’, khojjī m. ‘tracker of lost cattle’; N. khoj ‘clue’; A. khoj ‘footprint’; B. khoj, khõ;j ‘trace’; Or. khoja ‘footmark, trace’; G. khoj m.f. ‘search’. 2. Paš. lauṛ. xōǰ—, weg. kūeǰxūǰ—, gul. ‘to ask’ (→ Par. khuǰ- IIFL i 264); Kal. rumb. khoǰim ‘I seek’; Bshk. khoǰ— ‘to ask’, Tor. kuǰ— (kh—?), Phal. khōǰ—, Sh. gil. khoǰóĭki̯, gur. khožyōnu̯; P. khojnā ‘to seek’ (→ S. khojaṇu), Ku. khojṇo, N. khojnu; A. khojiba, ‘to beg, ask for’; B. khojā, khõ;jā, khũjā ‘to search for’, Or. khojibā, Mth. khōjab, OAw. khojaï; H. khojnā ‘to seek, enquire’; G. khojvũ ‘to search for’. 3. Kt. kudå— ‘to ask’, Ash. kudā́—, Wg. kud—, Paš. kuṛ. xud—, Gaw. khud—. — Cf. N. khodalnu ‘to search for’ s.v. *khōdd—. *khōñc— ‘tear, pierce’ see *khucc- Addenda: *khōjja— [Ac. AFD 220 Pk. khojja— ‘footprint’ < kṣōdya— ‘to be trampled on’ R.] 1. WPah.poet. khōj̈ m. ‘footprint, trace’, J. khō'j. 2. WPah.poet. khoj̈ṇo ‘to search, trace, enquire’.
3930 *khōñcā— ‘curve, bend’. [< *skuc— beside √kuc?] P. khū̃j f., °jā m. ‘corner’, N. khõ;j, khõ;c, khū̃j ‘glen, ravine, depression between two hills’; H. khū̃c f. ‘tendon Achilles’; G. khɔ̃c f. ‘corner’. — See *khuccā—, *kuñca1. khōṭa— see khōra1. *khōṭayati ‘breaks’ see *khuṭati.
3931 *khōṭi— ‘blemish’. 2. *khōṭṭa—. [Cf. *khuṭṭa4 and kūṭa2] 1. Pk. khōḍi— f. ‘fault’; Tor. khōr ‘ashes’ (Morgen- stierne AO viii 304 compares Sh. khā́ro < *skāra—, but see 2 below); OAw. khorī ‘fault’; H. khorī f. ‘wicked- ness’; OG. khoḍi f., G. khoṛ f. ‘vice, fault’, M. khoḍ f. 2. Bshk. khoṭ ‘embers’, Phal. khūṭo ‘ashes, burning coal’; Sh. khoṭŭ ‘false’, (Lor.) khōṭ ‘fault’; K. khọ̆ṭu ‘base, impure’; S. khoṭu m. ‘deceit’, °ṭo ‘deceitful’; L. khoṭ f. ‘alloy, impurity’, °ṭā ‘alloyed’, awāṇ. khoṭā ‘forged’; P. khoṭ m. ‘base, alloy’ (PhonPj 117 < kauṭya—), f. ‘vice, blemish’, khoṭṭā ‘vicious, impure’; Ku. N. khoṭ ‘fault’; H. khoṭ m.f. ‘deceit’, °ṭā ‘false, base’; Marw. khoṭo ‘bad’; OG. khoṭaüṁ ‘untrue’, G. khoṭ f. ‘mistake, loss, want’, °ṭī f. ‘waste of time’, °ṭũ ‘alloyed, bad, lazy’; M. khoṭ f. ‘falsehood, loss in trade’, °ṭā ‘false, alloyed’, °ṭī ‘delayed’. *niṣkhōṭa—; *niṣkhōṭṭa—. *khōṭṭa— ‘blemish’ see prec. *khōḍa— ‘cavity’ see *khōla2. *khōḍḍ— ‘dig’ see *khōdd—. *khōṇḍa— ‘lame’ see khōra1. Addenda: *khōṭṭa—: WPah.kṭg. khōṭ m. ‘fault’, khoṭɔ ‘false’; J. khoṭā ‘wicked’; Md. kuř ‘error’. *khōḍa— ‘cavity’ see *khōla2 Add2. *khōḍḍ— ‘dig’ see *khōdd— Add2. *khōtr— ‘dig’ see *kōtr— Add2.
3932 *khōtta— ‘donkey’. [Poss. ← same source as ghōṭa—] P. bhaṭ. khotā, WPah. bhad. khautau, paṅ. cur. khōtā. *khōttarūpa—.
3933 *khōttarūpa— ‘donkey’. [*khōtta—, rūpá—] WPah. bhal. khōtrū. *khōtr— ‘dig’ see *kōtr—.
3934 *khōdd— ‘dig’. 2. *khōḍḍ—. 3. *kōḍḍ—. 4. *gōdd—. 5. *gōḍḍ—. 6. *guḍḍ—. [Poss. conn. with khudáti ‘thrusts (penis) into’ RV., prákhudati ‘futuit’ AV.; cf. also *khōtr—, *kōtr—] 1. P. khodṇā ‘to dig, carve’, khudṇā ‘to be dug’; Ku. khodṇo ‘to dig, carve’, N. khodnu, B. khodā, khudā, Or. khodibā, khud°; Bi. mag. khudnī ‘a kind of spade’; H. khodnā ‘to dig, carve, search’, khudnā ‘to be dug’; Marw. khodṇo ‘to dig’; G. khodvũ ‘to dig, carve’, M. khodṇẽ (also X khānayati q.v.). — N. khodalnu ‘to search for’ cf. *khuddati s.v. *khōjja—? 2. B. khõ;ṛā ‘to dig’ or < *khōṭayati s.v. *khuṭati. 3. B. koṛā, kõ;ṛā ‘to dig, pierce’, Or. koṛibā ‘to cut clods of earth with a spade, beat’; Mth. koṛab ‘to dig’, H. koṛnā. 4. K. godu m. ‘hole’, g° karun ‘to pierce’; N. godnu ‘to pierce’; H. godnā ‘to pierce, hoe’, gudnā ‘to be pierced’; G. godɔ m. ‘a push’; M. godṇẽ ‘to tattoo’. 5. L. goḍaṇ ‘to hoe’, P. goḍṇā, goḍḍī f. ‘hoeings’; N. goṛnu ‘to hoe, weed’; H. goṛnā ‘to hoe up, scrape’, goṛhnā (X kāṛhnā?); G. goḍvũ ‘to loosen earth round roots of a plant’. 6. S. guḍ̱aṇu ‘to pound, thrash’; P. guḍḍṇā ‘to beat, pelt, hoe, weed’. Addenda: *khōdd—. 1. S.kcch. khodhṇū ‘to dig’, WPah.kṭg. (Wkc.) khódṇõ;, J. khodṇu. 2. *khōḍḍ—: WPah.kc. khoḍṇo ‘to dig’; — kṭg. khoṛnõ; id. see *khuṭati Add2.
3936 *khōppa— 1 ‘coconut shell’. 2. *khōppaḍa—. 3. *khōppara—. 4. *khōbbara—. [Cf. *kōppara—] 1. S. khopo m. ‘shell of coconut or egg’; L. khopā m. ‘leather blinders on a bullock's eyes’; P. khoppā, khopā m. ‘coconut kernel’; Or. (Sambhalpur) khupuli ‘hard shell of coconut’; H. khopā m. ‘coconut kernel’. 2. Ku. khopṛī ‘skull’, N. khopri; H. khopṛī f. ‘skull, shell’. 3. K. khūpara ‘coconut shell, chestnut’; P. khopar m., °prī f. ‘skull’, khoprā m. ‘concave eyepieces over an animal's eyes when driving a mill’; H. khoprā m. ‘coconut kernel’, G. khoprẽ n.; G. M. khoprī f. ‘skull’. 4. M. khobrẽ n. ‘coconut kernel’. Addenda: *khōppa—: WPah.poet. khobo m. ‘scratch, hole’; A. khob ‘hole, cave’.
3937 *khōppa— 2 ‘hole’. [Cf. *khappa2] Phal. khop ‘rung of a ladder’ (orig. ‘notch in a plank or trunk used as a ladder’ and, despite NOPhal 40, separate fr. A. khāp ‘layer’ s.v. *khappa1); N. khop ‘ravine’, °po ‘hole in a wall’, °pi ‘little hole’, °pilṭo; A. khob ‘hole, cave’, khupiyā ‘notch to place the foot on’; Or. khopa ‘pigeonhole’; H. khop f. ‘hole, cave’; M. khop f. ‘dint’, °pā m. ‘hollow in a tree’; — Si. kopuva ‘sheath, scabbard’ (but see *khappa1); — Ku. khopṇo ‘to make a hole’; N. khopnu ‘to pierce’; A. khopani ‘pressing the toes in to prevent slipping’ (but see *skupyatē).
3938 *khōppa— 3 ‘hut’. 2. *khōmpa—. [Prob. ← Drav. DED no. 1441] 1. M. khop, °pī f. ‘cottage, hut’. — Ext. with ——: K. khŏpürü f. ‘ruined thatched mud hut’; Ku. khopṛo ‘hovel’; N. khopro ‘slave's house’; A. khupari ‘small dark room’; Mth. khopaṛī ‘hut’, M. khopḍī f.; — with —ṭṭ—: G. khopṭũ n. ‘cottage, hut’, M. khopaṭ n., °pṭī f. 2. Bi. khõ;p, °pī ‘house for storing chaff’; Mth. khõ;p ‘hut, nest’; Bhoj. khõ;p ‘cover of a granary’; M. khõ;p f. ‘hut’. — Ext. with ——: Bi. khõ;pṛī ‘shed on threshing floor’.
3939 *khōppa— 4 ‘bunch of hair’. [← Drav. DED no. 1755] N. khop ‘bunch of woman's hair tied unplaited at back of head’; A. khopā ‘hair—knot’, B. khõ;pā, Or. khopā, H. khopā m., H. M. khõ;pā m. *khōppaḍa— ‘coconut shell’ see *khōppa1. *khōppara— ‘coconut shell’ see *khōppa1. *khōbbara— ‘coconut shell’ see *khōppa1.
3943 *khōla— 2 ‘cavity, hollow’. 2. *khōlla—2. 3. *khōḍa—. 4. *khōra—2. [Cf. Par. khur ‘cave’ IIFL i 265] 1. Paš. gul. khōl ‘ravine’; P. khol f. ‘cavity, hollow’; WPah. cur. khoḷ ‘stream’; N. kholo ‘small river, valley’; Bi. khol, °li ‘trough in which the share lies when fixed in body of plough’; H. khol, °laṛ m. ‘cavity, cave’; — A. kholiba ‘to hollow out’, kholni ‘mortice’; Or. khoḷibā ‘to dig’. — X kōṭará— q.v. 2. Pk. kholla— n. ‘hollow’; L. kholā ‘hollow’; Or. khola ‘cave’; G. khol f. ‘hollowness’; M. khol ‘deep’. 3. Kho. (Lor.) khōḷ ‘cave, hollow under rock’; P. khoṛ f. ‘cavity, hollow’; — A. khor ‘cavity, hole’ or < *khōra2. 4. Gy. arm. xor ‘deep, hollow, depth’, eur. xor ‘deep, depth’, wel. xorō ‘deep’; Sh. (Lor.) kōr ‘cave’; L. khorī ‘enclosure’; P. khorā ‘empty’; N. khor ‘enclosure, trap’, °ro ‘crack in skin of foot’, °ri ‘small pocket of leaves’; A. khor ‘cave’ (or < *khōḍa—); B. khor ‘sore in foot—and- mouth disease’; H. khor m. ‘cave’, f. ‘cavity’, °rā m. ‘pit, cave’; M. khor m. ‘glen’. khōla— 3 ‘lame’ see khōra1. Addenda: *khōla— 2. 3. khōḍa—: WPah.kṭg. khv́ṛ m. ‘lowest storey of house where cattle are kept (often dug into the hillside)’ (but cf. P. kuṛ, kgr. kuṛh f. ‘enclosure for cattle’ Him.I 35); — perh. also khv́ṛ ‘dung, manure’.
3945 *khōll— ‘to open’. 2. *khull— ‘to be open’. 1. Gy. pal. kṓlăr ‘loosens’, eur. wel. xulav— ‘to comb out (hair), part, divide’; K. khōlun ‘to open’, S. kholaṇu, L. awāṇ. khōluṇ; P. kholhṇā ‘to open, loose’; WPah. rudh. kholl— ‘to open’; Ku. gng. khoe ‘releases’; N. kholnu ‘to open’, B. kholā, khulā, Or. kholibā, Mth. Aw. lakh. khōlab, H. kholnā, Marw. kholṇo, G. kholvũ; M. kholṇẽ ‘to deepen (a well)’. 2. S. khulaṇu intr. ‘to open’, L. awāṇ. khullaṇ ‘to be open’, P. khullhṇā, WPah. cam. khulhṇā, Ku. khulṇo, N. khulnu, B. khulā, H. khulnā, G. khulvũ, M. khulṇẽ; — OMarw. khulo adj. ‘open’. *utkhōll—, *niṣkhōll—. Addenda: *khōll—. 1. S.kcch. kholṇū ‘to open’; WPah.kṭg. (kc.) khólṇõ;. 2. *khull—: WPah.kṭg. khúlṇõ; ‘to be opened’, khullɔ ‘spacious, wide’; J. khulā ‘loosened’.
3946 *khōlla— 1 ‘hut’. Pk. khulla— n. ‘hut’; G. M. kholī f. ‘inner room’. *khōlla— 2 ‘cavity’ see *khōla2.
3947 *khōva— ‘inspissated milk’. P. khoā m., ‘milk boiled till thick’, N. khowā, khāwā, B. khoyā, Or. khuā, H. khoā m., M. khovā, khavā m.
3948 *khōsa— ‘husk’. Sh. (Lor.) khōh ‘what is removed after pounding rice or maize’; B. Or. H. khosā m. ‘husk’; — N. khosṭo ‘husk (of maize &c.), eggshell’, khoselo ‘husk (of maize &c.)’, khoselnu ‘to peel, rummage’. — Si. koha ‘fibre of coco- nut husk’ rather < kōśá—. KHYĀ ‘make known’: abhíkhyati, ā́khyati, ākhyā—, ākhyāta—, *ākhyātra—, ākhyā́na—, *ācikhyati, upā- khyāna—, prakhyāna—, *viyā́khyāti, vyākhyāna—, saṁ- khyā—, sáṁkhyāti, samākhyāti.
3949 *gakṣa— ‘tree’, gaccha— m. lex. Pa. gaccha— m. ‘bush’; Sh. gac̣hí f. ‘twig’; N. gāch ‘tree, shrub’; A. gās ‘tree’; B. gāch ‘tree, plant’, °chā ‘lampstand’, gāchāna ‘to grow’; Or. gacha ‘tree’; Bi. gāch ‘beanstalk’, gāchi ‘first sprout of peas’, °chī ‘grove’; Mth. gāch, gachiā ‘tree’, gāchī ‘mango grove’; Bhoj. gā̃ch ‘tree’; H. gāch m. ‘tree’, °chī f. ‘grove’; Si. gasa, gaha ‘tree’; — A. gā̆s ‘numerative used with long or slender things’, B. gāch. Addenda: *gakṣa— ‘tree’. [Cf. vr̥kṣá— with same final] A. also gâchā (phonet. —s—) ‘lampstand’ AFD 217.
3951 *gaṅgarīti ‘calls loudly’. [Poss. intens. of √gr̥̄ 3, but prob. onom. like *gargarāyati] G. gā̃garvũ ‘to bellow like a bull’; M. gā̃garṇẽ ‘to be frightened’, gā̃garḍā m. ‘outcry, brawl’.
3953 *gaṅgāmr̥ttikā— ‘Ganges earth’. [gáṅgā—, mŕ̥ttikā—] S. gaṅgāṭī f. ‘earth brought from the Ganges for making sectarial mark’; H. gãgauṭī f. ‘earth or sand from the Ganges’. *gacc— ‘press, crowd’ see *gicc—.
3954 *gacca— ‘mud’. [Perh. onom., cf. Drav. words s.v. *gicc— and Pahlavi gač, Pers. geč ‘mud’.] S. gacu m. ‘mortar, plaster’ (g!), gaci ‘plastered with mortar’; P. gacc m. ‘mud, mortar, cement’; H. gac m. ‘noise made in walking through mud’; M. gaċṇẽ ‘to sink into mud’. gaccha— see *gakṣa—.
3959 *gajja— ‘foam’. 2. *gañja—4. 1. S. gajī f. ‘foam, scum’, Ku. N. Bhoj. gāj; H. gāj f. ‘froth, scum’, gajānā ‘to cause to ferment’. 2. B. gā̃jā ‘frothing’, gā̃jlā ‘froth, beestings’, gā̃jā ‘to foam’.
3960 *gañj— ‘press, ram’. 2. *gajj—. 3. *gadd—. [Cf. gañja1 m. ‘disrespect’ lex. and gandhayatē] 1. Pk. gaṁjaï ‘oppresses, rebukes’, gaṁjia— ‘hurt’, gaṁjaṇa— n. ‘disrespect’; N. gā̃jnu ‘to ravish, rape (a woman)’; A. gā̃ziba ‘to thrust, cram’; Or. gā̃jibā ‘to ram, thrash’, gañjibā ‘to oppress, abuse’, gañjaṇā ‘abuse’; H. gā̃jnā ‘to churn’, gãjnā ‘to treat with con- tempt’; G. gā̃jvũ ‘to agitate, overpower, deceive’; M. gā̃j̈ṇẽ ‘to torment’. 2. Or. gājibā ‘to ram, thrash, fall in torrents (of rain)’. 3. Pk. gaddia— ‘proud’ (?); B. gādā ‘to ram, cram’; H. gādnā ‘to press down, cram’. gañja— 1 ‘disrespect’ see *gañj—. Addenda: *gañj—. 1. WPah.kṭg. ganj̈ɔ ‘bald—headed’, P. gañjā.
3962 *gañja— 3 ‘heap’. [Perh. same as gañja2] P. gañj m. ‘heap’; N. gā̃j ‘close growth of plants’; Bhoj. gā̃j ‘heap’. — With Pk. gaṁja— m. ‘cheek’ cf. gaṇḍá1 and gaṇḍa2. *gañja— 4 ‘foam’ see *gajja—.
3965 *gaṭṭa— ‘piece’. 2. *giṭṭa—. 1. S. ǥaṭu m. ‘piece of stick in a dog's collar’, ǥaṭo m. ‘piece of wall, piece of canal left undug’, ǥaṭī f. ‘piece of elephant's tusk &c.’; P. gaṭṭ m. ‘cluster, stopper’, gaṭṭā m. ‘stopper’ (→ H. gaṭṭā m.); H. gāṭā m. ‘piece of land’. 2. S. ǥiṭī f. ‘small bit of food’. *GAṬH ‘mould, form’. [By metath. < √ghaṭ?] *gaṭhati, *gāṭhayati. Addenda: *gaṭṭa—: WPah.kṭg. gɔṭṭɔ m. ‘small stone, pebble’, J. gaṭi f.
3966 *gaṭhati ‘makes, forms’. [√*gaṭh] Pk. gaḍhaï ‘forms’; L. gaṛhāvaṇ ‘to bring buffalo- cow to bull’; P. gaṛhṇā ‘to copulate with (of bull or buffalo)’; A. gariba ‘to mould, form’; B. gaṛā ‘to hammer into shape, form’; Or. gaṛhibā ‘to mould, build’, gaṛhaṇa ‘building’; Mth. gaṛhāī ‘wages for making gold or silver ornaments’; OAw. gaḍhāi ‘makes’; H. gaṛhnā ‘to form by hammering’, G. gaḍhvũ. — Altern. < gháṭatē: Wg. gaṛawun ‘to form, produce’; K. garun, vill. gaḍun ‘to hammer into shape, forge, put together’. GAḌ ‘drip’. [Poss. ← Drav. Master BSOAS xii 347; but perh. < *gr̥d— in *grilla— (if < *gr̥d—la—) or *gr̥ta—: √*gr̥̄ 1. See also √gal 1 and *giḍḍ—] *gaḍa—3, gáḍati, gaḍita—, *gāḍa—1, *gāḍayati; *nirgaḍa—, *nirgaḍati, *nirgāḍayati, *vigaḍati.
3968 *gaḍa— 2 ‘cultivated field’. 2. *gāḍa—2. [Prob. same as *gaḍa1, i.e. ‘something dug’] 1. Ku. gaṛo ‘field’; N. garo ‘terraced field’. 2. Dm. gāŕa ‘cultivated field’; Kho. (Lor.) gāḷu ‘small field’. Addenda: *gaḍa—2: WPah.kc. gɔ̄ṛ m. ‘farmyard, earth, ground’.
3969 *gaḍa— 3 ‘dropping’. [√gaḍ] Pa. gaḷa— m. ‘a drop’, gaḷāgalaṁ gacchati ‘goes from fall to fall’; S. ǥaṛo m. ‘hail’, L. (Ju.) ǥaṛā m., P. gaṛā m. (cf. galā < gala1); — Pk. gaḍa— n. ‘large stone’?
3971 *gaḍa— 5 ‘hook’. Pa. gaḷa— m. ‘hook, fish—hook’; Pk. gala— m. ‘hook’; N. gal ‘lever’; H. gal m. ‘hook, drag hook’; G. gaḷ m. ‘hook’; M. gaḷ m. ‘hook, drag hook, hangman's hook’. *gaḍa— 6 ‘neck’ see gala2.
3972 *gaḍagaḍa— ‘noise’. [Onom.: cf. *ghaḍaghaḍa—] Pa. gaḷagaḷāyati ‘crashes, thunders’; Pk. gaḍayaḍa—, °ḍī— f. ‘sound of thunder’, gaḍayaḍaṁta— ‘making a dreadful noise’; M. gaḍāḍ m. ‘rumble’, gaḍāḍṇẽ ‘to rumble’, gaḍgaḍṇẽ.
3974 *gaḍa—baḍa— ‘confused’. 2. *gaḍḍa—baḍḍa—. [Cf. *gaḍḍ2] 1. Pk. gaḍavaḍa— n. ‘confusion’, S. gaṛḇaṛi f.; P. gaṛhbaṛ f. ‘sound of boiling water’, gaṛhbaṛāhaṭ f. ‘confusion’; Ku. gaṛbaṛūṇo ‘to confuse’; N. gaṛbaṛ ‘confusion’, B. gaṛbaṛ, °ṛi; Or. gaṛabaṛi ‘uproar’; H. gaṛbaṛ ‘confused’, m. ‘confusion, disorder’, °ṛā m., °ṛī, °ṛāhaṭ f., G. gaṛbaṛ f., M. gaḍbaḍ f., gaḍbaḍṇẽ ‘to be confused’. 2. P. gaḍḍvaḍḍ m. ‘confusion’.
3979 *gaḍḍ— 1 ‘dig, bury’. [Cf. list s.v. kartá1] L. gaḍḍaṇ ‘to sow’; P. gaḍḍṇā ‘to sow, plant, fix’; N. gāṛnu ‘to bury, stab’; A. gāriba, gā̃r° ‘to thrust, fix in’; B. gāṛā ‘to plant, bury’; Or. gāṛibā ‘to bury in a hole’; Mth. gāṛab ‘to bury’, Bhoj. gāṛal; H. gāṛnā ‘to bury, drive in’, OMarw. gāṛaï, G. gāḍvũ, M. gāḍṇē̃. — Caus. Gy. eur. garav— ‘to hide’, P. gaḍāuṇā ‘to bury, drive in’; — intr. N. gaṛnu ‘to be buried’, Mth. gaṛab, G. gaḍvũ.
3980 *gaḍḍ— 2 ‘mix’. [Cf. gadhyati ‘is mixed’ Nir., and Kan. gaḍanisu ‘to join’] Paš. gaḍ ‘mixed with, immersed in’ IIFL iii 3, 67; S. gaḍ̱aṇu ‘to meet, join, mix’, gaḍ̱u ‘jointly’; L. (Ju.) gaḍ̱ḍ̱aṇ ‘to mix (of fluids)’; P. gaḍḍ ‘promiscuous’; H. gāṛnā ‘to unite’, gāṛā ‘kneaded or mixed mud’ (or < *gāḍa2). — Poss. Wg. gaṭ ‘immersed’ but see gāḍha—.
3981 *gaḍḍa— 1 ‘hole, pit’. [G. < *garda—? — Cf. *gaḍḍ1 and list s.v. kartá1] Pk. gaḍḍa— m. ‘hole’; WPah. bhal. cur. gaḍḍ f., paṅ. gaḍḍṛī, pāḍ. gaḍōṛ ‘river, stream’; N. gaṛ—tir ‘bank of a river’; A. gārā ‘deep hole’; B. gāṛ, °ṛā ‘hollow, pit’; Or. gāṛa ‘hole, cave’, gāṛiā ‘pond’; Mth. gāṛi ‘piercing’; H. gāṛā m. ‘hole’; G. garāḍ, °ḍɔ m. ‘pit, ditch’ (< *graḍḍa— < *garda—?); Si. gaḍaya ‘ditch’. — Cf. S. giḍ̱i f. ‘hole in the ground for fire during Muharram’. — X khānī̆—: K. gān m. ‘underground room’; S. (LM 323) gāṇ f. ‘mine, hole for keeping water’; L. gāṇ m. ‘small embanked field within a field to keep water in’; G. gāṇ f. ‘mine, cellar’; M. gāṇ f. ‘cavity containing water on a raised piece of land’ (LM 323 < gáhana—). *pragaḍḍa—; *gharagaḍḍa—. Addenda: *gaḍḍa—1: WPah.kṭg. gāṛ ‘hole (e.g. after a knot in wood)’.
3982 *gaḍḍa— 2 ‘bundle, sheaf’. 2. *giḍḍa—. 1. S. gaḏo m. ‘bundle of grass &c.’, °ḍ̱ī f. ‘small do.’; L. gaḍḍā m. ‘armful of straw’, °ḍī f. ‘sheaf’; P. gaḍḍā m. ‘handful of sticks’, °ḍī f. ‘load of rice in straw’, WPah. bhal. gaḍḍi f. 2. Bshk. giḍ ‘straw’. *gaḍḍa— 3 ‘boil, swelling’ see gaṇḍá1.
3983 *gaḍḍa— 4 ‘sheep’. 2. gaḍḍara—, °ḍala— m. Apte. [Cf. gaḍḍārikā— f. ‘ewe in front of a flock’ lex., gaḍḍālikā- f. ‘sheep’ → Psht. gaḍūrai ‘lamb’ NTS ii 256] 1. Ash. gaḍewä m. ‘sheep’, °wī f.; Wg. gáḍawā, goḍṓ ‘ram’, guḍsok ‘lamb’; Paš. giḍı̄́ f. ‘sheep’; L. gaḍ m. ‘wild sheep’. 2. Pk. gaḍḍarī— f. ‘goat, ewe’, °riyā— f. ‘ewe’; Woṭ. gaḍūre ‘lamb’; B. gāṛal, °ṛar ‘the long—legged sheep’; Or. gāraṛa, gaṛera, °ṛarā ‘ram’, gāraṛi ‘ewe’, garaṛa ‘sheep’; H. gāḍar f. ‘ewe’; G. gāḍar, °ḍrũ n. ‘sheep’. — Deriv. B. gāṛle ‘shepherd’, H. gaḍariyā m. *gaḍḍa—baḍḍa— ‘confused’ see *gaḍa—baḍa—. gaḍḍara— ‘sheep’ see *gaḍḍa4. gaḍḍārikā— see *gaḍḍa4. Addenda: *gaḍḍa— 4. 2. gaḍḍara—: S.kcch. gāḍar m. ‘sheep’. gaḍḍara— see *gaḍḍa4 Add2.
3985 *gaḍḍhati ‘pulls’. [See *kaḍḍhati: √*kaḍḍh] Bshk. gaḍh imper. ‘pull!’; Phal. gaḍ— ‘to take or pull out’. Addenda: *gaḍḍhati: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) gáṛhnõ;, gaṛnõ; ‘to take out, pull out’.
3986 *gaḍha— ‘fort’. [Poss. with ODBL 500 < *gr̥dha- (> gr̥há—), Av. gƏrƏ d a—] Pk. gaḍha— m., °ḍhā— f. ‘fort’; K. gaḍ m. (= vill. *gaṛ?) ‘small masonry fort built in the hills by a local chieftain’; S. ǥaṛhu m. ‘fort’, P. gaṛh m., Ku. gaṛ, A. gar, B. gaṛ, Or. gaṛ(h)a, Mth. Bhoj. gaṛh, OAw. gaḍha m., H. gaṛhī f. (→ N. gaṛi), OMarw. OG. gaḍha m., G. gaḍh, ghaṛ m. (whence gaḍhī m. ‘inhabitant of a hill fort’), M. gaḍhī, gaḍḍī f. *gaḍhapati—; saṁgaḍha—. Addenda: *gaḍha—: S.kcch. gaḍḍh m. ‘fort’.
3987 *gaḍhapati— ‘commander of a fort’. [*gaḍha—, páti—] G. gaḍhvī m.
3990 *gaṇakulika— ‘belonging to a hive’. [gaṇá—, kúla—] WPah. bhal. gƏṇɔlli f. ‘bee’.
3991 *gaṇadhārī— ‘holding a swarm’. [gaṇá—, dhāra1] WPah. bhal. gaṇhār f. ‘beehive’.
4002 *gaṇḍamba— ‘a partic. kind of tree’. Pa. gaṇḍamba— m.; Si. gäḍam̆bu, °ḍum̆ba ‘the tree Trema orientalis’.
4004 *gaṇḍāsi— ‘sugarcane knife’. [gaṇḍa—2, así—] Bi. gãṛās, °sā ‘fodder cutter’, °sī ‘its blade’; Bhoj. gãṛās ‘a partic. iron instrument’; H. gãṛāsī f., °sā m. ‘knife for cutting fodder or sugarcane’ (→ P. gãḍāsā m. ‘chopper for cutting fodder &c.’). gaṇḍi— see gaṇḍa2.
4011 *gadda— 1 ‘sediment, mud’. [Perh. < *garda—, cf. Pk. geḍḍa— n. ‘mud’ J. Bloch LM 321 < *gr̥d—, *gard— in Pers. gil ‘dirt’. But see list s.v. karda—] B. gād ‘dregs, lees, scum’; Or. gāda ‘sediment, dregs’; Bi. gād ‘low—lying land’; Mth. gādi ‘sediment of foul water’; H. gād f. ‘sediment, dregs’ (→ P. gād m.); M. gādā m. ‘muck, sludge’. — Ext. with —l—: M. gadaḷ n. ‘dirt’; — with —ll—: H. gadlā ‘turbid, dirty’; G. gadlũ ‘dirty, dusty’. — Deriv. M. gādṇẽ ‘to become turbid’.
4012 *gadda— 2 ‘spotted, mottled’. 2. *gaddara—. 1. H. gādā m. ‘unripe grain parched in the ear’. 2. L. gadra ‘flea—bitten grey (of cattle)’, (Ju.) gadar ‘leucoderm, leprosy, inferior quality of rice’, gadrā ‘piebald, spotted, leprous’; P. gaddar, °rā ‘half—ripe’; H. gādar ‘unripe (of grain or fruit)’. *gaddara— ‘mottled’ see prec. gadhā— see *gaḍḍa—.
4013 *ganagana— ‘murmur’. 2. *gunaguna—. 1. N. gangan ‘murmur’, ganganāunu ‘to grumble’; Or. gaṇagaṇa ‘murmur’, G. gaṇgaṇ n., gaṇgaṇvũ vb., M. gaṇgaṇṇẽ. 2. H. gungun f., gungunānā vb. *gandu— ‘ball’ see gēnduka—. GANDH ‘hurt’: gandháyatē. Addenda: *ganagana—. 2. *gunaguna—: S.kcch. gūṇgūṇ keṇī ‘to hum, whisper’, Ko. guṇguṇtā ‘murmurs’.
4015 *gandhapūrikā— ‘flower’. [gandhá—, pūra1] Kal. gambhūri ‘flower’, Kho. gambùri BelvalkarVol 90.
4022 *gappa— ‘talk’. [Onom. cf. jálpati?] K. gaph, dat. °pas m. ‘joke’; P. gapp f. ‘tittle—tattle’, gappī m. ‘boaster’; Ku. gaph ‘absurd news’; N. gaph ‘tittle—tattle’, gapphar ‘boaster’; A. gap ‘boast’; B. gappa ‘tittle—tattle’, Or. gapa, H. G. M. gap f. Addenda: *gappa—: WPah.kṭg. gɔp f. (obl. —a) ‘gossip’, J. gap f. *gabhīna— see gabhīrá— Add2.
4023 *gabba— ‘filling of a hole’. 2. *gampa—. 1. N. gāb, gāp ‘rubble for filling in a wall, strong foundation stone of a wall’; G. gābṛī f. ‘filling of a hole’; M. gābḍẽ n. ‘patch for a hole’. 2. S. gamba f. ‘mud building’ (g!). *gabhara— ‘deep’ see gabhīrá—. *gabhīna— ‘deep’ see next.
4039 *garu— 1 ‘skin disease’. [Cf. gará3 m. ‘a partic. disease’ Suśr. and words for ‘itch’ ending in —ū̆ s.v. kharju1] Gy. gr. ger, gel m. ‘itch’, boh. ger f.; S. garu (g!) f. ‘mange’, garo ‘mangy’, m. ‘iron—grey horse’; H. gar f. ‘itch in throat and breast of a horse, farcy’; M. gar f. ‘id., scurf on hair of horse or man’. — Ext. —lla—: Gy. eur. geralo, gelalo ‘affected by itch or scab’; B. garal ‘eczema’.
4040 *garu— 2 ‘pulp, pith’. S. ǥaru f. ‘pulp, pith, marrow’, G. M. gar m.; M. garā m. ‘lump of the pulp of jackfruit’. Addenda: *garu—2: P. garī f. ‘kernel of coconut’, WPah.kṭg. gɔri , Wkc. gire f. ‘coconut, kernel of coconut’, J. garī f., H. garī f.
4045 *gargarāyati ‘roars’. [gárgara1: onom. cf. *gaṅ- garīti] Pa. gaggarāyati ‘whirls, roars (of waves)’; K. gagarāy f. ‘thunder’. gargāṭa— see gargara3. GARJ ‘roar’: gárjati, garjana—, garjā—, garjita—.
4053 *garda— 2 ‘seat’. [Cf. gárta2 m. ‘high seat, chariot seat’ RV., ‘chariot’ Gaut. EWA i 327 of IE. origin, but prob. with T. Burrow BSOAS xii 377 ← Drav.: Kan. garduge, gaddigĕ ‘throne, seat’, Tel. gadde. — Poss. same as *gāḍḍa—] K. gȧḍi f. ‘the royal court where the king transacts business’; S. gaḍ̱o m. ‘bundle of grass’, °ḍ̱ī f. ‘small do.’, gādī f. ‘soft pad, cushion’ (← H. or G.); P. gaddī, gaḍḍī ‘cushion, pad, seat’ (→ H. gaddā m. ‘quilted mattress’, gaddī f. ‘cushion, royal cushion’); N. gādi ‘seat, throne’; A. gādī ‘seat of honour, wadded pad on elephant's back’; B. gādi ‘pile, stack, elevated place’; Or. gādi ‘heap, mound, seat, throne’; H. gādī f. ‘thin mattress, cushion’; G. gādī f. ‘pad, raised seat’; M. gādī f. ‘pad, cushion, throne’, gadelā m. ‘large stuffed seat’. Addenda: *garda—2: S.kcch. gādhī f. ‘soft pad, throne’.
4056 *garbhaghara— ‘inner room’. [Cf. garbhagr̥ha—, —gēha— n. ‘inner sleeping room’ MBh. — gárbha—, ghara—] Pk. gabbhahara— n. ‘inner room’. *garbhagharakāṣṭha—. *garbhagharakāṣṭha— [*garbhaghara—, kāṣṭhá—] See *garbhāgārakāṣṭha—.
4058 *garbhavāra— ‘hair of foetus’. [gárbha—, vā́ra1] H. gabhuāre m. pl. ‘hair of a newborn child’.
4061 *garbhāgārakāṣṭha— [garbhāgāra—, kāṣṭhá—] B. gā̆brāṭ ‘lintel—wood’ ODBL 317 or < *garbha- gharakāṣṭha—. garbhāsrāva— see garbhasrāva—.
4072 *galakaśa— ‘neck rope’. [gala—2, káśā—] S. ǥirāho ‘neck rope for an animal’, B. galāsi, Or. gaḷāsi, H. galāsī f.
4073 *galacūḍa— ‘necklace’. [gala—2, cūḍa2] Gaw. garuṛa ‘necklace’.
4076 *galadāman— ‘neck rope’. 2. *galadāmana— 2 [gala—2, dā́man1] 1. L. (Ju.) ǥalāvā̃ m. ‘neck halter for cattle’; P. galvā̃, galmā m. ‘nape of a tunic’; WPah. khaś. glā̃ ‘neck rope for cattle’, Ku. gng. gayɔ̃, H. garā̃w f. 2. P. galāvāṇ m. ‘neck halter for cattle’, H. garāwan m.
4077 *galapāṭaka— ‘neck surface’. [gala—2, pāṭa—] Pa. galavāṭaka— ‘bottom of the throat (?)’; Si. galavalu ‘back part of neck’.
4078 *galapuṭa— ‘throat’. [gala—2, puṭa—] Bshk. garṓr ‘gullet’; Tor. garḗṛ ‘throat’, Phal. garū́ṛi.
4080 *galabandhana— ‘neck—rope’. [gala—2, bándhana—] Bi. garaũdhan ‘horse's halter’.
4081 *galavibhēdana— ‘slit for neck’. [gala—2, vibhēdana—] L. (Shahpur) galvīṇ f. ‘slit for neck (in clothes)’.
4085 *galī— ‘defile, lane’. 2. *gallī—. 3. *gālī—. [Cf. *gaḍa1 and list s.v. kartá1] 1. Paš. galı̄́ ‘mountain pass’; P. galī f. ‘hole, narrow street’, °lā m. ‘passage through a hedge’; B. gali ‘narrow lane’; Or. gaḷi ‘alley’, gaḷiā ‘hole in a wall, rivulet’; Mth. galī ‘lane’; H. galī f. ‘lane, mountain pass’. 2. S. ǥalī f. ‘lane’ (< *galliā → G. galī f., M. H. gallī f., N. galli); G. gālī f. ‘valley’. 3. K. gölü m. ‘cave, robbers' lair’. galaugha— m. ‘tumour in throat’ Suśr. [gala—, aughá—?] See *galaughika—. Addenda: gali—: X kulyā́— Add2.
4086 *galaughika— ‘having a swelling in the throat’. [galaugha—] Bshk. galṓī, gel° ‘pigeon’ AO xviii 234 with (?); Phal. gálū ‘a blue bird which lives in the fields’; - Pk. gilōī—, °ōiyā— f. ‘house lizard’; S. giloī f. ‘a partic. kind of lizard’; L. gilāī f. ‘long—tailed lizard’. — Very doubtful. gáldā— see gárda1.
4087 *galyati ‘drips’. [√gal 1] L. (Ju.) ǥallaṇ ‘to melt, be lost’.
4090 *gallapuṭa— ‘fold of cheek’. [galla—, puṭa—] WPah. khaś. galhoṛī ‘cheek’, 1. rudh. °ṛā, jaun. galauṛo.
4091 *gallarūpa— ‘cheek—shaped’. [galla—, rūpá—] WPah. bhiḍ. g e\ lrõ;, pl. °ru n. ‘tonsil’.
4092 *gallarōga— ‘cheek—disease’. [galla—, rṓga—] K. galuru m. ‘a partic. disease involving swelling of jowl or lower cheek’. *gallī— ‘defile’ see *galī—. *galhā— ‘abuse, talk’ see garhā—.
4094 *gavatta— ‘cattle—fodder’. [gṓ—, *atta1] Pk. gavatta— n. ‘fodder’; L. got f. ‘bran and straw mash for cattle’, (Ju.) m. ‘straw and oilcake mixed’, awāṇ. gutāvā ‘fodder’; Bi. gawat, gaut ‘fodder for stall- fed cattle’; G. gotũ n. ‘pulse—husks boiled as fodder’. — See also *gōbhakta— with which there may be some confusion.
4097 *gavāṁgūtha— ‘cowdung’. [gṓ—, gūtha—] Kho. gaṅguru.
4100 *gavādhāna— ‘manger’. [gṓ—, ādhā́na—] M. gavhāṇ, gohaṇ f. ‘rack for fodder’; — G. gabhāṇ f. ‘rack for fodder, pasture—land’, in this meaning perh. confused with gamāṇ < gavādanı̄́— with bh < vh?
4101 *gavāśa— ‘eating cows’. [Cf. gavāśana— m. ‘leather- worker’ Subh. — gṓ—, āśá—] OAw. gavāsā ‘butcher’; H. gawās m. ‘cowkiller, butcher’, gawāsā m. ‘place where cows are killed’; — less prob. < *gōmāṁsaka— or *gōmāṁsāda—.
4108 *gahura— ‘deep’. [Cf. gáhvara— ‘deep, impenetrable’ TS., n. ‘hiding place’ AV. — gámbhan—] S. aghoru ‘deep, sound (of sleep), pitch dark (of night)’ with emph. ā—? gáhvara— see prec. ‘come, go’: ágāt, gā́ti, gātú—, gā́tra—, gātraka—; apā́gāt, údgāti, *nigāti, vyagāt. Addenda: *gahura—: Brj. ghorũ ‘serious, solemn’.
4111 *gāṭṭa— 1 ‘neck, throat’. [Cf. ghāṭā1: see list s.v. kaṇṭhá—] S. ǥāṭo m. ‘nape of neck’; L. gāṭṭā m. ‘neck, throat’, (Ju.) ǥāṭā m. ‘nape of neck’, awāṇ. gāṭā; P. gāṭṭā m. ‘neck, throat’; — S. ǥāṭru m. ‘throat’ < *gātra— but conn. with gā́tra— doubtful on semantic grounds.
4112 *gāṭṭa— 2 ‘short, stunted’. 2. *gāṇṭa—. 3. *gēḍa—2. 1. P. gāṭā ‘squat’. 2. N. gāṇṭo ‘dwarf’, B. gā̃ṭā ‘strong but short, stout, knobbly’. 3. Or. geṛa, °ṛā ‘squat’; — cf. N. gaı̃ṛe ‘stunted’. Addenda: *gāṭṭa— 2 ‘stunted’. [~ Drav. DED 965]
4113 *gāṭhayati ‘causes to be moulded’. [√*gaṭh] H. gāṛhnā ‘to form by hammering’.
4114 *gāḍa— 1 ‘dripping’. [√gaḍ: in sense of ‘mud’ perh. rather conn. with group under karda—] Kho. (Lor.) gāḷ ‘dregs’; S. ǥāṛo m. ‘drop’, gāṛa f. ‘drippings’; M. gāḷ f. ‘dregs’ (or < gāla1?); — Tir. gaḍ ‘mud’; M. gāḷ f. ‘mud’, gāḷā m. ‘mud on bushes over a stream, alluvium’; — H. gāṛā m. ‘kneaded or mixed mud’ (or < *gaḍḍ2). — See *gāra—. *gāḍa— 2 ‘cultivated field’ see *gaḍa2.
4115 *gāḍayati ‘lets drip’. [√gaḍ] S. ǥāṛaṇu ‘to drain out’. — Altern. < gālayati 1: Mth. gārab ‘to wring out (clothes)’; H. gārnā ‘to strain, filter, squeeze, milk’; M. gāḷṇẽ ‘to let drop, shed, strain, sift’; Si. galanavā ‘to dip, submerge’, galavanavā ‘to let loose’ (or < *ghālayati).
4116 *gāḍḍa— ‘cart’. [Despite ā poss. same as *garda2: for ‘seat > cart’ cf. gárta2 and Meyer—Lübke Rom. et. Wb. s.v. cathedra. Cf. also gadhā— f. ‘a part of a cart’ TS. com.] Pk. gaḍḍa— n., °ḍī—, °ḍiā— f. ‘cart’, K. göḍi f.; S. gāḍ̱o m. ‘wheeled cart’, L. gāḍī f., (Ju.) gāḍ̱ā m. ‘bullock cart’, gaḍḍ m. ‘cart’ (← EP.), awāṇ. gaḍī ‘train’; P. gāḍḍī, gaḍḍī f. ‘carriage’, gaḍḍ f. ‘cart’, °ḍā m. ‘large cart’, gaḍīrā ‘go—cart’; N. gāṛā, °ṛi ‘carriage, cart’, A. gārī, B. gāṛi; Or. gāṛī ‘carriage’, gaṛā ‘cart with small solid wheels’; Bi. Mth. gāṛā, °ṛī, (Saran) gaṛī; H. gāṛā m. ‘load cart’, °ṛī f. ‘carriage’; G. gāḍũ n. ‘cart’, °ḍī f. ‘carriage’, °ḍiyũ n. ‘small do.’, M. gāḍā m., °ḍī f.; Si. gäḷa ‘cart’ (< *gāḍa— < *gāḍḍa—); — ext. with —ll—: OG. gāḍalauṁ, G. gāllũ n., °lī f. Addenda: *gāḍḍa—: S.kcch. gā̆ḍī f. ‘small cart’, gaḍal f. ‘toy—cart’.
4117 *gāḍḍavartman— ‘cart track’. [*gāḍḍa—, vártman—] H. gaḍwā̃ṭ f. ‘cartwheel track, rut’.
4120 *gāṇya— ‘counting’. [Cf. gaṇya— ‘countable’ lex. - gaṇáyati] Pk. ganna— n. ‘counting’, S. ǥāñu m. (whence ǥāñaṇu ‘to count’).
4128 *gādhana— n. ‘fording’. [Cf. gādhá—. — √gādh] Pa. gāhaṇ m. ‘crossing by a ford, a ford’.
4129 *gādhya— ‘fordable’. [√gādh] S. jhaǥ f. ‘expanse of shallow water’, jhāǥaṇu ‘to wade through shallow water’; — ajhāǥu ‘unfathomable’ rather < *agāhya—?
4131 *gāndha— ‘perfumed’. [gandhá—] Kho. gán ‘wind’ semant. cf. *vahadgandha- BelvalkarVol 90, (Lor.) gan ‘scent, wind (of game), wind, the air’; K. gānd, dat. gönzü f. ‘stink’.
4137 *gāra— ‘dripping, oozing’. [√*gr̄o 1] L. gārā m. ‘thin mud used for mortar’; P. gārā m. ‘kneaded potter's clay, mud used for mortar’; Ku. gāro ‘mud, mortar’; N. gāro ‘mortar’; Or. gārā ‘clay’; Bi. gārā ‘mud mortar’; H. gārā m. ‘thick mud, mortar, plaster’; G. gār f. ‘cowdung prepared for plastering’, gārɔ m. ‘earth and water mixed for building a wall’; M. gārā m. ‘mixture of mud with lime or cowdung for mortar or plaster’; — S. gāro m. ‘mud plaster’ (whence gāraṇu ‘to cause to stick in mud’) is lw. with g. — See *gāḍa—1, gāla—. Addenda: *gāra— [Cf. ghāra—]: WPah.kṭg. gār, garɔ ‘mud mixed with water, mortar’, poet. gare f. ‘refuse (from a pipe)’; jaun. gārā m. ‘kneaded clay, mortar’.
4146 *gālikāraka— ‘abusive’. [gāli—, kāra—] M. gāḷyārā ‘abusive’. *gālī— ‘defile’ see *galī—.
4147 *gāva— m. ‘ox’. 2. *gāvā— f. ‘cow’. 3. gāvī— f. Pat. [gṓ—] 1. Pa. gāva— m. ‘ox’, NiDoc. gava F. W. Thomas AO xii 40, Pk. gāa— m., Gaw. , Bshk. Mai. gå; H. gāu m. ‘bull, bullock’; Si. gava ‘bullock’ or < gava—. 2. Ash. ga ‘cow’, Kt. gå, Wg. , Pr. guṭu (+?), Dm. gâ, Paš. Niṅg. Shum. , Woṭ. gau, Kal. gak, pl. gāgan (< *gāvakā—?); Kho. gāh ‘yak cow’, ga—m e ‘buffalo cow’; Tor. Mai. ‘cow’: all above poss. with Bel- valkarVol 90 direct, or through *gākā—, < acc. gā́m, pl. gā́ḥ. — With trace of —v—: Sv. gāu, K. gāv f., rām. gau, pl. gawa, kash. gāu, pog. gāū̃, P. gāu, gā̃ f. PhonPj 110, bhaṭ. gau, WPah. bhal. gaũ, pl. gaũā̃, khaś. gau, obl. gauwā, paṅ. cur. cam. gā. 3. Pa. Pk. gāvī— f. ‘cow’, Pk. gāī— f., Ḍ. gāi f., Bshk. gay f., Phal. ghāu, pl. ghēyī, S. gā̃i (g!), L. gā̃ (Ju. ǥāū̃), pl. gãī, awāṇ. gā̃, pl. gāı̄̃ f., P. gāī f., WPah. pāḍ. , pl. göī, jaun. gāw, pl. °wı̄̃, N. A. B. gāi, Or. gāī, Bi. Mth. Aw.lakh. gāi, H. gāī f., G. , gāy, f., M. gāī f., Ko. gāyi. Ext. —l— or —ll—: Paš. gawala ‘cow’, M. gavlī f. ‘affec- tionate term for a cow’; — —ḍa—: Garh. gauṛī ‘cow’; G. gāvṛī f. ‘affectionate term’. *gāvaka—; *gāvaśāla—. Addenda: *gāva—. 2. *gāvā—: S.kcch. gaũ f. ‘cow’, Garh. gauṛī f. 3. gāvī—: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) gau f. (obl. kṭg. gawi , gai , gau, kc. gabi) ‘cow’, OMarw. gāi f. *gāvā—, gāvī— see gāva— Add2.
4148 *gāvaka— ‘bovine’. [*gāva—] Kal. (Leitner) "gao", S. gāo (g!) ‘pertaining to cows’, L. gāvā adj., °vī f. ‘herd of cows’ (Ju. ǥ°), awāṇ. ghio gāvā ‘ghee from cow's milk’, mult. gāvā māl ‘property consisting of cows’; A. gā—khīr ‘cow's milk’; Or. gaüā ‘derived from a cow’, guā ghia ‘ghee from cow's milk’, H. gāwā (e.g. g° ghī).
4149 *gāvaśāla— ‘cowshed’. [Cf. gōśāla—: *gāva—, śā́lā—] Bi. gausār, °sālā: perh. rather changed fr. *gosār < gōśālā— after *gau ‘cow’ < gāvī—. gāvī— see *gāva—.
4150 *gāvuta— ‘a measure of distance’. [MIA. gāvū̆ta— (with early change of —avv— to —āv— before ū̆?) < gavyūta— n. ‘2 krośas’ Pañcad., ‘1 krośa’ lex., gōyuta— ‘frequented by cattle’ R., ‘2 krośas’ MBh. Cf. gávyūti— f. ‘a pas- ture’ RV., gōy° Pāṇ. Vārtt., ‘a measure of distance (= 2 krośas)’ MBh.: gṓ— with yūti— H. W. Bailey TPS 1954, 138 or gávya— with ūtí— EWA i 332] Pa. gāvuta— n. ‘measure of distance (= 1/4 yojana or about 1 3/4 miles)’, Pk. gāū̆a—, gāu— n. ‘1 or 2 krośas’, S. ǥāū m. ‘one kos’; H. gau m. ‘four kos’; G. gāu m. ‘one kos’; Si. gavuva, pl. gav ‘3 1/2 miles’. GĀH ‘dive into’: gāḍha—, gāhá—1, gāha—2, gā́hatē; *agāhya—, avagāḍha—, *āgāḍha—. Addenda: *gāvuta—: S.kcch. gāū m. ‘distance of 2 miles’; Md. gavi ‘league’ RTMV2.
4153 *gicc— ‘press, crowd’. 2. *gacc—. 3. *gijj—. 4. *ghicc—. 5. *ghacc—. 6. *ghijj—. [← Drav., J. Bloch BEFEO xliv 49: Kurukh ginjnā ‘to beat into pulp’.—Cf. Muṇḍārī geje̯ geje̯ ‘to reduce to a pulp’, Sant. ge̱je̱ ge̱je̱ ‘crammed’, gijgij ‘close’]. 1. N. H. gic—pic ‘crowded together’, G. gicgic; M. giċċa ‘crowded’, giċāḍ n. ‘a dense wood’. — Cf. Pk. vigiṁcaï ‘separates’. See *adhigicc—. 2. S. ǥacu ‘much, many’, m. ‘piece of bread’; H. gac, gacpac ‘crowded’; G. gacca ‘tightly, firmly’, gaceṭo m. ‘lump’; M. gaċ ‘tightly’, gaċāḍ n. ‘a dense wood’. — Cf. Pk. gaccha— m.n. ‘collection, crowd’. 3. Pk. gejja—, gāgejja— ‘churned’; B. gı̃ji ‘dense’, gijgij ‘crowd’; Or. gẽjibā ‘to press together’, gẽjā—gẽji ‘over- crowded’; H. gı̄̃jnā, gı̃jolnā ‘to mash with the hand’. 4. H. ghicpic ‘crowded’, G. ghīc, ghicca. 5. S. ghacpaci f. ‘overcrowdedness’; Ku. ghaceṭo ‘push’; N. ghaccā̆ ‘thrust’, ghacāro ‘rush, crowd’, ghaceṭnu ‘to push, thrust’, ghañca—mañca ‘pressure of work’; G. ghacṛā—ghacṛī f. ‘overcrowdedness’. 6. B. ghı̃ji ‘dense, impenetrable’. See also *giñjakā- and the group under *kicca— ‘mud’.
4154 *gicca— ‘neck’. [Cf. *ghicca1: see list s.v. kaṇṭhá—] L. ǥiccī f. ‘neck’, awāṇ. giccī. *gijj— ‘press, crowd’ see *gicc—. Addenda: *gicca—: S.kcch. giccī f. ‘neck’.
4155 *gijja— ‘gums of teeth’. N. gijā, gı̃jā ‘the gums’, gijāunu, gijyāunu ‘to mock’; Ku. gijauṇo ‘to provoke’.
4156 *giñjakā— f. ‘brick’. [J. Bloch BEFEO xliv 49 ff. connects with *gijj— ‘press, see *gicc—, but cf. also *kicca— ‘mud’] Pa. giñjakāvasatha— ‘residence of bricks’ (but ac. to E. Waldschmidt Mahāparinirvāṇasūtra ii 162 = Sk. kuñjikāvasatha—); Bi. pangiñjā ‘brick’ (Grierson BPL § 1263). *giṭṭa— ‘piece’ see *gaṭṭa—. *giḍa— ‘swollen gland’ see gaḍu1.
4157 *giḍḍ— ‘fall’. [Poss., after MIA. intr. type tappaï, < *giḍ— (whence Pk. gēḍaṇa— n. ‘throwing’) < *gr̥ta—, cf. √*gr̥̄1, √gaḍ, √gal 1] P. giḍḍaṇā, giḍṇā ‘to fall’; — metath. P. ḍiggaṇā, H. ḍignā. *giḍḍa— ‘bundle, sheaf’ see *gaḍḍa2. Addenda: *giḍḍ—: OP. geṛa f. ‘time, turn’, P. geṛ f.?
4158 *gidda— 1 ‘jackal, fox’. WPah. bhiḍ. bhad. gidd, pl. °dā̃ n. ‘jackal’, B. gidhī (X or < gŕ̥dhra—); — ext. —ḍa—: S. gidaṛu m. (lw. with d?), °dāṛī f., L. gidduṛ m., °dṛī f., P. giddaṛ m.; WPah. bhad. gidaṛ ‘fox’, bhiḍ. gidṛõ; n. ‘small jackal’; B. gidhaṛ ‘jackal’; Or. gidaṛ ‘fox, jackal’, gidhaṛ ‘dunce’; Mth. gīdar ‘jackal’, H. gīdaṛ m. — Woṭ. gidáṛ ‘fox’ prob. ← Ind. (Buddruss Woṭ 101 ← Psht. giḍaṛ ‘fox’ ← Ind.). *gidda— 2 ‘pith’ see *gudda—. ginduka— see gēnduka—.
4159 *girati 1 ‘drips, falls’. [√*gr̥̄ 1] P. girnā ‘to fall’, Ku. girṇo, N. girnu, Or. giribā, Mth. girab, Bhoj. giral, Aw. lakh. girab, H. girnā (whence OH. gernā ‘to throw’); OMarw. giraï; G. garvũ ‘to drop’ (< gir° whence caus. geravvũ). Addenda: *girati 1 [See galati1: √*gr̥̄ 1] 2. †;*gilati1: OMarw. (Vīsaḷa) 1 sg.pres. giḷaüṁ ‘waste away’.
4160a *girati 3 ‘proclaims’. [√gr̥̄ 3] Pk. giraï ‘says’.
4163 *giripatha— ‘hill road’. [girí—, patha—] H. girewā m. ‘uphill road, small hill’? giláti see gálati 2.
4165 *gili— ‘laughing’. [Onom.?] N. gilili ‘tittering’, gilli, °lā ‘mockery’; G. gillɔ m., °lā f. ‘ridicule’.
4166 *gilla— ‘swelling, goitre’. [Cf. gilāyu— m. s.v. *gulu—? — Or the group *giḍa—, *gaḍu—1, gaṇḍa1?] WPah. bhal. gil n. ‘goitre’; — P. gilhṭ, °ṭā m., °ṭī f. ‘hard lump in flesh’, gillhaṛ, gillar m. ‘goitre’, gilhṛā m. ‘one suffering therefrom’, kgr. gilrā m.
4170 *gīrti— ‘swallowing’. [Cf. gīrṇi— f. lex. — √gr̥̄ 2] S. ǥī̆ta f. ‘swallowing, a swallow’. gúggulu— see gúlgulu—.
4171 *guṅga— ‘dumb’. [Cf. Pers. gung] Paš. guṅgā́, f. °gı̄́ ‘dumb’, S. guṅgo, L. P. guṅgā, N. gũgo, gõ;go; A. goṅgā ‘speaking indistinctly’; B. goṅgā, gho°, gogā ‘dumb’; Or. guṅga, guṅgā, ghu° ‘dumb’, guā̃ga ‘fool’; H. gū̃gā ‘dumb’, G. gũgɔ; M. gũg ‘stupid’. — X mū́ka— q.v. Addenda: *guṅga—: S.kcch. ghūṅgho m. ‘dumb’, WPah.kṭg. guṅgɔ.
4177 *guṭṭha— 1 ‘clump, lump’. Pk. guṭṭha— n. ‘clump, clump of grass’; H. guṭṭhal ‘lumpy’, m. ‘lump’, guṭhlā m. ‘large lump’, guṭhnā ‘to be knotted together’.
4178 *guṭṭha— 2 ‘wrist’. [See ghuṇṭa1 and list s.v. *khuṭṭa2] Kt. guṭ ‘wrist’, Pr. goṭ (or < gā́tra—); L. guṭṭh f. ‘corner’, guṭṭ m., °ṭī f. ‘joint’, guṭṭhī f. ‘wrist’, (Shahpur) ǥuṭṭhī f., awāṇ. guṭṭī f.
4179 *guṭṭha— 3 ‘defective’. [See list s.v. kuṇṭha—] H. guṭhlā ‘blunted’.
4180 *guḍ— ‘rumble’. [Onom. cf. guḍuguḍāyana— n. ‘rum- bling in belly’ Suśr.] S. guṛaṇu ‘to thunder’, guṛkaṇu ‘to rumble, purr’. Addenda: *guḍ—: WPah.kṭg. gvṛku m. ‘thunder’, gvṛnõ; ‘to thunder’, poet. gƏṛakṇo ‘to resound’; J. gṛikṇu ‘to roar (of thunder)’.
4183 *guḍakuṭī— ‘molasses shed’. [guḍá—, kuṭī—] Bi. guṛaur ‘sugar boiling house’.
4184 *guḍaghara— ‘sugar house’. [guḍá—2, ghara—] M. guḷ—hār, gurhāḷ n. ‘place and works for pressing sugarcane’.
4185 *guḍapūra— ‘molasses cake’. [guḍá—2, pūra—] M. guḷvarī, gurvaḷī, °roḷī, °ruḷī f. ‘a puff stuffed with molasses’.
4186 *guḍābandha— ‘molasses and ornaments’. [guḍá—, ābandha—] Mth. guraũdhā ‘ceremony of the bridegroom's elder brother offering molasses and ornaments to the bride’.
4187 *guḍāmra— ‘molasses and mango’. [guḍá—2, āmrá—] H. guṛãbā m. ‘molasses and mango juice’. — See *āmraguḍa—.
4189 *guḍḍa— ‘doll, effigy’. S. guḍ̱o m. ‘male cloth doll’, °ḍ̱ī f. ‘cloth doll, paper kite’; L. guḍḍī f. ‘paper kite’; P. guḍḍā m. ‘effigy of a man (made of cloth), large paper kite’, °ḍī f. ‘image, doll, paper kite’; Or. guṛī ‘paper kite’; H. guḍḍā m., guṛiyā f. ‘doll’, guḍḍī f. ‘paper kite’ (→ N. guriyā ‘doll’, guḍḍi ‘paper kite’); G. guḍī f. ‘pole set up at a festivity’. Addenda: *guḍḍa—: WPah.kṭg. ghv̀ṇḍi f. ‘doll’ (or < *ghuṇṭa2 Him.I 49)?
4195 *gudakara— [gudá—, kara1] S. ǥuyaru m. ‘catamite’?
4196 *gudarandhrā— ‘anus’. [gudá—, rándhra—] P. gohran f. ‘anus’.
4197 *gudda— ‘pith, core’. 2. *gidda—2. [Cf. gōrda—] 1. P. gudd f., guddā m. ‘pulp, kernel, marrow’; Ku. gudo ‘kernel, seed, grain, pith’, °dī ‘marrow’; N. gudo ‘pith, marrow, brain’, °di ‘kernel’; H. gūdā m., °dī f. ‘pith, brain’. — X gárbha— q.v. 2. N. gidi ‘brain’, gidro ‘pith of bamboo’.
4198 *gudya— ‘entrails’. [gudá—] S. guju m., °jī f. ‘entrails, fowl's crop, gizzard’; L. gujī f. ‘fowl's crop, matter from a boil’; N. kāne guji ‘ear—wax’; — Tir. guiz ‘human excrement’ semant. cf. karṇagūtha— ‘ear—wax’ (AO xii 180 cf. guhya—?). *gunaguna— ‘murmur’ see *ganagana—. *gundala— ‘ring’ see kuṇḍalá1.
4200 *gundravaṭa— ‘a sweetmeat’. [gundra—, vaṭa3?] Pk. guṁdavaḍaya— n. ‘a partic. kind of sweetmeat’, G. gũdvaṛ, °ṛũ n. GUP ‘protect’: guptá—, gúpti—, gōpáyati, gōpita—, gōpyatē; *avagupta—, *nirgupti—, *pragupta—, *vi- gupta—, *vigōpayati, *saṁgōpayati.
4203 *guppha— ‘something strung together’. 2. gumpha- m. ‘stringing a garland, a whisker’ lex. [< *guṣpa—? See √guph] 1. H. gupphā m. ‘wreath, tassel, bunch’; — Aw.lakh. gōphā ‘twining’ rather < *gōphya—. 2. A. gõ;ph ‘moustache’; B. gõ;p(h) ‘moustache’, gõ;p—hār ‘a sort of necklace’; — M. gũph f. ‘hair combings’? - P. gummhā̃ m. ‘hard boil’ (PhonPj 112) despite h rather < gúlma—.
4204 *gupphā— ‘cave’. [gúhā— X √gup e.g. gōpya— ‘to be taken care of’ Yājñ., Pk. guppa— ‘to be hidden’, guṁpha- m. ‘hiding’? — Very doubtful] K. gŏph f. ‘cave, hole’; S. guphā f. ‘cave’; L. guphā m. ‘hermit's cave’, awāṇ. gupphā ‘cave’, P. guphā f., WPah. cam. gupphā, N. guphā; B. guph ‘cave, ravine, pass’, gophā ‘cave’, H. G. guphā f., M. guphā, gũphā f. ‘cave, sylvan retreat of a hermit’. — Forms in —ā < —aka— and affected by gender of gúhā1? GUPH ‘string, plait’: *guptha—, *guppha—, gupháti, gumpha—, gumpháti, gumphana—, *gūḍha—2, *gōp- phanā—, *gōphayati, *gōphya—; *pragūḍha—; - guṣpitá—. Addenda: *gupphā—: WPah.kṭg. gúpph f. (obl. —a) ‘hole in the earth, den’.
4207 *guragura— ‘growl’. [Onom. cf. ghuraghurāyatē] S. guraṇu, gaũraṇu ‘to growl’, gurkaṇu ‘to purr’; N. gurrinu ‘to growl’, gurgurra ‘purring’, guruguru ‘rum- bling’; H. gurrānā ‘to growl’; G. gurvũ, gurgurvũ ‘to growl, rumble’; M. gurgarṇẽ, gurakṇẽ ‘to growl, snarl’.
4211 *gurjaratrā— ‘country of the Gurjaras’. [gurjará—] Pk. gujjarattā— f., H. gujarāt m., G. gujrāt f.
4212 *gurjarabēṭṭa— ‘son of a Gurjara’. [gurjará—, *bēṭṭa—] H. gujreṭī f. ‘a Gūjar girl’. Addenda: *gurjarabēṭṭa—: rather NIA. < †;*gurjarakēṭṭa—.
4213 *gurjararāṣṭra— ‘kingdom of the Gurjaras’. [gur- jará—, rāṣṭrá—] B. gujrāṭ. gula—, gulikā see guḍá1.
4214 *gulu— ‘wrist, ankle’. [< ‘swelling’, cf. glaú— m., pl. glā́vaḥ ‘round lump of flesh’ AV. of which gilāyu— m. ‘hard tumour in throat’ Suśr. is MIA. form: very doubtful] Bshk. gūlús ‘wrist’; Sh. gil. gŭlŭċŭ m. ‘ankle’, gur. gŭlū́ċŭ m. ‘wrist’; K. gulu m. ‘forearm above wrist’; — cf. S. ǥiryo m. ‘ankle’? guluccha— see guccha—. guluñca— see guccha—.
4218 *gullara— ‘fig tree’. P. gullhar, gullar m. ‘Ficus glomerata’; N. gullar ‘a partic. kind of fig—tree’; H. gūlar f. ‘F. glomerata’, G. gular, °ler, °lrɔ m.
4224 *gūḍha— 2 ‘tied’. [MIA. anal. formation fr. guhaï < gupháti after type gūhaï: gūḍha1. — √guph] Bi. gūṛhā ‘tethering rope for cattle’, guṛhī ‘rope round roots of tree during transportation, rope (in general)’. *padagūḍha—. *gūttha— ‘dung’ see gūtha—.
4226 *gūniya— ‘mason's square’. [← Pers. gūniyā ← Gk. gwni/a] L. guṇiā m.; P. gunīā m., Bi. guniyā, gŏn°, Bhoj. guniyā̃, H. guniyā m. (→ S. gūnī, °īā f.), M. guṇyā, guṇā m. gū́rdati see kū́rdati.
4228 *gr̥ta— ‘said’. [Cf. gr̥ṇā́ti ‘announces’ RV. and Pk. giraï ‘says’. — √gr̥̄ 3] Tir. gaṛ— ‘to speak’.
4230 *gr̥dhati ‘desires’. [Fr. aor. st. in ágr̥dhat RV. - √gr̥dh] Pk. gahia— ‘covetous of’ (< *gr̥dhita— > *gihia- whence gēhia— ‘desirous’?); Or. gihibā, geh°, gẽhı̃bā ‘to copulate’, gihāibā ‘(of a woman) to let a man enjoy her’.
4234 *gr̥nti— ‘counting’. [See gaṇáyati. — √gr̥̄ 3] K. grand, dat. grünzü f. ‘counting’ whence gạnza run ‘to count’; — N. ganti, H. gantī, gin° f. formed rather fr. vb. gannu &c.
4235 *gr̥bdha— ‘taken’. [√grah] S. ǥidho ‘taken’, L. ghiddā (with gh— fr. pres. st. ghinn—) P. Tedesco JAOS 43, 379; — poss. Dm. giḍyem ‘I took’, Kal. rumb. ghréḍa pret. of gim and grhīm. — See *ghr̥pta—.
4247 *gēndavaṭaka— ‘ball—shaped cake’. [gēnduka—, vaṭa3] H. gı̃dauṛā m. ‘cake of solid sugar’.
4250 *gērāṭa— ‘dove (?)’. Aś. gēlāṭa— ‘some sort of animal or bird’ (J. Char- pentier Festschr. Winternitz 305 ‘duck’ with very doubtful equation —āṭa— = āti—); L. gerṛā, (Ju.) ǥerā m., °rī f. ‘dove’.
4252 *gēhadvāra— ‘house—door’. [gēhá—, dvā́ra—] Pa. gēhadvāra— n. ‘house—door’; Si. gedara ‘a house with its premises, home’. — See *gharadvāra—.
4257 *gōkuṭī— ‘cowshed’. [gṓ—, kuṭī—] WPah. khaś. gòḍ, rudh. g *l v̀ṛ ‘cowshed’.
4258 *gōkuṇḍikā— ‘cattle—trough’. [gṓ—, kuṇḍá1] Bi. gõ;ṛī ‘long feeding trough of sun—dried mud’.
4260 *gōkr̥tti— ‘cowhide’. [Cf. gōcarman— n. MBh. — gṓ—, kŕ̥tti—] Bi. goīṭā ‘raw cowhide’.
4262 *gōgūtha— ‘cowdung’. [gṓ—, gūtha—] Bi. goā ‘manure’. *gōgga— ‘shell’ see ghōṅgha—.
4263 *gōgrāmaka— ‘belonging to a herd of cattle’. [gṓ—, grā́ma—] Paš. lauṛ. gṓlaṅg f. (m. in dar.), ar. golóṅ ‘cow, bull’ (IIFL iii 3, 68 < *gōnāmaka—?), Shum. Gaw. gōlaṅg.
4265 *gōcarapaka— ‘cowherd’. [gōcara—, pa2] Paš. dar. gōrū́ ‘cowherd’ IIFL iii 3, 71.
4266 *gōcaravartman— ‘cattle path’. [gōcara—, vártman—] N. goryā̃ṭo, °rẽṭo ‘path or track made by animals’.
4268 *gōcīra— ‘strip of leather’. [gṓ—, cı̄́ra—] Wg. gučı̄́ ‘cowhide’, Dm. gōčī ‘leather’ (NTS xvii 254 < *gu—cīra—): rather < *gōtvacikā—.
4271 *gōṭṭa— ‘something round’. [Cf. guḍá1. — In sense ‘fruit, kernel’ cert. ← Drav., cf. Tam. koṭṭai ‘nut, kernel’, Kan. goṟaṭe &c. listed DED 1722] K. goṭh f., dat. °ṭi f. ‘chequer or chess or dice board’; S. ǥoṭu m. ‘large ball of tobacco ready for hookah’, °ṭī f. ‘small do.’; P. goṭ f. ‘spool on which gold or silver wire is wound, piece on a chequer board’; N. goṭo ‘piece’, goṭi ‘chess piece’; A. goṭ ‘a fruit, whole piece’, °ṭā ‘globular, solid’, guṭi ‘small ball, seed, kernel’; B. goṭā ‘seed, bean, whole’; Or. goṭā ‘whole, undivided’, goṭi ‘small ball, cocoon’, goṭāli ‘small round piece of chalk’; Bi. goṭā ‘seed’; Mth. goṭa ‘numerative particle’; H. goṭ f. ‘piece (at chess &c.)’; G. goṭ m. ‘cloud of smoke’, °ṭɔ m. ‘kernel of coconut, nosegay’, °ṭī f. ‘lump of silver, clot of blood’, °ṭilɔ m. ‘hard ball of cloth’; M. goṭā m. ‘roundish stone’, °ṭī f. ‘a marble’, goṭuḷā ‘spherical’; Si. guṭiya ‘lump, ball’; — prob. also P. goṭṭā ‘gold or silver lace’, H. goṭā m. ‘edging of such’ (→ K. goṭa m. ‘edging of gold braid’, S. goṭo m. ‘gold or silver lace’); M. goṭ ‘hem of a garment, metal wristlet’. *gōḍḍ— ‘dig’ see *khōdd—. Addenda: *gōṭṭa—: also Ko. gōṭu ‘silver or gold braid’.
4272 *gōḍḍa— ‘foot, leg, knee’. [Cf. the word—group ‘heel - ankle — knee — wrist’ s.v. *kuṭṭha—: → Brah. goḍ ‘knee’] Pk. goḍḍa—, gōḍa— m. ‘foot’, Gy. as. gur; K. gŏḍ m. ‘ankle, foot of tree, beginning of anything’; S. goḍ̱o m. ‘knee’, guḍ̱a f. ‘knee bone’; L. goḍ̱ḍ̱ā m. ‘knee’, awāṇ. gōḍā, P. goḍḍā m.; Ku. gwāṛo ‘foot’, gng. gōṛ; N. goṛo ‘foot, leg’; A. gor ‘foot, kick, foot of tree’, guri ‘kick, foot of tree’, gorohani ‘stamp of the foot’; B. goṛ ‘foot, leg’, °ṛā ‘foot of tree, root, origin’; Or. goṛa ‘foot, heel, leg, base’; Mth. goṛ ‘leg’; Bhoj. gōṛ ‘foot, leg’; Aw. lakh. goṛ pl. ‘feet’; H. goṛ, °ṛā m. ‘foot, leg’. *gōḍḍadāman—, *gōḍḍadāmana—, *gōḍḍadāmara—. Addenda: *gōḍḍa—: S.kcch. gūḍo m. ‘knee’, gauḍo in gauḍe vajṇū ‘to kick’ (see vrájati Add2).
4273 *gōḍḍadāman— ‘foot rope’. 2. *gōḍḍadāmana—. 3. *gōḍḍadāmara—. [*gōḍḍa—, dā́man1] 1. Bi. (SWShahabad) goṛā̃w ‘tethering rope for cattle, boy's anklet’. 2. Bi. (SMunger) goṛāwan, (SBhagalpur) goṛānī ‘tethering rope’. 3. Bi. (Gaya) goṛār. *gōḍḍadāmara— ‘tether’ see prec.
4278 *gōtr̥ṇa— ‘cattle fodder’. [gṓ—, tŕ̥ṇa—] K. guyun, dat. °yanas m. ‘straw left uneaten by cattle’ or < *gōbhōjana—.
4280 *gōtragharaka— ‘cowshed’. [gōtrá—, ghara—] OG. gotiharauṁ n. ‘cowpen’.
4282 *gōtvacikā— ‘cow—hide’. [Cf. gōtvac— in gōtvagja- ‘leathern’. — gṓ—, tvác—] Wg. gučı̄́ ‘cowhide’, Dm. gōčī ‘leather’ (< *gōccaïā- cf. Pk. caā— < *cacā— assim. < *tacā—) rather than < *gōcīra—. gōda— see gōrda—.
4283 *gōdaṇḍa— ‘cattle path’. [gṓ—, daṇḍá—] Bi. gŏẽṛ, °ṛā, gõ;ṛhā, gaũṛhā ‘belt of land nearest homestead’; Mth. goẽṛ, °ṛā ‘richly manured land near houses’, H. gauṇḍā, goṇ° m. ‘road to a village, field near a village’, Brj. gõ;iṛ ‘neighbourhood of a village’; M. govãḍ m.n., °ḍī, gõ;vḍī f., gõ;ḍ m.n., °ḍī f. ‘cow path (esp. over hill pasture), gathering spot of pasturing herds in the morning, cleft through a hill, lane in village be- tween enclosures’ (cf. M. cmpd. gur—daṇḍ m. ‘cattle track esp. over hill pasture’); — N. gaũṛo ‘path, short cut, narrow pass’ (with which cf. Paš. gawaṇḍā́ ‘ditch’ IIFL iii 3, 74). — See also gōvr̥nda—. *gōdd— ‘dig’ see *khōdd—.
4284 *gōddī— ‘lap’. [Perh. conn. either krōḍá— ‘bosom’ (prob. non—Aryan EWA i 281) or *gōḍḍa— ‘knees’] S. goḍ̱i f. ‘fastening of dhoti in front’; P. god, goddī f. ‘lap’; N. Mth. god ‘lap, bosom’, OAw. goda f.; H. god f. ‘lap’; OMarw. godī f. ‘arm, lap’; G. godi f. ‘lap’.
4296 *gōpp— ‘pierce’. 2. *ghōpp—. 1. S. ǥopaṇu ‘to splice’; N. gopnu ‘to pierce, stab’. 2. P. ghop deṇā ‘to thrust into’; N. ghopnu ‘to pierce’; A. ghopā ‘deep set’. *gōpphanā— ‘sling’ see gumphana—.
4298 *gōphya— ‘to be strung or twisted’. [√guph] Aw. lakh. gōphā ‘twining’ (rather than < *guppha—).
4299 *gōbhakta— ‘cattle—fodder’. [gṓ—, bhakta—] Pa. gōbhatta— n.; S. ǥuhutu m. ‘mash of bran and chopped straw for cattle’; G. ghotũ n. ‘food placed before milch—cattle before milking’; M. gohot n. ‘mash for cows’. — See also *gavatta— with which there may be some confusion.
4304 *gōmāṁsaka— ‘pertaining to beef’ or *gōmāṁsāda— ‘eating beef’. [gṓ—, māṁsá—, ada—] See *gavāśa—.
4307 *gōmha— ‘snake, centipede’. Pk. gomhī—, gōmī— f. ‘centipede’; N. goman, gohaman, goban, f. gomani ‘a partic. kind of snake’; A. gom ‘generic name for several poisonous snakes’, gumūni ‘female of a certain poisonous snake’; H. M. gom m. ‘a partic. kind of centipede’.
4315 *gōrdhava— ‘lord of the cow, bull’. [Cf. gōpá—, gōpati—, gōnātha— m. ‘bull’. — gṓ—, dhava3?] G. godhɔ m. ‘bull’, °dhũ n. ‘young bull’, OG. godhalu m. ‘entire bull’, G. godhliyũ n. ‘young bull’; — or < *gōvardha—. Both very doubtful.
4317 *gōrvaramarda— ‘dung—crusher’. [gōrvara—, marda—] H. gobraũdā, gub°, gubraũḍā m. ‘dung—beetle’.
4318 *gōrvaramr̥ttikā— ‘cowdung and earth’. [gōrvara—, mŕ̥ttikā—] H. gubraiṭī f. ‘plaster of cowdung and mud’.
4319 *gōrvarākara— ‘heap of cowdung’. [gōrvara—, ākara—]. H. gobrār m. ‘heap of cowdung’.
4320 *gōl—, *gōll— ‘look for’. S. ǥoraṇu, ǥolaṇu ‘to look for, search’, L. goḷaṇ, golaṇ, agolaṇ.
4325 *gōlla— ‘slave’. [Cf. gōla3?] S. golo m. ‘slave’, °lī f., °lāro, °lāṛo m. ‘son of a slave’; L. P. gollā m. ‘slave’, °lī f.; G. golɔ m. ‘menial servant in a king's harem’, °lī f., gollɔ m. ‘devotee of a goddess’. gōvara— see gōrvara—. *gōvardha— ‘bull’? [gṓ—, várdha2] See *gōrdhava—.
4326 *gōvastāra— ‘cattle bedding’. [gṓ—, avastārá—] Bi. gŏthār ‘refuse straw and fodder’.
4330 *gōviṣṭhākula— ‘cowdung shed’. [gōviṣṭhā—, kúla—] Bi. gŏṭhaul, °ṭhaur, °ṭhaurā, (Shahabad) goṭhāhul ‘house in which cowdung fuel is stored’, Mth. (NETir- hut) goṭhul.
4335 *gōśrayaṇa— ‘cow—house’. 2. °aka—. [gṓ—, śrayaṇa—] 1. Paš. kuṛ. gēšín ‘house’, chil. gušı̄́n, ar. gƏšín. 2. Paš. weg. gṓšiṅg m. IIFL iii, 3, 74.
4337 *gōṣṭhapāla— ‘cowherd’. [Cf. gōṣṭhapati— m. ‘chief herdsman’. — gōṣṭhá—, pālá—] N. goṭhālo ‘herdsman’ (whence °lni ‘his wife’), °li ‘female herd’.
4340 *gōsarī— ‘cattle path’. [gṓ—, sará—] S. gohari f. ‘herd of cows’; P. kgr. gohar f. ‘cattle path out of a village’.
4341 *gōsiktha— ‘mash for cows’. [gṓ—, siktha1] S. ǥoithu m. ‘mash of bran with chopped straw &c. for cattle’. *gōstha— ‘cowpen’ see gōṣṭhá—. gōsthāna— see gōṣṭhā́na—.
4352 *granthabandha— ‘tying a knot’. [grantha—, bandha—] H. gaṭhaũd m. ‘tying a knot, a pledge tied up in a bundle’.
4358 *grava— ‘branch’? Wg. grõmacr; ‘branch’, Paš. lawā́. GRAS ‘swallow’: grásati, *grasita—, grasta—, grāsa—, grāsáyati, *grāsya—; *avagrasta—.
4360 *grasita— ‘swallowed’. [√gras] Pk. gasia—; OG. graśā obl. sg. n. ‘mouthful’.
4371 *grāmadāra— ‘village boy’. [grā́ma—, dāra—] Pa. gāmadāraka— m.; Pk. gāmāra—, gavāra— ‘living in a small village, rustic, fool’; K. gammār m. ‘insolent ignorant fool’ (emph. lengthening of —m—); P. gãvār, gav° m. ‘rustic’; N. gamār ‘rustic, uncouth’; A. gõ;wār ‘obstinate’; B. goyā̃r ‘stubborn and ignorant’, Or. gamār, guā̃ra; Mth. gamār ‘rustic’; Bhoj. Aw.lakh. H. gãwār m. ‘villager’; G. gamār, gum°, gavār ‘boorish’, M. gãvār. Addenda: *grāmadāra—: WPah.kṭg. gwā̃r, gwār m. ‘brute, fool’; Brj. gãwār(ū) ‘boorish, stupid’; Md. gamāru ‘stupid’ RTMV2.
4372 *grāmadhāna— ‘site of a village’. [grā́ma—, dhā́na—] Pk. gāmahaṇa—, gāmaṇaha— n. ‘site of a village’ Deśīn.; H. gauhān m. ‘village made over to anyone as a permanent settlement’.
4376 *grāmārdha— ‘vicinity of village’. 2. *grāmārdhin— ‘neighbour’. [grā́ma—, árdha1] 1. Pk. gāmaddha— m.n. ‘part of a village’; L. gavā̃ḍh, °vāḍh m. ‘neighbourhood’, P. gavā̃ḍh; Bhoj. goyãṛā ‘vicinity of a village’; M. gā̃vdhẽ n. ‘hamlet, business in another village’. 2. L. gavā̃ḍhī, °āḍhī m., °ḍhiṇ f. ‘neighbour’, P. gavā̃ḍhī m., °dhaṇ f.
4381 *grāsya— ‘to be swallowed’. [Cf. grasya— MBh.: √gras] P. gāssī f. ‘mouthful’, H. gassā m.
4386 *grilla— ‘wet, damp’. [< *gr̥dla— cf. √gaḍ: very doubtful] Pk. gilla— ‘wet’, Ash. gilest e, Dm. grīla; Paš. līl ‘wet, dew’; Kal. rumb. grīla ‘wet’; P. gill f. ‘dampness’, gillā ‘damp’, Ku. gīlo; N. gilo ‘over—cooked, over—ripe, soft’; A. gīl ‘wet, muddy, benumbed’; Aw. lakh. gīl ‘wet’; H. gīl f. ‘dampness’, gīlā, gillā ‘damp’; OMarw. gīlau ‘wet’; M. gīl m. ‘pulp’, gilgilīt ‘oozy, over—ripe, squashy’.
4388 *grīvāṅkuṭa— ‘neck—angle’. [grīvā́—, aṅkuṭa—] Kal. griṅgƏŕ—aṭhı̄́ ‘collar—bone’.
4389 *grīvājyā— ‘neck string’. [grīvā́—, jyā́2] M. gyāj̈ f. ‘string of bells round neck of buffalo’.
4390 *grīvābandha— ‘neck band’. [grīvā́—, bandhá—] Kho. (Lor.) girwan ‘collar, coat—collar’.
4393 *grīṣmavāpa— ‘summer sowing’. [grīṣmá—, vāpa2] M. gimhvā, gimvā m. ‘grain raised in hot season by irrigation’. GRUC ‘rob’: *vigrukta—, *vigrucyatē, *vigrōcati, *vigrōcana—.
4395 *graivakaṭa— ‘neck—ring’. [graivá—, káṭa1?] Dm. grēřī ‘necklace’; Paš. weg. lã̤äṛ, ar. liōṛ ‘neck- ring’; Gaw. lēṛ—dāmeṭı̄́ ‘collar—bone’.
4396 *graíviya—, graívya— ‘relating to the neck’ AV., graivēya—, °aka— m.n. ‘elephant's neck chain’ MBh. [grīvā́—] Pa. gīveyyaka— n. ‘necklace’ (X gīvā—), Pk. gēvijja—, °vejja—, °aya— n., Wg. gr e i, Ash. glō; Kho. (Lor.) gƏrāi ‘collar—bone, necklace’; Sh. jij. giréi ‘collar—bone’. *graiviyāṅka—.
4397 *graiviyāṅka— ‘necklace’. [*graíviya—, aṅká—] Kal. rumb. grēiṅga ‘twisted silver necklace’. graivēya— see *graíviya—. graívya— see *graíviya—.
4398 *graiṣmīṇa— ‘of summer’ . [Der. fr. graíṣma— ‘relating to summer’ AV. with same suffix as prāvr̥ṣı̄́ṇa—&middot; grīṣmá—] Phal. grhēmiṇo m., °ṇi f. ‘kid one year old’. glapsa— see guccha—.
4403 *ghagghara— ‘waterpot’. [Onom. < gharghara- ‘gurgling’ see *gharga—?] S. ghāghari f. ‘a kind of waterpot’; Or. ghagri ‘earthen pitcher’; M. ghāgar f. ‘waterpot’.
4404 *ghaṅghōlayati ‘stirs round and round’. [ghōlayati: *ghūr—] Pk. ghaṁghōra— ‘constantly turning’; H. ghaṅg(h)olnā, ghaṅghornā ‘to stir round’. *ghacc— ‘press, crowd’ see *gicc—.
4405 *ghañcin— ‘one who presses’. [Belongs perh. to *ghacc— ‘press’, see *gicc—] Pk. ghaṁciya— m. ‘oil—presser’, G. ghā̃cī m., ghā̃c e f. GHAṬ ‘form, mould’. [Poss. by metathesis of aspiration < √gaṭh] ghaṭa—2, *ghaṭa—3, gháṭatē, ghaṭayati, ghaṭita—, *ghaṭyatē, *ghāṭa—, ghāṭayati; *apaghaṭya—, *apa- ghāṭa—, apaghāṭayati, *udghaṭati, udghāṭa—, udghāṭaka—, udghāṭayati, durghaṭa—, *vighaṭa—, vighaṭatē, vighaṭita—, *vighāṭayati, saṁghāṭa—, saṁghāṭayati, saṁghāṭī—, sughaṭa—.
4408 *ghaṭanāvikā— ‘raft of pots’. [ghaṭa—1, nāvā́—] Bi. H. gharnaī f. ‘temporary raft made of waterpots and bamboos’.
4409 *ghaṭamañca— ‘stand for pots’. [ghaṭa—1, mañca—] L. ghaṛāvañj f. ‘stand for waterpots’, awāṇ. ghaṛvañjī (→ K. garwanj m.), P. ghaṛāvañj, ghaṛaũjī, °aũcī f., ghaṛaũc, °cā m.; Bi. ghaṛaũcī, H. ghaṛõ;cā m., °cī f., gharaũcā m., °cī f. ghaṭayati see gháṭatē.
4410 *ghaṭastara— ‘stand for pots’. [ghaṭa—1, stara—] Mth. ghaltharī ‘stand for pots’.
4413 *ghaṭītāḍa— ‘striking the time’. [ghaṭa—1, tā́ḍa1] P. ghaṛiāl m. ‘gong, clock, watch’; H. ghaṛiyāl m. ‘the metal plate on which each period of 24 minutes measured by the water—clock is struck’; G. ghaṛiyāḷ f.n. ‘clock’; M. ghaḍyāḷ, °ḷẽ, ghaḍāḷ n. ‘metal plate on which the hours are struck’; Ko. ghaḍiyāḷ n. ‘clock, watch’. GHAṬṬ 1 ‘rub, touch’: ghaṭṭáyati1; avaghaṭṭayati, *āghaṭṭayati, *praghaṭṭaka—. *ghaṭṭ— 2 ‘decrease’: *ghaṭṭati; *avaghaṭṭati, *nir- ghaṭṭati. Addenda: *ghaṭītāḍa— [ghaṭī— (see ghaṭa—1), tā́da1] Brj. ghariāl, °ār m. ‘gong’.
4415 *ghaṭṭati ‘decreases, is wanting’, perh. ghaṭṭayati 2 ‘speaks ill of’ MBh. [*ghaṭṭ2] Pk. ghaṭṭaï ‘is ruined’; Dm. gā̆ṭ— ‘to want, wish’, Kal. rumb. ghāṭ—; K. gaṭun ‘to become less’, goṭu ‘insufficient’; S. ghaṭaṇu ‘to become less’, ghaṭero ‘a little less’; L. ghaṭṭ ‘few’, ghaṭṭaṇ ‘to decrease’; P. ghaṭṭ ‘diminished’, ghaṭṇā ‘to decrease’, ghaṭṭaṇā ‘to belittle’; Ku. ghaṭṇo ‘to decrease’, N. ghaṭnu; A. ghāṭiba ‘to be less, be defeated’; B. ghāṭā ‘to be want- ing’, ghāṭi ‘shortcoming, fault’; Bhoj. ghaṭal ‘to de- crease’, H. ghaṭnā; OMarw. ghaṭai ‘decreases’, ghaṭāvai ‘belittles’; G. ghaṭvũ ‘to decrease’, M. ghaṭṇẽ. ghaṭṭanā— see *ghaṭyatē. Addenda: *ghaṭṭati: S.kcch. ghaṭṇū ‘to decrease’; WPah.kṭg. ghàṭṭɔ m. ‘loss’, poet. ghaṭi ‘without’.
4416 *ghaṭṭapāla— ‘ferryman’. [ghaṭṭa—1, pālá—] B. ghāṭoāl, °ṭāl ‘man in charge of a ghāṭ’; Or. ghā̆ṭuāḷa ‘ferryman, toll—collector’, °ārā ‘ferryman’; H. ghaṭwāl, °ār m. ‘wharfinger’.
4418 *ghaṭyatē ‘is joined, is procured’. [Cf. ghaṭṭanā— f. ‘means of living’ Pāṇ.— √ghaṭ] Bshk. (LSI) gaṭ—īt ‘married her’; Sh. gaṭóĭki̯ ‘to earn’, găṭṇi f. ‘income’; A. ghaṭiba ‘to earn’, °ṭāiba ‘to cause to happen, cause to be earned’; B. ghaṭāna ‘to cause to happen’. Addenda: *ghaṭyatē: OMarw. ghaṭyaü ‘occurred’.
4419 *ghaḍaghaḍa— ‘gurgling or rattling noise’. [Onom., cf. *gaḍagaḍa—] K. gŏrgŏr m. ‘gurgling’; S. ghaṛkaṇu ‘to tick (of a clock)’; N. ghārghur ‘sound made in churning thickened milk’; A. gharghar ‘creaking’; B. ghaṛghaṛ ‘purring’; Or. ghaṛaghaṛa ‘rattling’; H. ghaṛghaṛānā ‘to thunder, crack’, M. ghaḍghaḍṇẽ.
4420 *ghaṇṭa— ‘throat’. [Despite ghaṇṭikā— f. ‘uvula’ poss. < ‘little bell’, this is separate from ghaṇṭā— and belongs to the group listed s.v. kaṇṭhá—] L. ghaṇḍī f. ‘adam's apple’, awāṇ. also ‘soft palate’; P. ghaṇḍ m., °ḍī f. ‘adam's apple’; A. ghãṭ ‘protuberance on snout of crocodile’; H. ghā̃ṭī f. ‘throat, adam's apple, uvula, soft palate’ (→ N. ghā̃ṭi ‘throat’); G. ghā̃ṭɔ m. ‘throat’, °ṭī f. ‘adam's apple’; M. ghā̃ṭī f. ‘throat, adam's apple, larynx’. Addenda: ghaṇṭa—: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ghàṇḍu m. ‘throat’.
4425 *ghanaghana— ‘tinkle, clang’. [Onom.] Pk. ghaṇiya— n. ‘thunder’, ghaṇaghaṇāiya— n. ‘in- distinct noise’; Mth. ghanghan ‘jingle’; H. ghanghanānā ‘to jingle’; G. ghaṇghaṇ, ghaṇāṇ ‘tinkling’; M. ghaṇ- ghaṇṇẽ ‘to ring, clang’, ghaṇāṇā ‘with a loud clang’.
4426 *ghanatara— ‘thicker’. [ghaná2] S. ghaṇero, °riṛo ‘a little more’; P. ghanerā ‘plentiful’, N. ghanero, OAw. ghanerā, H. ghaner, °rā, G. ghaṇerũ; — Ash. gandalƏ ‘big’, Pr. gә́ndƏr NTS xv 259 with (?). *ghabbhaḍa— ‘confused’ see next. Addenda: *ghanatara—: Garh. ghaṇeru ‘dense, enough’.
4427 *ghabbhara— ‘confused’. 2. *ghabbhaḍa—. 1. S. ghaḇiro ‘deafish’; P. ghābrā ‘confused’ (← H.?); N. ghabrāunu ‘to confuse, be confused’, B. ghā̆brāna; Or. ghābarā ‘confused’; H. ghābar, °brā ‘startled’; G. ghābhrũ ‘confused’; M. ghābrā ‘terrified’. 2. Ku. ghabṛāṇo ‘to be puzzled’; B. ghābṛā ‘to be confused’.
4429 *gharakarmin— ‘house builder’. [Cf. gr̥hakartr̥— m. R. — ghara—, karmín—] B. gharāmi ‘house or hut builder’; H. gharāmī m. ‘thatcher’; — P. ghuṛāmī m. ‘thatcher, lattice—maker’ (?).
4430 *gharagaḍḍa— ‘house ruin’. [ghara—, *gaḍḍa1] N. ghaṛeri ‘place where a house has stood, ruin’ < *ghareṛi.
4431 *gharagōlī— ‘house lizard’. [Cf. gr̥hagōlaka— m. MārkP., °ikā— f. lex., gr̥hagōdhā—, °ikā— f. Suśr. — ghara—, gōlaka—] Pk. gharagōlī— f., gharōlī—, °liyā—, gharakōilā— (cf. gihakōilā—), °liā—, gharōilā—, gharagōhiā—, G. gharoḷī, ghaṛolī f.
4432 *gharaghara— ‘grunt, rumble’. [Cf. gharghara— m. ‘purring’ Kathās., ‘rattling’ lex. and ghuraghurā- yatē: onom.] N. ghargharāunu ‘to grunt’, ghā̃rghā̃r—ghurghur ‘growl’; Or. ghargharibā ‘to rattle’; H. gharghar m. ‘snarling’; M. ghargharṇẽ ‘to rumble’. gharaṭṭa— see *gharṣṭra—.
4433 *gharadvāra— ‘house—door’. [Cf. gr̥hadvāra— n. Gobh. — ghara—, dvā́ra—] Pk. gharavāra— n.; S. gharḇāru m. ‘family’, P. N. H. gharbār m., G. gharbār n., M. ghardār n. — Deriv. S. gharḇārī ‘married’, P. N. Bi. H. G. gharbārī (→ M. gharb(h)ārī). — See *gēhadvāra—.
4434 *gharapaṇa— ‘house—tax’. [ghara—, paṇa1] M. gharvaṇ f. ‘house—tax’.
4435 *gharapāla— ‘house guardian’. [Cf. gr̥hapāla— m. MBh. — ghara—, pālá—] S. gharavāro m. ‘husband’; H. gharwālā m. ‘house- holder, husband’, °lī f. ‘his wife’.
4436 *gharapāśa— ‘webs in a house’. [ghara—, pā́śa2] M. gharavsā, °rosā m. ‘cobwebs and pendulous filaments of soot’.
4437 *gharamarda— ‘destruction of house’. [ghara—, —marda—] M. gharvãd ‘site of a razed or ruined house’.
4438 *gharastha— ‘living in the house, householder’. [~ gr̥hastha—. — ghara—, stha—] Aś. gir. gharasta— m. ‘householder’, Pk. gharattha- m., M. gharat, garat, °rtī f. ‘respectable woman’; — N. gharti, f. °ini ‘emancipated slave’?
4439 *gharasthāna— ‘site of a house’. [ghara—, sthā́na—] M. gharṭhā̆ṇ n. ‘site of a ruined house’.
4440 *gharasya— ‘sun's heat’. [Cf. ghasra— m. ‘day’ Pārśvan. < *ghars—ra—?. — √ghr̥ 2] Ash. gerés ‘midday’, Kt. gƏríš, Wg. garaš, °riš.
4441 *gharāyatana— ‘house and home’. [ghara—, āyátana—] S. gharāṇo ‘made or reared at home, of good family’, m. ‘parentage’; P. gharāṇā m. ‘family, good family’; N. gharān ‘good birth’; H. gharānā m. ‘family, house- hold, race’; M. gharāṇẽ n., °ṇā m. ‘family, race’.
4443 *gharga— ‘gurgling sound of water’. [Cf. gharghara- ‘gurgling’ Rājat., m. ‘name of a river’ lex., Pk. ghag- ghara—; gárgara1 m. ‘whirlpool’ AV.: onom.] P. ghagg, pl. °gā̃ f. ‘hole caused by water’, ghaggā ‘hoarse, hollow’; N. ghāgi ‘rapids in a stream’.
4447 *gharmōṣma— ‘heat’. [gharmá—, ūṣmán—] L. ghamassar m. ‘sultry weather’, awāṇ. ghamusuṛ ‘sultry’.
4451 *gharṣṭra— ‘grindstone, mill’. [gharaṭṭa— m. ‘grind- stone’ Rājat., °aka— m., °ikā— f. MIA. < *gharaṣṭra— or *ghraṭṭhra—; —ghaṭṭa2 in araghaṭṭa—. — √ghr̥ṣ] Pk. gharaṭṭa— m. ‘mill for grinding corn, Persian waterwheel’; Paš. garāṭ ‘handmill’ (← Ind. and → Par. garāṭ IIFL iii 3, 73); K. graṭa, groṭu m., (Morgen- stierne) greṭhe ‘watermill for grinding corn’; L. ghuraṭ m. ‘handmill’ (X *ghurati 2?), khet. (LSI) grat (—?) ‘mill’; P. gharāṭ m. ‘watermill’ with ā ← WPah. bhad. bhiḍ. ḍhḷāṭ n., bhal. ghrāṭ, ghƏrāṭ n., khaś. ghrāṭ, marm. gihāṭ;—with unexpl. a in Ku. ghaṭ, N. ghaṭṭa. *gharṣṭrakara—; araghaṭṭa—. Addenda: *gharṣṭra—: WPah.kc. gƏrāṭ m. ‘watermill’, J. ghrā' m., kṭg. ghɔ̀rṭ, J. ghauṭ; G. ghãṭɔ m. ‘grindstone’, °ṭī ‘mill’; °ṭīɔ m. ‘portable mill, grindstone’.
4452 *gharṣṭrakara— ‘miller’. [*gharṣṭra—, kará1] N. ghaṭero, ghaṭṭero. *GHAL ‘trickle’ see √ghr̥ 1.
4453 *ghala— ‘stream’. [√ghr̥ 1] Ash. gul ‘inhabited valley, country’ (whence golı̄́ ‘tribe’: semant. cf. kū́pa1 in Sh.), Wg. gōl ‘valley’, Kt. gul; Pr. gul ‘valley, country’; Dm. g *l l ‘valley’; Tir. gálƏ ‘rivulet’; Paš. lauṛ. ghal f. ‘river’, weg. gal; Shum. gäl ‘ravine, valley’, Gaw. g'al, Kal. urt. gƏhal, rumb. ghau, st. ghāl—, Kho. gól, Bshk. g *l l; Phal. sōṇäi—gū́l ‘bank of a river (sṓṇī)’; Or. ghaḷa—ghaḷa ‘copious discharge of pus’; M. ghaḷ f. ‘trench torn up by rush of water, ravine’. *ghalōdaka—. Addenda: *ghala—: †;*nīcaghala—.
4454 *ghalati ‘flows’. 2. *ghalita—. 3. *ghalana—. [√ghr̥ 1] 1. H. ghalnā ‘to fall off’; M. ghaḷṇẽ ‘to be torn into furrows (of bank, dam, &c.), fall asunder (of pearls, beads, &c.), fall in pieces’ (whence ghaḷak f. ‘over- flowing plenty’); Si. galanavā ‘to drip, overflow’ or < galati 1. 2. Or. ghaḷiā ‘a leak’. 3. M. ghaḷaṇ n. ‘furrow or ravine made by over- flowing water’.
4455 *ghalati— ‘stream’. [√ghr̥ 1] M. ghaḷay f. ‘ravine’. *ghalana— ‘flowing’ see *ghalati. *ghalita— ‘flowed’ see *ghalati.
4456 *ghalōdaka— ‘river water’. [*ghala—, udaká—] Kho. golō g ‘river’ perh. rather Kho. cmpd. with ō g as in Ash. gulabọ̄́ ‘river’, Kt. gƏlewƏ, Wg. gɔ̄lōu, Pr. gulawe with Ash. abṓ, Kt. ā́wƏ, &c. ‘water’ < áp—.
4457 *ghalyati ‘pours’. [√ghr̥ 1] Pk. ghallaï, pp. °lia— ‘throws’; Phal. galū́m ‘I send’; L. ghallaṇ ‘to send’, P. ghallṇā; N. ghaluwā ‘something thrown in as extra to a purchase’; A. ghāliba ‘to shake violently, abuse by raking up unpleasant secrets’ (semant. cf. vyākṣēpa—); OB. ghālaï ‘throws’; OAw. ghālai ‘pours in, puts, places’; H. ghālnā ‘to throw’; OMarw. ghālaï ‘puts, places, gives’; OG. ghālaï ‘places’, G. ghālvũ ‘to thrust in’; OM. ghālaṇeṁ ‘to pour, throw, put’, M. ghālṇẽ ‘to pour’; Ko. ghālūka ‘to put, place’; Si. galvanavā ‘to apply one thing to another, smear on the body, daub, dye, cause to sink’ or < galati 1. - X kṣiptá—: Pk. ghitta— ‘poured, thrown’, ghattaï, pp. °tiya— ‘pours, throws, sends’, °taṇa— n.; L. ghattaṇ ‘to pour, drop, spread out’; P. ghattṇā ‘to pour, throw, put in or on, wear’; OM. ghātalā pp. of ghālaṇeṁ (whence anal. pass. ghāpaṇeṁ ‘to be put, be placed’). - Altern. forms of Phal. N. A. B. H. Marw. Si. < *ghālayati. GHAS ‘eat’: ghāsá—; *udghāsa—, *nighāsa—, *nirghāsa—. ghasra— see *gharasya—.
4458 *ghāṭa— ‘connexion’. [√ghaṭ] Pk. ghāḍa— m. ‘friendship’ (whence ghāḍiya— m. ‘companion’); N. ghāro ‘bar, rod, crossbeam’ (semant. cf. Pa. ghaṭikā— f. ‘stick used as a bolt’). *mukhaghāṭā—. ghāṭayati see gháṭatē. Addenda: *ghāṭa—: WPah.kṭg. ghaṛ f. (obl —a) ‘share of crop due to the owner from tenant’ (Him.I 47)?
4466 *ghāna— 1 ‘mill’. [ODBL 320 < ghrāṇaka— Siyadoni inscr. EI i 169; Dave GujLg 136 < *ghātanikā—; ?. Bloch (letter 1946) compared M. ghāvan ‘stone mortar’ and suggested as possible ghaná1 X grā́van—. None satisfactory] Pk. ghāṇa— m. ‘mill’; S. ghāṇo m. ‘oil—mill’, L. awāṇ. ghāṇī, A. B. ghānī, Or. ghaṇā, Bhoj. ghānī; H. ghānā m. ‘oil—mill’, °nī f. ‘the block on which the roller of a mill moves’; Marw. ghāṇī f. ‘oil—mill’; G. ghāṇī f. ‘oil—mill, sugar—press, the block on which the roller of an oil—mill moves’, M. ghāṇā m., °ṇī f. Addenda: *ghāna— 1 [Extracted from cmpd. ghāṇa—piṇyāka— n. ‘oil—cake from (a filling of) oil—press’ Arthaś.?] S.kcch. ghāṇī f. ‘oil—mill turned by a camel’.
4467 *ghāna— 2 ‘filling’. [Poss. conn. w. ghaná2, cf. ghānya— n. ‘compactness’ Dhātup.] √*han 3 Pk. ghāṇa— m. ‘single charge’; P. ghāṇ m. ‘profuse- ness, large mass of anything prepared at one time, one filling of a mill or pot’; WPah. bhal. ghāṇi f. ‘as much oil seed as will go into a press at a time’; N. ghān ‘any quantity sufficient for one time’; Bi. ghānī ‘one parch- ing of grain, one filling of an oil—mill’; Aw. lakh. ghān ‘one baking’; H. ghān, °nā m. ‘one parching of grain, one filling of an oil—mill’; G. ghāṇ m. ‘a quantity of materials to be pounded, &c.’; M. ghāṇā m., °ṇī f. ‘one charge of a mill’. Addenda: *ghāna— 2 in cmpd. ghāṇa—piṇyāka— n. Arthaś.?: WPah.poet. ghaṇo m. ‘filling with food, satiety’.
4470 *ghārayati 2 ‘causes to turn’. 2. *ghārita—. [√ghūr] 1. Or. ghāribā ‘to cause to whirl, to reel, nod, doze’, dial. ghālibā ‘to reel, totter’; G. ghāraṇ n. ‘deep sleep’. 2. OG. ghāriu ‘fallen asleep’; — Pk. ghāriyā— f. ‘a partic. kind of sweetmeat’ = G. ghārī f. ‘a kind of pastry in circular form’. *ghārita— ‘caused to turn’ see prec. *ghāla— ‘flowing’ see ghāra—. *ghālayati ‘makes flow’ see *ghārayati 1. Addenda: *ghārayati 2. 2. *ghārita—: but Pk. G. ← Drav.? (Ko. ghāryo, ghāri ‘fried cake of pulse’, Kan. g(h)ārige) S. M. Katre BSOAS xxx 702. *ghārita— ‘round (?)’ see *ghārayati 2 Add2. *ghāla— see ghāra— Add2. *ghālayati see ghārayati 1 Add2.
4472 *ghicca— ‘neck’. 2. *ghiñca—. 3. *ghēñcu—. [J. Bloch in letter 1946 < *ghṛtya— from Indo—ir. *ghart- ‘neck’ in ghāṭā— q.v., *ghaṇṭa—. But cf. *gicca— and list s.v. kaṇṭhá—] 1. N. ghicro ‘nape of neck’ (with ext. —ḍa—), H. ghīc m. ‘lower or front part of neck’. 2. Aw. lakh. ghı̄̃c ‘neck’, H. ghı̄̃c m. = ghīc ab. 3. Bhoj. ghē̃cu ‘neck’. *ghijj— ‘press, crowd’ see *gicc—. *ghiñca— ‘neck’ see *ghicca—.
4473 *ghiḍḍa— ‘defective’. [Cf. Pk. ghiṭṭha— ‘humpbacked’] L. awāṇ. ghiḍḍā ‘crooked—legged’.
4474 *ghir— ‘go round’. 2. *ghēr— tr. ‘make go round, sur- round’. [← Drav. J. Bloch BSOS v 742: cf. *ghūr—] 1. Wg. (Lumsden) "girum" ‘whirlpool’; Dm. gíran ‘again, back’; Paš. gir— ‘to turn round’, gir ‘again’; Woṭ. gir— ‘to go round’; Gaw. gir— intr. ‘to turn, walk about’, gira— tr., giri ‘again’; Bshk. Phal. gir— ‘to wander about’; S. ghiraṇu ‘to feel sick, slide down’, ghirṭu m. ‘nodding from drowsiness’; P. ghirṇā ‘to turn round, feel giddy, be surrounded’; WPah. pāḍ. ghiraṇ ‘to move away’, cam. ghrīṇā ‘to set (of sun &c.)’; B. ghirā ‘to surround’; Bi. ghirnī ‘rope—maker's twisting instrument’; Bhoj. ghiral ‘to be surrounded’; H. ghirnā ‘to be surrounded’, ghirnī f. ‘pulley’; M. ghı̃rṭī f. ‘a whirl’. 2. Paš. gerē— ‘to make go round’; Kal. rumb. gherém tr. ‘I turn round’ (whence intr. ghḗrem); K. gērun ‘to surround’, gyūru m. ‘giddiness’, gēr m. ‘circumference’; S. gheraṇu ‘to surround’, ghero m. ‘siege’, °ri f. ‘cir- cumference’; P. gherṇā ‘to surround, blockade’, gher f., °rā m. ‘circumference’, gherṇī f. ‘dizziness’; WPah. bhal. gh e_ ro m. ‘circular movement’; Ku. gherṇo tr. ‘to surround’, intr. ‘to go round’; N. ghernu tr. and intr., ghero ‘circumference’; A. B. gher, B. gherā ‘to surround’, Or. gheribā, ghera, Bhoj. gher, °rā; OAw. gherai ‘sur- rounds, besieges’; H. ghernā ‘to surround’ (whence pass. meaning of ghirnā ab.), gher, °rā m. ‘circum- ference’, °rī f. ‘vertigo’; G. ghervũ ‘to surround’, gheraṇ f. ‘sound sleep’, gherɔ m. ‘circumference’, °rī f. ‘border of short hair’; M. gherṇẽ ‘to surround’, gher, °rā m. ‘circumference’, °rī f. ‘vertigo’. — X bhramara- in L. ghãver m. ‘vortex, whirlpool, giddiness’. *āghēra—, *saṁghēr—. Addenda: *ghir—. 2. *ghēr—: S.kcch. ghero keṇū ‘to surround’; WPah.kṭg. ghèrɔ m. ‘circumference, circle, embrace’, poet. ghero m. ‘courtyard’, kṭg. ghèrnõ; ‘to surround’, J. gherṇu; Md. giranī ‘stirs (into water)’? †;*vighēra—.
4475 *ghīcc— ‘drag’. [Cf. *khiñc—] S. ghīcaṇu ‘to drag’, ghīco m. ‘pulling to and fro’; N. ghicnu ‘to grab’, ghiccinu ‘to be dragged along’; B. ghı̃cā ‘to pull’; — H. ghicolnā ‘to rub’.
4476 *ghuṅgana— ‘boiled peas and spices’. P. ghuṅgaṇī f. ‘grain boiled whole’; B. ghuṅni, ghugni ‘boiled peas with spices and oil’, H. ghū̃gnī f.
4477 *ghuṅghura— ‘bell’. 2. *ghiṅghira— [Onom.] 1. L. ghuṅgru m. ‘small camel bell’; P. ghuṅgarū m. ‘small bell’; N. ghuṅri ‘dancing—girl's ankle bells’; A. ghuṅgarā ‘string of bells’, B. ghuṅur, Or. ghuṅghura, H. ghuṅg(h) m.; OMarw. ghūghara m. ‘toe bell, string of bells’; G. ghughrɔ m. ‘jingling bell’, °rī f. ‘toe bell’, M. ghũghūr n., °ghrū m., °ghrū̃ n. — H. ghū̃ghar m. ‘curls’ ← Drav. cf. Kan. gugguri ‘curl’ DED 1361. 2. S. ghiṅghirū, °ro m. ‘ankle bell, cattle bell’. *ghuṅghurāli—.
4478 *ghuṅghurāli— ‘string of bells’. [*ghuṅghura—, āli1] P. ghuṅgrāl f. ‘a string of bells on the neck of cattle’. GHUṬ ‘turn’. [Cf. words under *ghūr—] ghṓṭatē; *nighuṭati, *vighuṭati, vyāghuṭati.
4480 *ghuṭasnasā— ‘ankle tendon’. [ghuṭa—, snas—] H. ghurnas m. (f.?) ‘tendon Achilles’.
4481 *ghuṭṭ— ‘gulp, swallow’. Pk. ghuṭṭaï, ghoṭ° ‘drinks’, Ap. ghuṁṭaï, ghuṁṭa— m. ‘a swallow of water &c.’; S. ghuṭaṇu ‘to choke’; P. ghuṭṭ, °ṭā m. ‘a swallow’, °ṭī f. ‘child's dose of medicine’; H. ghũṭnā ‘to swallow’; G. ghoṭ, ghũṭṛɔ m. ‘gulp’; M. ghoṭṇẽ ‘to swallow’, ghoṭ m. ‘gulp’, ghuṭghuṭ ‘by gulps’; — ext. with —kk—: S. ghuṭko m. ‘swallow’, ghuṭkaṇu ‘to swallow’, N. ghuṛko, ghuṛkyāunu, M. ghuṭkā m. *ghuṭṭa— ‘ankle’ see ghuṭa—. Addenda: *ghuṭṭ— [~ Drav. DED 1378, 1381]: WPah.kṭg. ghv̀ṭṇõ; ‘to swallow’, J. ghuṭṇu. *ghuṭṭa—, ghuṇṭa— 1 see ghuṭa— Add2.
4483 *ghuṇṭa— 2 ‘knot, tag, button’. S. ghuṇḍu m. ‘frown’, ghuṇḍī f. ‘knot of thread, tangle’; P. ghuṇḍī f. ‘knot, knot of wheat chaff, button’ (→ H. ghuṇḍī f. ‘tag, button’); N. ghũṛi ‘tag or button to catch in a loop’; B. Or. ghuṇṭi ‘cloth button’; G. ghũṭī f. ‘entanglement’. *ghumati ‘revolves’ see *ghummati. Addenda: *ghuṇṭa—2: WPah.kṭg. ghv̀ṇḍi f. ‘doll’ (altern. < *guḍḍa—), ghùṇḍu m. ‘veil carried by the goddess’; J. ghū̃ḍ m. ‘veil’.
4484 *ghumba— ‘head covering’. 2. *ghumbapaṭṭa—. [paṭṭa2] 1. N. ghum ‘covering of interlaced bamboo strips and leaves carried against rain or sun’. 2. N. ghumṭo ‘woman's head cloth’, B. ghomṭā, Or. ghumbaṭā; G. ghumṭɔ m. ‘woman's head cloth’, ghumṭī f. ‘leaf umbrella’. — Relationship of these not clear with S. ghū̃ghā̆ṭu m. ‘woman's head cloth’, P. ghuṅg(h)aṭ m., N. ghũguṭo, H. ghū̃ghaṭ m.f., G. ghũghaṭ m., °ghṭī f.; M. ghũghūṭ, °ghaṭ m. ‘head cloth’. Addenda: *ghumba—. 2. *ghumbapaṭṭa—: S.kcch. ghūmṭo m. ‘veil’; ghūṅghaṭ m.
4485 *ghummati ‘revolves’. 2. *ghumati. [Replaces ghū́rṇati; poss. < *ghūrma—: *ghūr—] 1. Pk. ghummaï ‘turns round’; S. ghumaṇu ‘to turn, wander’; L. ghumbar m. ‘circular dance’ (< *ghūmra—?), mult. ghummã m. ‘wooden mallet for stirring sugarcane juice’; P. ghummaṇā ‘to turn, roll, wander, be lost’; WPah. bhal. ghɔ̄m m. ‘a long unnecessary roundabout turn’; Ku. ghumṇo ‘to turn round, wander’, N. ghumnu; A. ghumāiba ‘to doze’, B. ghumā; Or. ghumibā ‘to whirl round, walk about’, ghumāibā ‘to doze’; Bi. ghumauā jāl ‘casting net’; Mth. Aw. lakh. ghūmab ‘to wander’, Bhoj. ghumal; H. ghū̆mnā ‘to revolve, wander’; G. ghumvũ ‘to revolve in the mind’; M. ghumṇẽ ‘to fer- ment’. 2. Pk. ghumaï ‘revolves’, Ko. ghũvtā. GHUR ‘make a noise’: ghúrati1, ghuraghurāyatē, ghurghurā—, *ghōra—2, *ghōrati; — ghōrá1. Addenda: *ghummati. 1. S.kcch. ghūmṇū ‘to move round’, ghūmrī f. ‘turning’, WPah.kṭg. ghùmṇõ; ‘to stroll, move’, gƏmhàuṇõ; tr. ‘to move, lead, turn’, J. ghumṇu ‘to turn back’, Garh. ghumṇu ‘to wander’; A. ghumaṭi ‘sleep’; — read B. ghumā̆na.
4488 *ghurati 2 ‘revolves’. [*ghūr—] Pk. ghulaï ‘turns’, ghaṁghōra— ‘constantly turning’; Mai. ky. ghurā— ‘to turn round or away’; WPah. bhal. ghur e' i f. ‘dance consisting of two semicircular rows of women moving in opposite directions’; A. ghūriba ‘to revolve’, B. ghurā, Or. ghuribā; H. ghū̆rnā ‘to roll round’; M. ghurẽ n. ‘epilepsy’. — L. ghuraṭ m. ‘hand- mill’ X *gharṣṭra—. Addenda: *ghurati2: WPah.kṭg. ghv̀ḷnõ; ‘to wrestle’.
4491 *ghuṣma— ‘noise’. [√ghuṣ] Si. guma ‘sound, noise’ EGS 57: very doubtful.
4492 *ghuss— 1 ‘thrust in, pierce’. [Cf. *ghōcc—] Phal. ghusū́m ‘I copulate’, pret. ghusilo; L. ghussaṇ ‘to enter, be thrust in’, P. ghusṇā, Ku. ghusṇo, N. ghusnu; B. ghusāna ‘to thrust in’; Or. ghusibā ‘to enter by force’; Bhoj. ghusal ‘to enter’, ghũsal ‘to rub in’; H. ghūsnā, ghus° ‘to be thrust in’; Marw. ghusṇo ‘to enter’; G. ghusvũ ‘to enter forcibly’, M. ghusṇẽ, Ko. ghusoṁk; — ext. with ——: L. ghusṛaṇ ‘to be thrust in’; P. ghuṣaṛnā ‘to penetrate’, N. ghusranu, tr. ghusārnu; B. ghusaṛā ‘to creep in’; H. ghusaṛnā ‘to be thrust in’, tr. °seṛnā; M. ghusaḍṇẽ tr. and intr.; — with —kk—: B. ghuskāna ‘to thrust in’; H. ghuskī f. ‘a forward woman’. Addenda: *ghuss—1: S.kcch. ghūsāṇū ‘to push into’.
4493 *ghuss— 2 ‘err’. S. gusaṇu ‘to fail, miss’ with g— from pp. gutho; L. ghussaṇ, pp. ghutthā ‘to err, be forgotten’; P. ghussṇā ‘to err, slip from the mind’, pp. ghutthā (whence gutthṇā ‘to make a mistake’). — S. gohī f. ‘evasion’ < *ghōs—.
4495 *ghūḍa— ‘manure’. [Connexion with gūtha— (MIA. *gūha—ḍa—?) is unlikely] Bi. ghūr ‘manure, manure pit’; H. ghūṛ, ghūr m. ‘sweepings’, ghūrā m. ‘manure’; — N. ghurān, °ryān, °ren ‘dunghill, midden’ (+dhā́na—?) *ghūr— ‘revolve’: *ghārayati2, *ghumati, *ghum- mati, *ghurati2, ghū́rṇati, ghōla—1, ghōlayati; praghūrṇa—, praghōlayati.
4496 *ghūra— ‘frown’. S. ghūra f. ‘staring fiercely’, ghūraṇu ‘to stare fiercely at’; P. ghūr m. ‘frown’, ghūrṇā ‘to frown on, rebuke, look lustfully at’; H. ghūr m. ‘frown, stare’, ghūrnā ‘frown at, stare at, ogle’; — ext. with —kk— (partially collide with ghúrati 1): S. ghurkaṇu ‘to rebuff’; P. ghurakṇā ‘to frown, scold’; N. ghurkanu ‘to frown’; H. ghuraknā, ghuṛaknā ‘to frown at’; G. ghurakvũ, ghar° ‘to frown’.
4498 *ghūssa— ‘blow with fist’. S. ghūso m. ‘fist’; N. ghussā ‘fist, blow with fist’; B. ghus ‘fist’; Or. ghusa ‘blow with fist’; H. ghūsā, ghussā m. ‘fist’, G. ghusɔ m., M. ghusā, ghussā m.
4499 *ghūssā— ‘a present’. P. ghūs f. ‘bribe’, Ku. ghūs; N. ghus ‘present, bribe’; B. ghus ‘bribe’, Or. ghusa, H. ghūs f. GHR̥ 1 ‘trickle’: ghāra—, *ghārayati1, ghr̥tá—; *abhi- gharati, *avaghara—, avagharati, ā́ghārayati, *udgharati1, *udghāra—, *nirgharati, *nirghāra—, *nirghārayati, *praghara—, pragharati, *praghāra—, *praghārayati, *praghirati, *vighara—, *vyāgharati, *vyāghāra—, vyā́ghārayati, vyāghārita—, vyāghr̥ta—; — forms with —l—: *ghala—, *ghalati, *ghalati—, *ghalana—, *ghalita—, *ghalyati, *ghāla—, *ghāla- yati; *avaghala—, *avaghalati, *avaghāla—, *ava- ghālayati, *āghala—, *āghālayati, *udghalyati, *udghāla—, *nirghalati, *nirghāla—, *nirghālayati, *praghala—, *praghalati, *praghāla—, *praghālayati, *praghilati. GHR̥ 2 ‘be hot’: gharmá—, *gharasya—, *ghr̥ṁsu—, ghr̥ṇá—, *ghraṇiṣya—, *ghrāṇā—.
4503 *ghr̥tabhāṇḍa— ‘ghee—pot’. [ghr̥tá—, bhā́ṇḍa1] H. ghiā̃ṛā m. ‘earthen vessel for storing ghee’. Addenda: *ghr̥tabhāṇḍa—: Brj. ghiā̃ṛo m. ‘pot for ghee’.
4504 *ghr̥tavaṭa— ‘ghee and pulse’. [ghr̥tá—, vaṭa3] B. ghioṛ ‘cake stuffed with pulse paste and ghee’.
4509 *ghr̥pta— ‘taken’. [Formed (like Av. gƏrƏpta—) as replacement of *ghr̥bdha— of which normal phonetic development was *gr̥bdha—. — √grah] Pk. fut. ghattissaṁ, inf. ghittuṁ, ghettuṁ (e from dēi ‘gives’); Ash. gutö ‘seized’ (gut— ‘to flow’ < ‘is carried’?); Woṭ. gat, (with f. obj.) git ‘took’, Gaw. gūtím ‘I took’; Bshk. gı̄̃tƏ ‘took, bought’; Or. ghitibā, ghet° ‘to take, carry’; M. ghetlā ‘taken’; Ko. ghettā ‘takes’; Si. gat ‘taken’. — Pk. ghēi ‘takes’ after dēi ‘gives’, M. gheṇẽ; Ko. gheṇẽ n. ‘taking’. — After MIA. type litta—: lippati pass. st. Pk. ghippaï, ghep° ‘is taken’ (become act. in Pa. gheppati); H. ghepnā ‘to take up with the fingers, cohabit with a woman’; M. ghepṇẽ ‘to be taken’. GHR̥Ṣ ‘rub, pound’: gharṣa—, gharṣaṇa—, ghárṣati, *gharṣṭra—, *ghr̥ṣati, ghr̥ṣṭa—, ghr̥ṣṭi—1, ghr̥ṣyatē; *aghr̥ṣṭa—, *avagharṣa—, udgharṣaṇa—, *udghr̥ṣati, udghr̥ṣṭa—, nigharṣa—, nighr̥ṣṭa—, pragharṣati. *ghr̥ṣati ‘rubs’ see ghárṣati. Addenda: *ghr̥pta—: Md. gat ‘taken’: see gr̥bhāyáti Add2. *ghr̥ṣati see gharṣati Add2. *ghēr— see *ghir— Add2.
4512 *ghēggha— ‘swelling’. N. gheg ‘goitre’; H. gheghā, °gā, ghẽghā, °gā m. ‘tumour’. *ghēñcu— ‘neck’ see *ghicca—.
4513 *ghēṇṭu— ‘neck’. [*ghaṇṭa— X *ghēñcu—? — See list s.v. kaṇṭhá—] Aw. lakh. ghẽṭuwā ‘neck’; H. ghẽṭ m. ‘throat, neck’. *ghōggha— ‘shell’ see next.
4515 *ghōcc— ‘pierce’. [Cf. *ghuss1] P. ghocṇā ‘to make a superfluous examination’; Ku. ghocṇo ‘to goad’; N. ghocnu ‘to pierce, stab’; G. ghocvũ, ghɔ̃cvũ ‘to pierce, thrust in’. Addenda: *ghōcc—: S.kcch. ghõ;cṇū ‘to pierce’.
4517 *ghōṭakarūpa— ‘like a horse’. [ghōṭa—, rūpá—] B. ghoṛāru ‘a kind of deer’.
4519 *ghōṭāgāra— n. ‘horse stable’. [ghōṭa—, agāra—] G. ghoṛāri f. ‘stable’. *ghōṭṭ— ‘pound, rub’ see ghaṭṭáyati. *ghōṭṭa— ‘ankle’ see ghuṭa—.
4521 *ghōppa— ‘lying flat’. N. ghopṭo ‘lying flat on the face’; M. ghopaḍ m. ‘a low spreading mushroom’.
4523 *ghōra— 2 ‘crying’. [√ghur] G. ghor m. ‘loud howling’. *ghōrati ‘snores, rumbles’ see ghúrati 1.
4525 *ghōla— 2 ‘nest’. [Like kulā́ya— ‘nest’ ← Drav.: Tam. kūṭu, Kan. Tel. Tu. gūḍu DED 1563; cf. kuṇḍá1] Ku. N. ghol ‘nest’.
4530 *ghraṇiṣya— ‘sun's heat’. [Cf. ghráṁs— AV., ghraṁsá- m. RV., *ghr̥ṁsu— in Pk. ghiṁsu— m. ‘summer heat’: √ghr̥ 2] Paš. lauṛ. lēnı̄́, kuṛ. lā́nī ‘noon’, Kho. graniš Belvalkar Vol 90. — See *gharasya—. GHRĀ ‘smell’: ghrāṇá—; *avaghrāyati, *āghrātikā—, āghrāpayati, *upaghrāyati; — ghōṇā—?
4532 *ghrāṇā— ‘heat’. [√ghr̥ 2] Paš. lān f. ‘flame’ very doubtful IIFL iii 3, 110.
4534 *ca—uḍa— ‘wide, open’. [Poss. ext. with —ḍa— of MIA. caü— extracted from cmpds. of catur—] L. côṛā ‘broad’, (Shahpur) caiṛa, awāṇ. cāṛā, P. cauṛā; Ku. cauṛ ‘flat space, field’, cauṛo ‘wide’; N. caur ‘flat space, field’; B. Or. cauṛā ‘wide’; Mth. caur, °rī ‘lowland, marshy place’; H. cauṛ, caur m. ‘open space in forest’, cauṛā ‘wide’ (→ N. cauṛo, Mth. cauṛā); OMarw. cauḍaï loc. ‘in the open’; G. cɔṛũ ‘wide’. CAK 1 ‘be frightened’: *cakyatē. CAK 2 ‘be satisfied’: cákati, *cakyati, *cākayati. [Perh. extracted from cakāna, cakē: √kan. — Semant. see álam, prábhūta—. — Cf. √śak1, √sagh, √*cagh]
4537 *cakyatē ‘is frightened’. [Cf. cakita— ‘frightened’ Kālid., Pa. cakita—, Pk. caïda—] H. caknā ‘to be astonished, be bewildered’.
4541 *cakracāra— ‘course of a wheel’. [Cf. cakracārin- ‘flying in a circle’ Hariv. — cakrá—, cāra1] M. cakārī f. ‘wheel rut, wheeling round (of a car- riage)’.
4544 *cakrapati— ‘universal ruler’. [cakrá—, páti—] Pk. cakkavaï— (→ OAw. cakkavaï ‘universal sove- reign’); G. cakv e adv. ‘as sole ruler’.
4545 *cakrapattra— ‘name of a plant’. [Cf. cakraparṇī— f. = cakrakulyā— lex. — cakrá—, páttra—] M. ċākvat, ċakhvat m. ‘the esculent vegetable Chenopodium album or viride’.
4547 *cakrayaṣṭi— ‘stick for potter's wheel’. [cakrá—, yaṣṭí—] Bi. cakaiṭh ‘pointed stick with which potter twirls his wheel’, H. cakeṭh m.
4548 *cakrala— ‘circular’. [Poss. MIA. cakkala— ‘round’ Uṇ. < *cakla— ~ cakrá—] Pa. cakkalaka— m. ‘disc, tuft’; Pk. cakkala— ‘round, extensive’, n. ‘circle’; Kho. čókul ‘avalanche of stones’ (< *cakla— BelvalkarVol 88); K. ċakul m. ‘anything circular’, ċaküjü f. ‘buttock, hip’; S. cakaru m. ‘circle’; L. cakkul m. ‘horizontal wheel of well gear’, cakklī f. ‘vertical do.’, awāṇ. caklī ‘wheel’; P. caklā ‘round, wide’, m. ‘open square in city, district, brothel’, cakklī f. ‘roundness, pastry board’ (→ S. cakulo m.); Ku. cāklo ‘broad’; N. cāklo ‘thick, dense’; A. sākli ‘any flat circular thing, coin’; B. cāklā ‘round and flat, piece of bread, province’; Or. cakuḷī ‘a kind of cake’; Bi. cakrī ‘round flat sweetmeat of sugarcane juice’; WBi. cākal ‘cake of dung placed on grain heap to avert evil eye’; Mth. cākar ‘wide’; H. cākal, caklā ‘circular, round and flat, broad’, m. ‘province’, cakrā m. ‘flat round cake’; G. cākaḷ f. ‘a kind of snake which looks like a wheel’, cākḷɔ m. ‘water—wheel, circular leather seat, pot’. Addenda: *cakrala—: Ko. ċākkaḷa ‘round bite mark’.
4550 *cakravaha— ‘flowing in a circle’. [cakrá—, vahá—] OH. cakoha m. ‘whirlpool’.
4557 *cakṣati ‘tastes’. [√*cakṣ 2] Pk. cakkhaï ‘tastes’, Wg. c̣ac̣—, čāč— ‘to taste’; Kho. (Lor.) čhočik, čo° ‘to gnaw (a bone)’; S. cakhaṇu ‘to taste’, L. cakkhaṇ, P. cakkhṇā; WPah. bhad. khaś. cakh— ‘to taste’, roh. čakṇõ; ‘to chew’; Ku. cākhṇo ‘to taste’, N. cākhnu, A. sākiba, B. cāk(h)ā, Or. cākhibā, OAw. cākhaï, H. cākhnā, G. cākhvũ, M. ċākhṇẽ. — H. cīkhnā ‘to taste’ with ī from pīnā ‘to drink’?? Addenda: *cakṣati: S.kcch. cakhṇū ‘to taste’, WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ċákhṇõ;, J. cākhṇu.
4561 *caghyati ‘strives after’. [√*cagh] Aś. caghati ‘strives after’; Kho. čagéik ‘to overthrow’; B. cāgā ‘to rouse oneself to action, be inclined to (do anything), stir, rise’, cagāna ‘to rouse, excite’; Or. caghibā ‘to rise, ascend’. — S. caghu m. ‘lover, paramour’?
4562 *caṅkr̥tati ‘cuts again and again’. [*caṅkartti, pl. °kr̥tati.—√kr̥t 1] Ash. čikƏṛ— ‘to scratch’, Kt. čkå—, Bashg. čaṅgr(ō)- NTS ii 251.
4570 *caṭa— ‘crackle’, caṭana— n. ‘splitting’, caṭacaṭā- ‘rattling’ MBh., caṭacaṭāyatē ‘rattles’, caṭacaṭati, caṭatkāra— m., °tkr̥ti— f. ‘crackling’, caṭacaḍiti ‘so as to crackle’ lex. [Onom.] Pk. caḍacaḍa—, caḍakka— m. ‘crackle’; S. caṭkāu m. ‘smack’; P. caṭakṇā, carakṇā ‘to crackle’; WPah. bhal. ċaṛk f. ‘thunder’; N. carrari ‘quarrel’, carkanu ‘to split, crack’, caṛkinu ‘to crack’, caṛkanu ‘to flash’; A. sar ‘slap’; B. caṛ ‘slap’, caṛcaṛ ‘crackling’, caṛkāna ‘to make tingle’, caṭ ‘quickly’; Or. caṛcaṛ ‘crackling’, caṛaka ‘thunderbolt’, caṛakibā ‘to crackle’; H. caṛ, caṛcaṛ m. ‘crackle’, caṛaknā, caṭa° ‘to crackle’, caṭ ‘quickly’; G. caṛ, caṛcaṛ ‘with a crack’, caṭ ‘suddenly’, caṭakvũ ‘to sting’; M. ċaḍċaḍ ‘with a slap’, ċaḍak f. ‘slap’, ċaṭ ‘suddenly’, ċaṭkā m. ‘glow’. caṭita— see *caṭyatē. Addenda: *caṭa—: S.kcch. caṛakdho ‘shining’; Garh. caṛ ‘sound of splitting wood’.
4573 *caṭṭ— ‘lick, taste’. [Derivation < *caṣṭa— ‘tasted’ (LM 328) unlikely: onom.? cf. *caḍḍ—] Pk. caṭṭēi ‘licks’, Gy. eur. čar—, SEeur. čaṛ—, Paš. čaṭ—, Woṭ. c̣aṭ—, S. caṭaṇu, L. caṭṭaṇ, awāṇ. caṭṭuṇ, P. caṭṭṇā, Ku. cāṭṇo, N. cāṭnu, B. cāṭā, Or. cāṭibā, Bi. Mth. Aw. lakh. cāṭab; H. cāṭnā ‘to lick, taste, eat’ (whence caṭnā ‘to be tasted’); G. cāṭvũ ‘to lick’, M. ċāṭṇẽ. Addenda: *caṭṭ—: S.kcch. caṭṇū ‘to lick’, WPah.kṭg. ċaṭṇõ; (kc. ċaṭiṇo) ‘to lick, taste’, caus. ċƏṭauṇõ;, J. cāṭṇu.
4574 *caṭṭa— ‘bamboo matting’. P. caṭāī f. ‘matting’, N. caṭāi; B. caṭā ‘bamboo lath’, caṭāi ‘bamboo matting’; Or. caṭa, caṭāi ‘matting’, Bi. H. G. caṭāī f., M. ċaṭ m., ċaṭāī f. Addenda: *caṭṭa— ‘bamboo matting’. [~ Drav. DED 1907]
4575 *caṭṭu— ‘wooden ladle’. [Cf. *cāṭī—, *cāṭṭa—?] Pk. caṭṭu—, °ua—, °ula—, caṭua— m. ‘wooden spoon’; P. caṭṭū, caṭṭhū m. ‘wooden mortar’; M. ċāṭū m. ‘wooden spoon’. Addenda: *caṭṭu— ‘wooden ladle’. [~ Drav. DED 1905]
4576 *caṭyatē ‘is broken’. [Cf. caṭita— ‘broken’ Car., n. ‘crack, rent’ Divyāv., cāṭayati ‘breaks’ Dhātup., vicaṭati ‘is broken’ Bālar.: prob. onom. see *caṭa—] K. ċaṭun ‘to tear, cut’; B. caṭāna ‘to cause to splinter off’.
4577 *caḍḍ— ‘eat’. [Cf. *caṭṭ1] Pk. caḍḍaï ‘eats’, caḍḍaṇa— n. ‘a meal’; N. cāṛ ‘festival, feast’.
4578 *caḍhati ‘rises’. 2. *caḍhyati. 3. *cāḍhayati ‘raises’. 4. *cāḍha— ‘rising’. 1. Pk. caḍaï ‘rises, sits on’, caus. caḍāvēi, chaḍaï ‘rises, mounts’; K. ċarun ‘to increase’; S. caṛhaṇu ‘to rise, mount’, L. caṛhaṇ, P. caṛhṇā, Ku. caṛhṇo, N. caṛnu, caus. °ṛāunu; A. sariba ‘to mount, increase, surpass’, sarāiba ‘to put on, clothe’; B. caṛā ‘to mount, increase’, caus. °ṛāna; Or. caṛhibā ‘to climb’; Mth. caṛhab ‘to rise, mount, sit’; Bhoj. caṛhal ‘to rise’; OAw. caḍhaï ‘rises, attacks’, caus. °ḍhāvaï ‘raises, offers’; H. caṛhnā ‘to climb’, caus. °ṛhānā, Marw. caṛhṇo, G. caḍhvũ, caṛvũ (< Pk. caḍaï), caus. °ḍhāvvũ, °ṛāvvũ, M. ċaḍhṇẽ, caus. °ḍhaviṇẽ, Ko. caḍtā. 2. Si. säḍa, sän̆ḍa ‘climbing, a climb’. 3. K. ċārun ‘to pick up, collect’; S. cāṛhaṇu ‘to lift’, L. cāṛhaṇ, awāṇ. cā̂ṛuṇ, P. cāṛhṇā, WPah. cam. cāhṛṇā. 4. S. cāṛho m. ‘climber’; L. cāṛhā m. ‘climber of a date—palm’; B. cāṛ ‘a pushing up’, cāṛā ‘prop’, cāṛī ‘punting pole, lever’. *caḍhyati ‘rises’ see prec. Addenda: *caḍhati. 1. S.kcch. caṛṇū ‘to climb’, caṛāṇū ‘to incite’; WPah.kṭg. ċɔ́ṛhnõ;, kc. °no ‘to climb, break out (of illness)’, J. caṛhnu.
4580 *caṇakamaya— ‘made of chickpea’. [caṇa—, maya—] S. caṇā̃o ‘made of chickpeas’.
4581 *caṇadr̥ṣṭi— ‘like a chickpea’. [caṇa—, dŕ̥ṣṭi—] H. caneṭh m. ‘a plant with leaves like those of chick- pea (a medicine for cattle is made therefrom)’.
4582 *caṇapānīya— ‘chickpea water’. [caṇa—, pānı̄́ya—] M. caṇvaṇī n. ‘chickpea gruel’.
4583 *caṇapiṣṭa— ‘chickpea flour’. [caṇa—, piṣṭa—] P. ḍog. calīṭhā m. ‘gram flour’.
4583a *caṇōpama— ‘like a chickpea’. [caṇa—, upamā́—] H. canwā̃ m. ‘a small species of millet’?
4585 *caṇḍiya— ‘fierceness’. [caṇḍá1] Aś. caṁḍiye nom. sg. ‘rage’; L. (Shahpur) cannī f. ‘blighting cold’.
4592 *catuḥsara— ‘four—fold’. [catur—, *sarā2] B. causar ‘fourth, square’; H. causarī f. ‘land ploughed four times’; G. cɔsar f. ‘necklace with four strings’; M. causār ‘square’, causā̆rṇẽ ‘to do for the fourth time’; — P. cauhar f. ‘land ploughed for the fourth time’ < MIA. *caüsara—?
4593 *catuḥsīmaka— ‘having four boundaries’. [catuḥsīmā- f. ‘the four boundaries’ Apte. — catur—, sīmán—] H. causı̃hā m. ‘place where the boundaries of four villages meet’. catur— in cmpds., catúḥ ‘4 times’ RV. catura—2, caturthá—, cáturdaśa, catuṣka—, cat- vará—, catvā́raḥ, catvāriṁśát—, turı̄́ya—; compounds see under catuḥ—, catur—, catuś—, catuṣ—, catus—.
4601 *caturthajanī— ‘bearing for the 4th time’. [caturthá—, jáni—] L. cauthiṇ f. ‘an animal after its 4th calf’.
4602 *caturthapādikā— ‘a quarter’. [caturthá—, pā́da—] S. cauthāī, coth° f. ‘a quarter’, P. cauthāī, cuth° f., N. cauthāi, Mth. H. cauthāī f., G. cɔthāī f., M. ċauthāī f.
4603 *caturthavāra— ‘4th day’. [caturthá—, vāra2] Bi. cauthārī, cauṭh° ‘untying of bracelets 4 days after marriage ceremony’.
4608 *caturdivasaka— ‘lasting 4 days’. [catur—, divasá—] K. ċŏdyusu m. ‘obsequial rite on 4th day after death performed by daughter or daughter's son’.
4613 *caturdhāra— ‘having 4 edges’. [catur—, dhā́rā2] S. caudhārī adv. and adj. ‘on all sides’; G. cɔdhār ‘crying bitterly’ (i.e. with 4 lines of tears?), cɔdhārũ n. ‘a weapon with 4 edges’, cɔdhārī f. ‘a kind of bean with 4 edges’; M. ċaudhārī ‘having 4 edges’.
4618 *caturmukhāyana— ‘meeting of 4 mouths’. [catur—, *mukhāyana—] H. caumuhānā m. ‘junction of four streams or roads’.
4620 *caturvartman— ‘cross—roads’. [catur—, vártman—] K. ċŏwotu , ċuw° m. ‘cross—roads’, S. cauvāṭo (infl. by simplex vāṭa ‘road’), cauvaṭi adv. (orig. loc. of *cauvaṭu) ‘on all sides’; Ku. caubāṭ, °ṭā ‘cross—roads’, N. caubāṭo; Bi. caubaṭiyā ‘place where boundaries of four fields meet’; G. cɔvaṭ n. ‘open space where four or more roads meet, market—place’, cauṭũ n. ‘market—place’, cɔvāṭ, °ṭe ‘on all sides’; M. ċauvāṭā m. ‘cross—roads’. — X *catuṣpantha—: N. caupaṭ ‘square open space’, M. ċaupaṭṭā m.; — X mārga—: H. comṭā, cõ;pṭā m. ‘mound where boundaries of 4 villages meet’.
4621 *caturvāta— ‘wind from four quarters’. [catur—, vā́ta—] S. cauvāo m. ‘shifting wind’; H. cawā, °āī, cauwāī, caubāī f. ‘wind from four quarters, contrary wind, tempest’.
4622 *caturvāda— ‘report from 4 sides’. [catur—, vāda—] H. cawāu, °wāw m. ‘rumour spreading from all sides’ (whence cawāī m. ‘one who spreads rumours’).
4624 *caturvr̥taka— ‘fourfold’. [catur—, vr̥t2] L. caōṛā ‘fourfold’, G. cɔvṛũ.
4626 *caturhaṭṭa— ‘market at cross—roads’. [catur—, haṭṭa—] Pk. caühaṭṭa—, °aya— m.n. ‘bazar’; P. H. cauhaṭṭā m. ‘place where two market streets cross’; M. ċahoṭā, °huṭā m. ‘cross—roads’. Addenda: *caturhaṭṭa—: Brj. cauhaṭ, cauhaṭṭo m. ‘square, bazar’.
4631 *catuṣkāṣṭha— ‘rectangular frame’. [catur—, kāṣṭhá—] Pk. caükkaṭṭhī— f. ‘doorframe’; L. caukāṭh f. ‘door- frame’, caukṭhā ‘picture—frame’; P. caukā̆ṭh, caukhaṭ f. ‘doorframe’, cukāṭh f. ‘frame of anything’; WPah. ċukāṭh f. ‘wooden doorframe’, N. caukhaṭ, A. saukāṭh, B. caukāṭh, Or. caukā̆ṭha, Bi. caukaṭh, H. caukhaṭh, °khaṭ f., °khaṭā m.; G. cɔkṭhũ n. ‘rectangular frame’, M. ċaukaṭ f.
4632 *catuṣkr̥ṣṭa— ‘four times ploughed’. [catur—, kr̥ṣṭá—] Bi. caukeṭhā ‘ploughing of a field round and round in constantly diminishing circuits’, (Saran) caugeṭh, (W) caugaṭhiyā, (Patna) caueṭhā.
4634 *catuṣkhāta— ‘four ditches’. [catur—, khātá—] H. caukhā ‘place where boundaries of four villages meet’.
4635 *catuṣkhuṇṭa— ‘four—cornered’. 2. *catuṣkuṇṭa—. [catur—, *khuṇṭa2] 1. N. caukhũṛo ‘square’, Or. caukhuṇṭā, H. caukhū̃ṭā; G. cɔkhū̃ṭ ‘on all sides’; M. ċaukhũṭ ‘on all sides’, °ṭā m. ‘square bit of cloth’. 2. S. caukuṇḍo, °ḍyāro ‘square’.
4636 *catuṣkhura— ‘four—hoofed’. [catur—, khura—] L. caukhar m., (Shahpur) cokhur m. ‘horned cattle’, awāṇ. caukhur ‘animal’; P. caukhar m. ‘cattle’.
4639 *catuṣpaṭṭa— ‘square tablet’. [catur—, paṭṭa1] L. côpaṭ m. ‘a game like backgammon’; P. caupaṭ, caũp° m. ‘dice cloth’; A. saupaṭ ‘game of dice’, Or. caüpaṭa; G. cɔpaṭ f. ‘dice board’, M. ċaupaṭ m.
4640 *catuṣpattra— ‘four—leaved’. 2. catuṣpattrī— f. ‘the plant Marsilea quadrifolia’ lex. [catur—, páttra—] 1. P. caupattā, cup° ‘four—leaved’. 2. P. caupattī, cup° ‘a partic. four—leaved plant’; H. caupat, °tiyā f. ‘a partic. weed growing among wheat’. catuṣpathá— see *catuṣpantha—.
4642 *catuṣpantha— ‘cross—roads’. [Cf. catuṣpathá— m.n. ŚBr., Pa. catuppatha—, Pk. caüppaha— m. — catur—, pánthā—] A. saupanthā ‘cross—roads’, H. caupath m. — X mārga—: B. caumāthā ‘cross—roads’, Or. caumathā. — X *caturvartman— q.v.
4643 *catuṣparṇa— ‘four—leaved’, catuṣparṇī— f. ‘Oxalis pusilla’ lex. [catur—, parṇá—] S. caupanu m., °nī f. ‘a species of Indigofera with 4 pairs of leaflets to each leaf’.
4644 *catuṣpāṭa— ‘extending on 4 sides (?)’. [Cf. catuṣpāṭī— f. ‘name of a river’ lex. — catur—, pāṭa—] OAw. caupārī f. ‘assembly hall’; H. caupāṛ m. ‘vestibule, assembly room’.
4649 *catuṣprahara— ‘consisting of 4 watches’. [catur—, prahara—] A. saupar ‘lasting 4 watches’; B. copar din ‘all day long’; Or. caüpaharā ‘a servant who attends his master for 12 hours a day only’; H. caupahrā ‘lasting 4 watches’.
4652 *catūrāji— ‘having 4 lines’. [catur—, rā́ji—] H. caulāī f. ‘the potherb Amaranthus polygonoides’?? cattra— see cāttra—.
4653 *catthari— ‘laugh’. [Onom.] Pk. catthari— m.f. ‘laughter’; S. cathari f. ‘joking’, catharāito ‘ridiculous’. *catrudaśa ‘14’ see cáturdaśa.
4659 *candanakāṣṭha— ‘piece of sandalwood’. [candana—, kāṣṭhá—] P. canāṭhī, carn° f. ‘small piece of sandalwood’.
4660 *candanapaṭṭa— ‘sandalwood stone’. [candana—, paṭṭa1] N. canauṭo ‘flat stone on which sandalwood is ground for making paste’, Bi. candrauṭā (dissim. of n — n).
4674 *capp— ‘press’. 2. *camp—. 3. *cipp—. [Derivation of *capp— and *cipp— and of *cuppa1 by Bloch LM 330 (followed in ND 183a) < *carp—, *cr̥pya— is very doubt- ful: if conn. with carpaṭa— (see *carpa—), capēṭa— and cipiṭá—, they are rather of non—Aryan origin. — Cf. capáyati and further *cibba—, *cimb—, *chapp— and *chipp—, *japp—] 1. Pk. cappaï ‘presses’; Kho. čopik ‘to gather, pick’ (← Ir., Wkh. čip— Morgenstierne BSOS viii 667, but perh. → Ir.); S. cāpaṇu ‘to shampoo the limbs’ (ā?); P. cappaṇ m. ‘cover’; N. cyāpnu, cep°, ‘to press, squeeze’, capeṭnu ‘to press, follow, goad to work’; A. sāpibā ‘to be contracted’; B. cāpā ‘to press, get upon, cover’; Or. cāpibā ‘to press down’, intr. capibā ‘to sink into’; H. capnā ‘to be pressed’, capnī f. ‘flat lid’; G. cāpṛɔ m. ‘clasp’; M. ċāpṇẽ ‘to press’. 2. Pk. caṁpaï ‘presses’; Mth. cā̃pab ‘to press, squeeze’, OAw. cāṁpaï; H. cā̃pnā ‘to pound’; G. cā̃pvũ ‘to press’. 3. BHSk. cipyatē ‘is crushed’, —cippitaka— ‘crushed’; Pa. cippiyamāna— ‘crushed flat’; Wg. (Lumsden) "chi- pállún" ‘to squeeze’; Paš. weg. čip— ‘to bite off’; K. ċipiñ f. ‘pinching’; S. cipaṇu ‘to press, stamp’, cipo ‘bruised, flattened’, cipu f. ‘silence’; A. sepiba ‘to press, squeeze’, B. cipā, Or. cipibā, G. cīpvũ, M. cipṇẽ, cepṇẽ. Addenda: *capp—. 2. *camp—: OMarw. (Vīsaḷa) pp. m.pl. cā̆ṁpyā ‘oppressed, restrained’. 3. *cipp— [Cf. piccayati]: S.kcch. cīplāṇū ‘to be pressed between’ ~ G. pīclāvũ AKŚ 31. CAM: †;ācamati.
4675 *cappayati ‘chews’. [Onom., cf. Pa. capucapukāra- ‘making the sound of chewing’: cf. cárvati] Pa. cappēti ‘chews’, Dm. ċapāy—, Sh. čapóĭki̯, koh. čăpōnu̯, gur. čăpyōnu̯; K. ċāpun ‘to eat’, ċopu m. ‘bite’; WPah. bhal. ċāpṇū ‘to chew’, Ku. capoṇo, N. capāunu, capkāunu; Si. sapanavā, ha° ‘to chew, bite, gnaw, crush’. *cappēṭa—, *cappēṭṭa— ‘slap’ see capēṭa—. CAM ‘sip’: cāmya—; *ācama—, ācamana—, ācāma—, ā́cāmati, ācāmayati, *nicamati.
4676 *camakka— ‘sudden movement’. 2. *cammakka—. [Cf. camatkāra— m., camatkr̥ti— f. ‘surprise’ Kathās.; Orm. čmak ‘winking’ IIFL i 391] 1. Pk. camakka— m. ‘surprise’, camakkēi ‘startles’; P. caũkṇā ‘to be startled’; B. caũkā ‘to glitter’; Or. cahaṅkibā ‘to glitter, be startled’; OAw. cauṁkaï ‘to be startled’, H. caũknā, caũk f. ‘sudden start’. 2. S. camaka f. ‘glittering’, cimko m. ‘glitter’; P. camakṇā ‘to shine’; Ku. camakṇo ‘to shine, be mad’; N. camak ‘gleam’, camkanu ‘to shine, be startled, be in- solent’; A. samakiba ‘to be startled’; B. camak ‘flash’, camkāna ‘to glitter, be startled’, Or. camakibā; Mth. camak ‘glitter’, camakab ‘to sparkle’, OAw. camakaï; H. camaknā ‘to glitter, be startled’, G. camakvũ; M. ċamakṇẽ ‘to glitter’. — Without —kka—: N. camcam ‘glare’; H. camcamānā ‘to glare’; G. camcam f. ‘burn- ing’; M. ċamċamāṭ m. ‘dazzle’. — P. camkār f., °rā m. ‘flash’. camatkāra— see prec. Addenda: *camakka—. 1. WPah.kṭg. ċɔṅkṇõ; ‘to wake (intr.) with a start’. 2. *cammakka—: S.kcch. camakṇū ‘to shine’; Ko. ċamkatā ‘walks’.
4680 *campavēlli— ‘jasmine’? [campa—, vēlli—?] S. cambelī f. ‘Jasminum grandiflorum’, P. cãbelī, camelī f.; N. cameli ‘J. sambac’; B. cameli ‘J. grandi- florum’, Or. cambelī, cā̆melī, Mth. camelī, OAw. caṁbelī, H. cãbelī, camelī f., G. cãpelī, cãbelī, camelī; M. ċãbelī, ċamelī f. ‘the plant’, ċamel n. ‘its flower’. *cammakka— ‘sudden movement’ see *camakka—. Addenda: *campavēlli—: OB. cāmbalī (sic), B. cāmeli id. CAR: †;anucará—.
4684 *cára— 2 m. ‘movement’. [~ cala—2. — √car—] Pa. Pk. cara— m. ‘walking, moving’. —See Add. gōcara—, duścara—.
4688 *carassa— ‘raw hide’. P. carsā m. ‘raw oxhide’, caras f. ‘leather bucket’; N. carsā ‘hide’; Bi. H. carsā m. ‘raw oxhide’, H. caras, tarsā m. ‘leather bucket’; M. ċarsā m. ‘raw oxhide’; - G. caṛsũ ‘a contrivance for lifting water from well or tank’: X caṛvũ < *caḍhati?
4696 *carpa— ‘flat’. 2. carpaṭa— ‘lying flat to the head (of ears)’ VarBr̥S., m. ‘palm of hand, thin biscuit of flour’ lex., carpaṭī— f. ‘flat cake’ lex. 3. *carpaṭṭa—. [Cf. Psht. ċapaq, Orm. čapâ g ‘flat hand’ IIFL i 391 and carvan— m. ‘slap with open palm’ lex.: see cipiṭá—, capēṭa—, *capp—] 1. Kt. čap&acabreve; ‘slap’; S. capu m. ‘lip’, capo m. ‘palm of hand, hand—breadth, blade of oar’; L. cappā ‘having horns pointing outwards’; P. cappā m. ‘breadth of 4 fingers’; B. cāp ‘solidified clod’, cāpā ‘cover’; M. ċāp m. ‘lobe of ear’. 2. Pk. cappuḍī—, °ḍiyā— f. ‘snapping the fingers’; Ash. Wg. čapā́l ‘palm of hand’; Ash. čapḗṛ ‘flat of hand’; Paš. čapilū́ ‘slap’, Kal. rumb. čapŕéaka; S. capiṛī f. ‘a kind of unleavened bread’, cāpoṛo m. ‘flat clod of dried earth’; L. capṛī f. ‘small flat piece of wood’, cāpṛī f. ‘cake of silt’; P. capṛī f. ‘small flat piece of wood’, cāpaṛ m. ‘flake of sun—dried mud’; N. capari ‘turf, clod of earth’, capleṭi ‘flat’; A. sāpar ‘blow with palm of hand’; B. cāpaṛ ‘open palm, slap’, cāpṛā ‘square or oblong clod’; Or. cāpaṛa, °ṛā, cāpuṛā ‘flat palm, slap’; H. cāpaṛ ‘flattened, level’, cāpṛā m., °ṛī f. ‘cake of cowdung’; G. capaṛvũ ‘to flatten’; M. ċapḍā ‘flat’. 3. Wg. čapƏṭá ‘claw’; S. capāṭa f. ‘slap’, capuṭī f. ‘snap of fingers’; P. capṭā ‘flattened, compressed’; G. capaṭ, capṭũ ‘low and flat’; M. ċapṭā ‘flat’. carpaṭa— see prec. *carpaṭṭa— ‘flat’ see *carpa—. Addenda: *carpa—. 1. Ash. Wg. čapā́l ‘palm of hand’ < *carpa- —la— ~ *carpa—ṭa— Buddruss ZDMG 116, 415. 2. *carpaṭa—: A. also cāpar (phonet. s—) ‘blow with palm’ AFD 211. carpaṭa— see *carpa— Add2.
4706 *carmavatī— ‘a partic. tree’. [Cf. carmavant— ‘covered with hide’ Pāṇ. Kāś., cármaṇvant— ‘furnished with skin’ TS., carmaṇvatī— f. ‘the banana plant’, carmadruma— m. ‘the parchment tree’ lex. — cárman—] H. camoī f. ‘a Nepalese tree from the bark of which paper is made’.
4707 *carmāsa— ‘skin—thrower’. [cárman—, ā́sa2] Wg. čamā́s ‘snake’ NTS xvii 243.
4709 *carmōtkuṇa— ‘skin tick’. [cárman—, utkuṇa—] H. camokan, camukan m. ‘body louse, cattle tick’.
4712 *carṣati ‘ploughs’. 2. *carṣa—. 3. *carṣaṇa— [Cf. carṣaṇí— f.pl. = kr̥ṣṭí— f.pl. ‘people’ RV. — √kr̥ṣ] 1. A. sahiba ‘to cultivate’, B. casā ‘to plough’, Or. casibā, tas° (why a?), H. cāsnā, G. cāsvũ; Si. hayanavā ‘to pull’, hānavā or hī h° ‘to plough’. 2. Pk. cāsa— m. ‘ploughing, plough land’; A. sāh ‘tilled (of land), act of tilling’; B. cās ‘ploughing’, °sā, °si ‘ploughman’; Or. cāsa, ‘agriculture’, casā ‘plough- ing, cultivator’, cāsi, tā°, f. cāsuṇi, tā° ‘cultivator’; Bi. cās ‘a ploughing’; Bhoj. cās ‘tilth’; H. cās f. ‘ploughing’, °sā, °sī m. ‘ploughman’; G. cās m. ‘furrow’, OM. cāsa. 3. A. sāhani ‘a piece of land ready ploughed or hoed’. CAL ‘move, tremble’. [~ √car: for interaction of r and l forms see ND 169 b] cañcala—, calá—1, cala—2, cálati, calana—, caláyati, *calavala—, calācalá—, calita—, *calyati, *calyā—, *cāla—1, cāla—2, cālana—, cālanī—, cāláyati, *uccal- yati, *uccāla—, uccālayati, niścala—, niścalati, *niścālayati, pracala—, pracalati, pracalayati, vicalati, vicālayati, *vyapacalati, saṁcālayati, *samācalati. Addenda: *carṣati. 2. S.kcch. cā̃s keṇā ‘to rake’ (= G. cās karvā); A. also câh (phonet. sɔh) ‘cultivation’ AFD 217, 226.
4718 *calavala— ‘restless’. [Redup. from calá1] Pk. calavalaṇa— n. ‘fidgeting’, N. cal—bal ‘restlessness’; G. caḷvaḷvũ ‘to fidget’, M. ċaḷvaḷ f. (cf. ċaḷaṇ—vaḷaṇ n.).
4721 *calyati ‘goes’. [√cal] Pk. callaï ‘moves’; S. calaṇu ‘to go, depart, die’; L. callaṇ ‘to start, go, move’, P. callṇā ‘to go, move, behave’, ludh. calla; B. cālā ‘to be moved’; Or. cālibā ‘to go on foot’; Marw. cālṇo ‘to go’; OG. cālaï ‘goes’, G. cālvũ ‘to move, walk, act’, M. ċālṇẽ; Ko. caltā ‘moves’ (a? ← H. calnā < cálati?). Addenda: *calyati: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ċalṇõ; ‘to go, walk, advance’, J. cālṇu; kṭg. caus. ċƏlauṇõ; ‘to drive’; kṭg. (kc.) ċƏl e uṇõ; ‘to cause to walk’; Garh. calaṇ ‘custom’.
4722 *calyā— ‘gait, conduct’. [~ caryā—. — √cal] Sh. (Lor.) č e l f. ‘habit, custom’; Ku. cāl ‘movement’; N. cāl ‘conduct’; B. cāl ‘gait, behaviour’; Or. cāla ‘behaviour’; OAw. cāla f. ‘gait, movement’, lakh. cāl ‘trick’; H. cāl f. ‘behaviour’; G. cāl f. ‘gait, behaviour’, M. ċāl f.; — S. cāli f. ‘behaviour’, P. cāl f. ‘behaviour, motion’ ← H.? Addenda: *calyā—: WPah.J. 'l f. ‘gait, custom’ (on account of —l— and J. gender not with Him.I 58 < cāla2), kṭg. ċāl m.
4723 *cava— ‘point or blade of plough?’. P. H. cau m. ‘coulter of plough’, G. cavṛũ n.; M. ċav—tālẽ n. ‘a sort of harrow to draw off rubbish (consisting of a beam pierced with 14 pins)’.
4724 *cavati ‘says’, cavyā— f. ‘voice’ lex. 2. *cāvayati caus. [Connexion with káuti ‘shouts’ improbable: onom. cf. jápati?] 1. Pk. cavaï, pp. °via— ‘says’, cavēṇa— n. ‘saying’, cavacava— m. ‘a sort of noise’; S. cavaṇu, cuaṇu, pp. cayo ‘to say, tell’, caviṇī f. ‘saying, order’; G. cavvũ ‘to speak, narrate’. 2. S. cāiṇu ‘cause to say’; M. ċāvaḷṇẽ ‘to talk wildly’, (Khandesh) ‘to talk’. Addenda: *cavati: S.kcch. coṇū ‘to say’.
4725 *cavilla— ‘small stick’. N. coilo, °li ‘small stick, shaving’; Aw. lakh. cailī ‘fuel sticks’; Bi. H. cailā m., °lī f. ‘small stick’, M. ċailī f. — Cf. also S. coī f. ‘framework with nets attached for catching fish’, N. coyo ‘split cane for making nets’.
4728 *caṣṭi— ‘tasting, feeding’. [√*cakṣ 2] P. caṭṭh f. ‘ceremony of feeding Brahmans on special occasions’.
4729 *caṣṭra— ‘feeding trough’. [√*cakṣ 2] P. caṭṭhā m. ‘watering trough for cattle’.
4730 *cassakk— ‘throb, twitch, sudden pain’. [See Add.] P. casakṇā ‘to throb’; WPah. cam. caskṇā ‘to be angry’; Ku. casak ‘rheumatic pain’; N. casakka with a sharp pain’, caskanu ‘to throb, give acute pain’; H. casaknā, cus° ‘to throb or twitch with pain’; G. casak f. ‘acute pain’. Addenda: *cassakk— see cāṣa2 and †;caṣati 2. S.kcch. casko m. ‘shooting pain, craving’.
4731 *cahakk— ‘burn brightly’. N. cahak ‘brightness’, cahakilo ‘brilliant, smart’; H. cahaknā ‘to burn’. Addenda: *cahakk— see cāṣa2 and †;caṣati 2.
4733a *cāṇkṣati [CDIAL Add.] WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ċā́ṇõ; ‘to wish’, kṭg. ċáu m. ‘desire’, J. 'ṇu, cāw m. (Him.I 58 only refers to CDIAL *cāh—).
4734 *cācca— ‘uncle’. [Nursery word?] S. cāco m. ‘father's brother’, °cī f. ‘his wife’, L. cācā m., °cī f.; P. cāccā, cācā m. ‘father's younger brother’, °ccī, °cī f. ‘his wife’; WPah. bhad. cāco ‘uncle’, cur. cacērā; B. cācā ‘father's brother’, °cī ‘his wife’, Or. cacā, H. cācā, caccā, cacā m., cācī f.; G. cācɔ m. ‘uncle’. Addenda: *cācca—: WPah.kṭg. (among Rājputs) ċāċ m. ‘father's brother’, ċaċi f. ‘his wife’, J. cācā m.
4736 *cāṭī— ‘pot’. [← Drav., cf. Tam. cāṭi ‘jar’, Mal. cāḍi, Tel. Kan. Tu. jāḍi. Cf. *cāṭṭa—, *cāḍḍa—] Pa. cāṭi— f. ‘vessel, jar, measure of capacity’; Si. säliya, häl° ‘earthen pot’.
4738 *cāṭṭa— ‘pot’. [← Drav., Tam. caṭṭi DED 1901: see *cāṭī—, *cāḍḍa—] Gy. eur. čāro m. ‘bowl, pan’; P. cāṭṭā m., °ṭī f. ‘large earthen vessel’; WPah. bhal. ċāṭ f. ‘large pot for storing ghee’; Or. cāṭi ‘a big basket’; H. cāṭā m. ‘pot for collect- ing expressed sugarcane juice in a mill’, °ṭī f. ‘small earthen pot’.
4739 *cāḍḍa— ‘pot’. [Cf. *cāṭī—, *cāṭṭa—] Pk. caḍḍa— n. ‘oil vessel in a lamp’; S. cāḍ̱ī f. ‘earthen vessel’; Mth. caṛiyā ‘earthen griddle for baking bread or parching grain’; G. cāḍũ n. ‘saucer—shaped vessel forming part of a lampstand’, M. ċāḍẽ, °ḍhẽ n. — Bi. cā̃ṛ ‘earthen vessel for grain’ X bhā̃ṛ < bhāṇḍa1. *cāḍha— ‘rising’, *cāḍhayati ‘raises’ see *caḍhati. Addenda: *cāḍḍa—: S.kcch. cāḍī f. ‘stone vessel to catch leavings of food for cattle and dogs’.
4745 *cāndraṇa— m. ‘moonlight’. [candrá—] Pk. caṁdiṇa— n. ‘moonlight’, S. cāṇḍriṇī, °rāṇī f., caṇḍrāṇu, °ṇo ‘moonlit’; L. cānuṇ, cānṇā m. ‘light’, cānṇī, (Ju.) cā̃dṛı̄̃ (< cā̃dṇī?), (Shahpur) cānaṇī f. ‘moonlight’, mult. cāndṇā m. ‘light’, °ṇī f. ‘light of moon or stars’; P. cānaṇ m. ‘light’, cānaṇā m., °ṇī f. ‘moon- light’, N. cā̃dni, B. cā̃dnī, Or. cāndanī, Mth. cāna; H. cā̃dan f. ‘light half of month’, cā̃dnā m. ‘brightness, moonlight’, cā̃dnī f. ‘moonlight’, G. cā̃darṇũ > °aṇṇũ n., cā̃darṇī f. (cā̃dnī f. ← H.); M. ċā̃dṇẽ n. ‘moon- light’, ċā̃dṇī f. ‘star’. — P. cānaṇī f. ‘awning, canopy’, B. cā̃dnī; Or. cāndanī ‘raised outdoor platform’ (lw. with n); H. cā̃dnī f. ‘awning’, M. ċā̃dṇī f.: semant. cf. candraka1. Addenda: *cāndraṇa—: WPah.kṭg. ċandṇi f. ‘moonlight’, poet. ċandṇo ‘shining like silver’ (but see †;*cāndikā—); OG. cāṁdriṇuṁ n. ‘time of moonlight’.
4749 *cāmala— or *cāvala— ‘husked rice’. [S. K. Chatterji ZII ix 31 < *cāma—, √cam with little probability: Pk. and several NIA. lggs. have no trace of nasal. Poss. of ultimately same non—Aryan origin as taṇḍulá—] Pk. cāulā m. pl., cavala— m. ‘rice’ Deśīn.; S. cā̃uru, cā̃varu m. ‘a grain of rice’, cā̃uro ‘pertaining to husked rice’; L. cāval m. ‘husked rice’, awāṇ. cāvul, P. cāval, °var, cāul, caul m., WPah. bhal. ċā̆u m. pl., jaun. cau, Ku. caũl, gng. ċā̃wōw, N. cā̃wal, cāmal, A. sāul, OB. tāula, B. cāul, cāl, Or. caü̃ḷa, cāuḷa, cāura, Bi. Mth. Bhoj. cāur, H. cā̃wal, cāw°, cā̃war m., OMarw. cāvala m., G. cāvaḷ m. (usu. pl.). *cāmalapiṣṭa—; *rasikācāmala—. Addenda: *cāmala— [~ Drav. DED 1976]: Brj. cā̃wal, °war, cāwal, °war m. ‘husked rice’. †;CĀY ‘observe’: †;cā́yati.
4750 *cāmalapiṣṭa— ‘rice—flour’. [*cāmala—, piṣṭá—] Bi. caureṭhā, °raṭhā ‘rice soaked and dried and pounded’; H. caureṭhā m. ‘rice ground up with water’.
4759 *cāraṇī— ‘sieve’. [~ cālanī— s.v. cālana—. — √car] Paš. ar. ċōrién ‘sieve’; G. cārṇī f. ‘sieve’, °ṇɔ m. ‘large do.’
4761 *cārādya— ‘grazing’ [cāra—2, ādyà1] Shum. ċarā́z ‘pasture’.
4762 *cāri— ‘grass’. [Cf. cāra—2, carā—. — √car] Pk. cāri— f. ‘grazing, grass’; Gy. eur. čar, pl. čaryá f. ‘grass’, Phal. čār f. (e.g. šuki čār ‘hay’); G. cāri f. ‘green grass’.
4768 *cāla— 1 ‘moving’ (cf. cālaka— m. ‘restless elephant’ lex.). [~ cāra—1. — √cal] M. ċāḷ ‘wanton, riggish’; Si. sala ‘shaking, moving’ (or < cala1); — Dm. čal ‘long hair, mane’; Paš. čāl ‘woman's long hair, mane’; Kho. čā̆l ‘mane’ (→ Kal. čal, Yid. čā̆lo IIFL ii 201): semant. cf. cañcala—, cárcara—, pracala—.
4775 *cāh— ‘see, look for, desire’. [J. Bloch Festschr. Wackernagel 147 ‘deformed’ from abnormal and un- attested MIA. *cākh— < cakṣatē to avoid clash with *cakṣati ‘tastes’ (cf. *pracāh— ~ pracakṣatē)? Or < *cāgh— see √*cagh—? Uncertain] Pk. cāhaï ‘wishes, expects, asks for’; K. kash. ċāhun ‘to wish’; S. cāhaṇu ‘to desire, like’, cāhu m. ‘desire, love’; L. cāhaṇ ‘to wish’, cāh f. ‘wish’, awāṇ. caīṇā ‘necessary’; P. cāhṇā ‘to wish for, demand’, 3 sg. pass. cāhye ‘it is necessary’, pres. part. cāhīdā ‘desirable’, cāh f. ‘desire, love’; WPah. bhad. cāṇā ‘to wish’; Ku. cāṇo ‘to seek, love’, gng. imper. ‘see’; N. cāhanu ‘to wish, desire’, cāinu ‘to be desired, be necessary’, cāh ‘desire’ (ext. with —— in cāhārnu ‘to look for’); A. sāiba ‘to look at, reflect on’; B. cāhā ‘to look at or for, expect, want’; Or. cāhibā, °hı̃bā ‘to look at, look at wistfully, desire, ask for’; Mth. cāhab ‘to wish for’; OAw. cāhaï ‘desires’, cāu m. ‘strong desire’; H. cāhnā ‘to see, look for’, 3 sg. pass. cāhiye ‘it is necessary’, cāh f. ‘wish’; OMarw. cāhaï ‘wishes’, cāva m. ‘want’; G. cāhvũ ‘to long for, love’, (h) m. ‘love’; M. ċāhṇẽ ‘to love, like’. CI 1 ‘heap up’: kā́ya—1, kāya—2, cáya—, cáyana—, cāpayati, *cāya—, cāyayati, citā—, cíti—, cinṓti, *cinvati, cḗya—, *caitiya—; avacaya—, uccaya—, *uccāpayati, *uccāpyatē, uccita—, uccinōti, upacaya—, *upacā- yayati, upacít—, upacīyatē, nikāyá—, pracaya—, *vicitya—, vícinōti, *vicinvati, saṁcaya—, saṁcayana—, saṁcayayati, samuccaya—. CI 2 ‘observe’: niścayá—, *niścayati, paricaya—, pari- cita—, pariciti—, viniścaya—. CI 3 ‘avenge’: *uccayatē.
4778 *cikk— ‘press, squeeze’. [Cf. cikká—4, *cukka— and cikkayati, cukk° ‘hurts, is hurt’ Dhātup.] S. cikaṇu ‘to distil, ooze out (of pus)’, cikāiṇu ‘to distil, fatigue’; WPah. bhal. ċikkṇū ‘to press down lower portion of loom with the feet, grasp, seize’; Ku. cikṇo ‘to deflower’, gng. ċikaṇi ‘copulation’; N. ciknu ‘to copulate (of man)’, cikāunu ‘do. (of woman)’. - Prob. Wg. čiṅ ‘vulva’; K. ċē̃kh, dat. ċē̃ki f. ‘woman's pudenda’.
4781 *cikka— 3 ‘small’. [Cf. cikva— m. ‘young elephant’, cikkagaja— m.; cikṣa— ‘young’, *ciṅga—: perh. same as cikká4, cikiná— ‘flat—nosed’ Pāṇ., cikina— ‘flattened, stumpy’ Harṣac. — ← Drav. (cf. Kan. cikka ‘small’) LM 330, T. Burrow BSOAS 12, 379] Pk. cikka— ‘small’, °kā— f. ‘anything small, slight rain, small drop’; M. cike ‘a little’, cikkar small. — Kho. (Lor.) ċik ‘younger, small (of animals and things)’? cikká— 4 ‘flat—nosed’ see *cikk—, *cikka3. Addenda: *cikka— 3 [Cf. Shgh. ċeg ‘child’, ċƏgag ‘small’] A. cikā (phonet. s—) ‘small’ AFD 216; Kho. ċeq or ċiq ‘small’ BKhoT 67 with?
4783 *cikṣurati ‘scratches up’. [√kṣur] Bi. cikhurāī ‘wages for weeding’, cikhurnī ‘weeding by hand’; H. cikhurnā, cikhar° ‘to weed’. Addenda: *cikṣurati (or *cukṣurati with i after c Him.I 61: cf. Ku. ciśṇo < *atyuṣati). WPah.kṭg. ċikhru m. ‘weeding—iron’.
4785 *ciṅga— ‘young bird’. 2. *cēṅga—. [Cf. *cikka3] 1. N. ciṅnu ‘chicken’; H. cı̄̃gā, cı̃gā m. ‘young bird’, ciṅgā, cı̃gnā m. ‘chicken’, cı̃gulā m. ‘young bird, child’. 2. Mth. cẽgā ‘chicken’, H. cẽgā, cẽgṛā m. ‘child’.
4787 *ciṅghāṭa—, *cinghāra— ‘noise, scream’. [Onom.? - Cf. cītkāra—] Gy. wel. čiṅār, čiṅarī f. ‘row, quarrel, brawl’, čiṅer- ‘to scold’; P. ciṅghār f. ‘screech’, ciṅghārnā ‘to screech’; H. cı̃ghāṛ, °ār f., °āṛā m. ‘scream, screech’, cı̃ghāṛnā ‘to screech, roar’; — S. ciṅghaṇu ‘to groan’.
4789 *cicc— ‘scream’. 2. *cēñc—. [Onom., cf. cicciká—] 1. Pk. cicci— m. ‘shriek’; P. ciclāuṇā ‘to shriek’, N. cicyāunu, H. ciciyānā, G. cīcvũ. 2. A. sẽsāiba ‘to scream’; B. cẽcāna ‘to cry out’. Addenda: *cicc—. 2. *cēñc—: WPah.rāmp. ciñjṇõ; ‘to call (from a distance)’.
4790 *cicca— ‘squeezed, stingy’. [Cf. cikká4?] Pk. cicca—, ciccara— ‘flat—nosed’; S. cica f. ‘meanness’, ciciṛu m. ‘importunate beggar’; N. ciccā ‘stingy’, cicilo ‘young unformed fruit’. Addenda: *cicca—. 1. A. cīcā (phonet. sisa) ‘emaciated’ AFD 216. 2. †;*ciñca—: A. cı̃cā (phonet. sı̃sa) ‘flattened’ AFD 155. †;*ciñca— see *cicca—. *ciṭaka— see caṭaka—.
4794 *ciḍ— ‘be angry’. 2. *ciḍh—. 3. *cēḍ— ‘make angry’. 4. *chēḍ— 2. 1. S. ciṛaṇu ‘to be huffy’; P. ciṛnā ‘to be provoked’; N. cirko ‘disturbance’, curinu ‘to be enraged’, ciṛnu ‘to be annoyed’ (← H.?); B. ciṛ ‘vexation’, ciṛāna ‘to provoke’; Or. ciṛibā ‘to be angry’; H. ciṛnā ‘to be pro- voked’, G. ciṛāvũ, M. ciḍṇẽ. 2. WPah. bhal. ciṛh e_ llu ‘peevish’; H. ciṛhnā ‘to be provoked’. 3. S. ceṛaṇu, ceṛāiṇu ‘to provoke’. 4. S. cheṛaṇu ‘to taunt, irritate’; L. cheṛaṇ ‘to pro- voke’, P. cheṛnā; H. cheṛnā ‘to touch, irritate’ (→ N. cheṛnu ‘to taunt’); G. cheṛvũ ‘to irritate’. *ciḍh— ‘be angry’ see prec. Addenda: *ciḍ—. 1. Garh. ciṛnu ‘to be cross with’. 2. *ciḍh—: WPah.kṭg. ċíṛh f. ‘hatred’, ċíṛhnõ; ‘to hate’. 3. *chēḍ—2: WPah.kṭg. ċhéṛnõ; ‘to disturb, trouble’, J. cheṛṇu. *ciḍh— see *ciḍ— Add2.
4795 *ciṇoṭṭhī— ‘Abrus precatorius’. [Cf. ciñcī— f., kāka- ciñcā— f.; Pk. deśīn. kaṇeḍḍhiā— f.] Pk. ciṇoṭṭhī— f.; G. canɔṭhī f. ‘A. precatorius and its berry (used as a measure of weight)’. CIT ‘observe’: cittá—1, cítti—1, citrá—, cintáyati, cintā́—, cḗtana—, cētáyati, cḗtas—, cḗttr̥—.
4800 *citta— 2 ‘lying on the back’. P. citt ‘prostrate on the back’, N. cit, cittā, A. sit, B. cit, Or. cita; Mth. cit ‘lying face down’; H. cit ‘prostrate on the back’, G. cīt, catũ, cattũ, M. cīt.
4802 *citth— ‘pound, tear’. S. cithaṇu ‘to pound, bruise, hash’; L. citthaṇ ‘to chew’, (Ju.) cithaṇ; P. citthṇā ‘to pound, crush, chew’; H. cīthnā ‘to crush, tear’; M. cithṇẽ ‘to take offence’. — Ext. with ——: S. cīthaṛo m. ‘old ragged clothes’, cithiṛaṇu, cithāṛ°, cethāṛ° ‘to bruise, crush’; P. cīthṛā m. ‘rag’, Ku. cithṛo, N. cithro, cithornu ‘to scratch, claw, get scratched’; H. cīthaṛ, °thṛā m. ‘rag’, cithāṛnā ‘to tear to pieces’; G. cithṛũ n. ‘rag’; — with —r—: G. cithrũ n., °rī f. ‘rag’.
4819 *cippa—, *cīppa—, *cēppa— ‘gummy matter’. S. cipyaru m. ‘one whose eyes are full of gummy matter’; P. cīp f., cīpaṛ m. ‘glue, any viscous substance’, cippṇā, cipakṇā, °aṭṇā intr. ‘to stick’, cipṛā ‘having the eyes full of gummy secretion’, cīplā ‘sticky’; WPah. bhal. ċ e/ pṛo m. ‘gummy secretion in eyes’; N. cipro ‘id.’, ciplo ‘smooth, slimy’, ciplinu ‘to slip’; H. cep, cīpaṛ f. ‘gummy secretion in eyes’, cepnā tr. ‘to stick on’, cepī, cippī f. ‘a little piece stuck on’; G. cipṛũ n., °ṛɔ m. ‘gummy secretion in eyes’; M. cipā̆ḍ m. n., cipḍẽ n., °ḍā m. ‘id.’, cipṇẽ ‘to have eyes closed by it’, cipḍā ‘affected by it’. — Other variants (X MIA. seppha—, seṁbha— < *śrēṣman—??): WPah. bhal. ċipph m. ‘resin from pine trees’, Ku. ciphlo, cibhlo ‘slippery’, B. chep ‘spittle’, Or. chipa, chepa ‘spittle with phlegm’. *cippiṭa—, *cippiṭṭa— ‘flat’ see cipiṭá—. Addenda: *cippa—: WPah.poet. ċiplo ‘slippery’ (< *cippalla— or ← P.); kṭg. ċipƏṭṇõ; ‘to stick, adhere’ (prob. ← H. cipaṭnā or P. cipaṭṇā).
4821 *cibba— ‘flattened’. [Cf. cipitá—, cikká—4, *cimb—] S. ciḇu m. ‘dent, bruise’, ciḇo ‘dented’, ciḇa f., ciḇiro m. ‘owl’; L. cibbā, (Ju.) ciḇḇā ‘crooked, paralysed, having facial paralysis’, cibṛī f. ‘spotted owlet’; G. cībũ, cibṛũ ‘flat—faced’, cībṛī f. ‘owl’; M. cı̃bā ‘flattened’. *cimpaṭa— ‘flat’ see cipiṭá—.
4822 *cimb— ‘pinch’. [Cf. *cibba—, *capp—] Bshk. ičimik ‘blink’; S. cimṭo m. ‘tongs’; P. cambaṛnā, cimmaṛnā ‘to copulate’, cimṭā m. ‘tongs’; Ku. cim ‘pinch’, cimṭā ‘pincers’, cimoṭi ‘nip with the nails’; N. cim ‘closing the eyes’, cimlanu ‘to blink’, cimṭanu, cimoṭ° ‘to pinch’, cimṭā ‘pincers’; B. cimṭā ‘to pinch’, sb. ‘tongs’; Or. cimuṭibā ‘to pinch’, cimuṭā ‘pinching, tongs’; H. cimaṭnā ‘to embrace closely’, cimṭā, cyū̃ṭā m. ‘pincers’; G. cı̃boḷvũ ‘to pinch the ear’, cimṭɔ m. ‘tongs’, camṭɔ m. ‘hard pinch’; M. cı̃bṇẽ ‘to pinch, squeeze’, cı̃baḷṇẽ, cı̃baṭṇẽ, cimaṭṇẽ ‘to pinch’, cimṭā m. ‘pinch, pincers’. Addenda: *cimb— [In sense ‘blink’ ~ Drav. DED 2097]
4823 *ciyāku— ‘fungus’. [Cf. kyāku— n. Āp.] N. cyāu ‘mushroom or mushroom—like fungus’.
4825 *cirātana— ‘lasting a long time’. [Cf. ciratna—, ciran- tana— ‘ancient’ Pāṇ. and purātana—. — cirá—] OAw. cirānā ‘lasting many days’. cirātikta— see kirātatikta—.
4827 *cilla— 2 ‘unctuous, shining’. Pk. cillaa—, °liya— ‘shining’; S. cilo m. ‘pancake’, cilkaṇu ‘to be bright’, P. cilakṇā; N. cillo ‘greasy, smooth, polished’, sb. ‘grease, ghee’, cillo—callo ‘a dainty’; H. cilaknā ‘to be bright’, cilcilānā ‘to be very hot (of the sun)’. Addenda: *cilla— 2. 2. †;*cila—: WPah.kṭg. ċiḷƏk ‘morning sunshine, first rays of the sun’, J. ciḷk f. ‘morning sunshine on the highest peaks’ Him.I 62.
4830 *cillimāṁsa— ‘kite's flesh’. [cilli—, māṁsá—] H. cilhwā̃s, cilwā̃s m. ‘kite's flesh (eating which causes madness)’.
4831 *civant— or *cīvant— ‘how great?’. [Cf. Av. cvant—, and ā́ kı̄́vataḥ ‘how far?’ RV. ~ kíyant—. — ka1] Kt. čwōk ‘a little’, Pr. čukuā NTS xv 256: semant. cf. iyattaká— ‘so small’ and kíyant— ‘small’ esp. in cmpd.
4832 *ciṣṭa— ‘message’. [Cf. Av. kaēš—, činasti ‘teaches, makes known’, Pahl. nām—čišt ‘known by name’ H. W. Bailey JRAS 1934, 510] Sh. čiṭhi f. ‘letter’ (← Ind.); S. ciṭho m. ‘list’, °ṭhī f. ‘letter’, L. P. ciṭṭhī f.; P. ciṭṭhā m. ‘account’; WPah. bhal. ċiṭhi f. ‘letter’; N. ciṭṭhā ‘lot’, ciṭhi ‘letter’, A. siṭhi; B. ciṭhā ‘tally’, °ṭhi ‘letter’; Or. ciṭhā ‘rough draft’, °ṭhi ‘letter’; Bi. ciṭhī ‘letter sent to groom's father announcing auspicious day for wedding’; Mth. Aw. lakh. cīṭhī ‘letter’; H. ciṭṭhā m. ‘ballot’, ciṭṭhī, cīṭhī f. ‘letter’, G. ciṭṭhī f.; M. ciṭṭhā m. ‘account’, ci()ṭhī f. ‘letter’. Addenda: *ciṣṭa—: WPah.kṭg. ċíṭṭhi f. ‘note, message’.
4834 *cihnakāra— ‘making a sign’. [cihna—, kāra1] Or. cihnarā, °nirā, °nāḷi ‘one who can distinguish a good thing from a bad’; Mth. cinhār ‘recognition’, OAw. cinhārī f.
4835 *cihnadhāra— ‘bearing a mark’. [Cf. cihnadhārin- ‘making a sign’, °dhara— ‘bearing a sign’ lex.: cihna—, dhā́ra1] N. cināru ‘an acquaintance’, °ri ‘acquainted’; Or. cihnār ‘well known’; Bhoj. cinhārū ‘an acquaintance’, H. cinhār m.
4838 *cītkarõ;ti ‘cries out’. [Cf. cītkr̥ta— n. ‘noise’ Kād., °ti— f. ‘rattling’ Bālar.] Mth. cikarab ‘to cry, shout, low’.
4840 *cīdāvana— ‘pine forest’. [cīḍā—, vána1] WPah. bhiḍ. ċiuwon n. ‘pine forest’.
4844 *cīrayati ‘splits’, cīrita— in cmpds. ‘ragged’ lex. [cı̄́ra—] Woṭ. ċir— ‘to split’ (Buddruss Woṭ 95 ← Psht. ċīrƏl ← Ind. EVP 18); Sh. (Lor.) ċiroiki ‘to split (wood) lengthwise’ (← a dialect which has ċ < č); S. cīraṇu ‘to split, slit, saw’; L. cīraṇ ‘to split’; P. cīrnā ‘to rend, split, saw’ (whence intr. cirnā ‘to be rent, &c.’); Ku. cirīṇo ‘to be sawn’; N. cirnu ‘to split’, B. cirā, Or. ciribā; Mth. cīrab ‘to split, shave’; H. cīrnā ‘to split, tear’, intr. cirnā; G. cīrvũ ‘to slit, crack, cut’; M. cirṇẽ ‘to split, be split’; Si. iranavā ‘to split, tear, saw’. Addenda: *cīrayati: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ċirnõ; ‘to tear, cleave’; J. cirṇu ‘to split’, Garh. cīrnu; — Md. iranī ‘tears’ (or < *śīrayati).
4847 *cīssa— ‘sharp pain’. P. cīs f. ‘sudden pain’; Ku. cīs ‘keen pain, scorching’; N. ciso ‘cold’; H. cīs f. ‘sudden pain’; G. cīs f. ‘scream’.
4848 *cukk— ‘fall short of, stop’. [< Pk. cukka— ‘fallen, mis- taken, forgotten’ replacing cyutá— ‘fallen, missing one's aim’. — √cyu] Pk. cukkaï ‘falls, is forgotten, is destroyed, makes a mistake, errs’, tr. ‘to make fall, break’; Sh. koh. čŭkyōnu̯ intr. ‘to stop’, čokŭ ‘stopped, at a standstill’; S. cukaṇu ‘to be finished, err’; L. cukkaṇ ‘to be finished, be forgotten, err, miss’, awāṇ. cukkā ‘settled’; P. cukkṇā ‘to be finished, miss, err, forget’, tr. ‘to finish, under- take’; Ku. cukṇo ‘to fall short of, miss, fail’; N. cuknu ‘to be in fault, miss, overlook’; B. cukā ‘to make a mis- take, be finished, be settled’, tr. ‘to finish, settle’; Or. cukibā ‘to make a mistake’; Mth. cukab ‘perform in- sufficiently, err’; Bhoj. cukal ‘to settle an account’, cūk ‘mistake’; H. cūknā, cuk° ‘to fall short of, fail, be finished’; Marw. cūkṇo ‘to be completed’, cūk f. ‘mis- take’; OG. cūkaï ‘misses’, G. cukvũ ‘to fail, miss, err’; M. ċukṇẽ ‘to blunder’; — caus. Pk. cukkavaï ‘causes to lose’; S. cukāiṇu ‘to make err, finish’; L. cukāvaṇ ‘to finish with, settle’, P. cukāuṇā, N. cukāunu; B. cukāna ‘to get rid of, finish, settle’; Or. cukāibā ‘to settle’, H. cukānā; G. cukā̆vvũ ‘to cause to lose one's aim, discharge, settle’; M. ċukā̆viṇẽ ‘to elude’. *cukka— ‘vulva’ see *cutta—. Addenda: *cukk—: S.kcch. cukāṇū ‘to pay, remit’, cūke vanṇū ‘to miss (a target)’, WPah.poet. ċukṇo ‘to err, forget, be finished’, J. cukṇu.
4851 *cuga— ‘pecking’. [√*cug] L. cū̃ m. ‘a picking’.
4852 *cugyati ‘pecks’. [√*cug] S. cuǥaṇu ‘to peck up with the beak’; L. cuggaṇ ‘to peck, choose, graze’, awāṇ. cugguṇ ‘to eat’; P. cugṇā ‘to peck, plait’, cugāuṇā ‘to feed (birds or cattle)’, bhaṭ. cugṇā intr. ‘to graze’; WPah. cam. cugṇā ‘to graze, choose’; H. cugnā ‘to peck, pick up, feed’; Marw. cugṇo ‘to peck, eat’; G. cugvũ ‘to peck and eat (of birds)’. *cuṅga— ‘octroi duty’ see śulká—.
4853 *cuṅgati ‘pecks’. [√*cug] WPah. roh. ċuṅgṇõ; ‘to pick up, take up’, jaun. cū̃gṇõmacr; ‘to pick, glean, lift, carry’; N. cũgnu ‘to peck’, H. cū̃gnā; — S. cū̃gaṇu ‘to eat slowly’ (< ‘*to peck at ’?), cū̃gī f. ‘a few grains’; L. cuṅg f. ‘handful’; P. cuṅg f. ‘small portion of anything’; M. ċũg f. ‘swarm, flock’? *cuṅgha— ‘beard’ see *juṅgha—. cuci— see *cuccu—. cucundarī— see chucchundari—. cucūka— see *cuccu—. Addenda: *cuṅgati: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ċuṅgṇõ; ‘to lift up, carry’, J. cuṅgṇu.
4854 *cucca— 1 ‘defective, blear—eyed’. 2. *cuñca— 1. [Cf. culla1 and rhyming *bucca1] 1. L. (Ju.) cucā ‘purblind, suffering from photo- phobia’, awāṇ. cuccā ‘short—sighted’; P. cuccā ‘blear- eyed, sore (of eyes)’, cuccuṛ ‘heavy and strong, coarse’. 2. G. cũcḷũ ‘having eyes half—closed’. *cucca— 2 ‘beak’ see cañcu—. *cucci— ‘nipple’ see next.
4855 *cuccu— ‘female breast, nipple’. 2. *cucci—. [Onom. cf. cūcuka— n. ‘nipple’ R., cuc°, cucūka— n. lex. (Pa. cūcuka— n., Pk. cūa— n.), cuci— f. W., and further kuca—] 1. Pk. cucuya—, cuccuya— n. ‘nipple’; Ash. ċuċū́ ‘female breast’, Wg. čüčǘ, Kt. čuk, Pr. žüžū́, Dm. čúču; Paš. lauṛ. ar. čučū́ ‘teat, udder’, chil. ċuċū ‘female breast’, Shum. Woṭ. Gaw. ċuċū́, Kal. rumb. čū́ču; Sv. čučuwa ‘teat’. 2. Gy. eur. čučí f. (eng. tuči) ‘breast, nipple’, pal. čič; Bshk. čič ‘female breast’, Tor. čiš, čī, Phal. čičī, Sh. gil. čúči f., pales. číče; P. cūcī f. ‘female breast (when large)’; WPah. bhad. bhal. ċiċċu n. ‘nipple, teat (human or animal)’; Ku. cūco ‘udder’, gng. ċuċ ‘female breast’; N. cuci ‘nipple’ (cf. cucarnu, cucornu ‘to suck’); B. cuci, cũci ‘female breast’; Or. cucī ‘nipple’; H. cūcī f. ‘breast, nipple’, cuccaṛ m. ‘large breast or udder’; G. cũcī f. ‘nipple’.
4858 *cuḍ— ‘wear away’. [Cf. cúṇḍati?] Pk. cuḍaṇa— n. ‘growing old, rotting’; S. cuṛaṇu intr. ‘to wear, be in wear’, coṛaṇu ‘to bring into wear’. *cuḍa—, *cuḍḍa— ‘vulva’ see *cutta—. cúṇṭati ‘cuts off’ see cuṭáti. cuṇṭī— see curī—. cuṇṭháyati see cuṭáti.
4860 *cutta—, *cūtta— ‘anus, vulva’. 2. *cuḍḍa—. 3. *cuḍa—. 4. *cukka— (cf. *cikk—). [cū̆ta— m., °ti— f. ‘anus’, cyuti- f. ‘vulva’ lex. Cf. Pers. cul ‘penis’ (if ← EIr., may be < *cuta—), but more prob. with EWA i 395 ← Drav. cf. Tam. cūttu, cūṟu ‘anus’ DED 2249] 1. K. ċoth, dat. °ti f. ‘anus, vulva’; S. cuti f., cutaṛu m. ‘anus, rump’, cūti f. ‘vulva’; L. (Ju.) cut f. ‘anus, bottom’, cuttaṛ m., cutṛī f. ‘buttock’, mult. cutt m. ‘bottom (of a lamp)’, awāṇ. cut ‘vulva’; P. cutt, cūt f. ‘vulva’, cuttaṛ m. ‘rump’, cittaṛ m. ‘buttocks’; Ku. cūt ‘vulva’, cūtaṛ ‘haunch, thigh, hip’; N. cutaṛ ‘buttocks’; B. cut ‘anus, vulva’, cutaṛ ‘anus, buttocks’; Or. (Sam- bhalpur) cutal ‘anus, buttocks’; H. cūt f. ‘vulva’, cūtaṛ m. ‘rump’; G. cūt f. ‘vulva’, M. ċūt f., ċutā̆ḍ m. 2. S. cuḍ̱u m. ‘vulva’, L. cuḍḍ m., P. cuḍḍ f. 3. P. H. cuṛ f. ‘vulva’. 4. Kho. (Lor.) ċuk ‘vulva’? CUD ‘impel’. [For list of poss. enlargements of IE. *sqeu— see √sku] cōdá—, cōdanā́—, cōdáyati, cōdya—; — *cōddati. Addenda: *cutta—: WPah.kṭg. ċuttƏr m. ‘thigh, buttocks’.
4861 *cunda— 1 ‘wood or ivory work’. [Cf. kunda1] Pa. cunda— m. ‘ivory worker’; Or. cundibā ‘to do woodwork’. *cundakāra—. *cunda— 2 ‘protuberance’ see cū́ḍa1.
4862 *cundakāra— m. ‘turner’. [Cf. kundakara—. — *cunda—1, kāra1] Pa. cundakāra— m.; Ku. cunāro ‘maker of wooden vessels’, N. cunāro, can°, cũdāro, cãd°.
4863 *cupp— ‘strike’. 2. *cōpp—. 3. *cump—. [For list of poss. enlargements of IE. *sqeu— see √sku] 1. Wg. (Lumsden) "chúp" ‘wound’, "chúba" ‘wounded, cut’; N. cup(p)i ‘dagger’; B. cupāna ‘to cut to pieces’; G. cupvũ ‘to be thrust’. 2. Ku. copṇo ‘to dip’; N. copnu ‘to pierce, sink in’, copalnu ‘to dive into, penetrate’; A. sop ‘blow’; B. cop ‘blow’, copsā ‘letting water sink in’; G. copvũ ‘to pierce’; M. ċopṇẽ ‘to beat a floor, fall in and look flat.’ 3. NiDoc. cuṁpita ‘cut, chopped’.
4864 *cuppa— 1 ‘silent’. [Onom.? — Hardly with LM 330 < *cr̥pya—, see *capp—] S. cupu, cipu f. ‘silence’, L. cup f., P. cupp f.; Ku. cup adj.; N. cup adj. and sb.; A. sup adj., B. Or. cup, Mth. cup, cuppe adv.; H. cup f.; G. cūp adj., M. ċuppa; - Paš. čup ‘silent’, čup— ‘to be silent’ ← Ind. or Kabuli Pers. IIFL iii 3, 46. — K. ċhŏpa f. Addenda: *cuppa—1: WPah.kṭg. ċup f. (obl. —a) ‘silence’, ċuppɔ ‘silent’; — A. copiba (phonet. s—) ‘to lie in wait’ AFD 331.
4865 *cuppa— 2, *cōppa— ‘oily’. [Cf. *tuppa—] Pk. cuppa— ‘oily’, coppaḍa— m. ‘ghee, oil’, coppaḍaï ‘makes greasy’, covvaḍ° (= *cobb—?), copphucca— ‘greasy’; L. cōpaṛaṇ ‘to smear with oil or butter’, copṛī ‘greasy’; P. copaṛ m. ‘grease’, cupṛāuṇā ‘to smear with oil’; Ku. copaṛ ‘oil, ghee’, cupṛo ‘oily’, gng. ċupaṛ ‘smooth’; N. tel—cupar ‘anointing with oil’, cupārnu ‘to smear with oil’; A. supi ‘oil vessel’; H. cūpaṛ, copaṛ m. ‘oil, grease, butter’, cupaṛnā, cupar° ‘to smear with oil’; G. copṛũ ‘greasy’, copaṛvũ ‘to besmear’; M. copaḍ ‘greasy’, n. ‘ghee, butter, oil’. cubuka— see cibuka—. Addenda: *cuppa—2: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ċoppƏṛ m. ‘butter’, J. cupar m.; A. spel. cupi ‘small oil vessel’.
4866 *cubb— ‘pierce’. 2. *cōbb—. 3. *cōmb—. [For list of poss. enlargements of IE. *sqeu— see √sku] 1. A. subāiba ‘to immerse’; B. cubā ‘to plunge into’; Or. cublibā ‘to spoil water by dipping hand into pot’; H. cubuknā ‘to pierce’; M. ċubakṇẽ ‘to pierce, puncture’. 2. Ku. cobṇo ‘to dip’; N. cobnu ‘to pierce, sink in’, cobalnu ‘to immerse’; B. cobal ‘sudden bite’, cobāhā ‘a kind of waterfowl’; G. cobvũ ‘to brand’, cobɔ m. ‘puncture, drumstick’. — Si. hobanavā, ob° ‘to press, imprint’ bec. of loss of h— rather < sumbhati. 3. M. ċõ;bṇẽ ‘to stuff in’; — ċomaṇ n. ‘penis’? *CUBH ‘pierce’. [For list of poss. enlargements of IE. *sqeu— see √sku] *cubhyatē, *cumbhati.
4867 *cubhyatē ‘is pierced’. [√*cubh] S. cubhaṇu ‘to pierce, prick’; L. (Ju.) cubhaṇ ‘to be pricked, prick’, awāṇ. cubbhuṇ ‘to prick’; P. cubhṇā ‘to be pierced’, tr. cubhāuṇā, cubbhī f. ‘immersion’; Ku. cubhṇo ‘to be pricked’; OAw. cūbhaï ‘is pricked’; H. cū̆bhnā ‘to be pierced’; Marw. cūbhī f. ‘diving’; — ext. with —l—: M. ċubhaḷyā ‘having promiscuous sexual intercourse’. — Tr. forms with ō: P. cobhṇā ‘to pierce’; N. cobhnu ‘to pierce, sink in’, cobhalnu ‘to immerse’; H. cobhā m. ‘prick’. — X *gōḍḍ—: H. gubhānā ‘to pierce’. — Si. hobanavā, ob° ‘to imprint by pressure’ bec. of loss of h— rather < sumbhati. *cump— ‘strike’ see *cupp—. CUMB ‘kiss’. [Onom. origin (EWA 395) is supported by meaning ‘suck, drink’ in K. A. M. and reduplica- tion in Or.] cumba—, cúmbati, cumbana—. Addenda: *cubhyatē: WPah.J. cubhṇu ‘to pierce’.
4869 *cumbaṭa— ‘coil, round pad’. Pa. cumbaṭa— n. ‘coil, pad of cloth, pillow’, °aka— n. ‘pillow’, mālā—cumbaṭa—, °aka— n. ‘wreath’; H. cũbal, cummal m., cumlī f. ‘pad on head on which to carry burdens’, M. ċũbaḷ, °bhaḷ n.; Si. sum̆buḷuva ‘roll of cloth, esp. pad placed under a jar carried on the head, crown, garland, pillow’. Addenda: *cumbaṭa— ‘pad’. [~ Drav. DED 2204]
4872 *cumbhati ‘pierces’. [√*cubh] Paš. lauṛ. čumb— ‘to sew’, ar. čūm ‘hole’; Shum. ċūm ‘hole’; K. ċŏmbun ‘to pierce, bore’; L. cumbhāvaṇ ‘to irritate the eyes so as to bring tears’; A. sumāiba ‘to thrust into, cause to enter’.
4874 *cul— ‘fidget, itch’. 2. *cil—. 3. *cōl— tr. 1. Pk. culuculaï ‘throbs, jumps’; Dm. čūl— ‘to creep’, čulāy— tr. ‘to move (e.g. a paw)’; Phal. čul— intr. ‘to move’; S. curaṇu intr. ‘to shake’, cur—phuri f. ‘restless- ness’; P. culculāunā ‘to fidget’; B. culculiyā ‘restless’; H. cul f. ‘itching, lust’, culculānā ‘to itch’; G. caḷ f. ‘itching’; M. ċuḷċuḷ f., °ḷā m. ‘impatience, fidgeting, itching’, ċuḷbuḷṇẽ ‘to fidget (of children)’. 2. K. ċĕl m. ‘rubbing, anger’; N. cilnu ‘to sting (of plants and animals)’, cilāunu, cilcilāunu ‘to itch,’ cilbile ‘talkative (of children)’. 3. L. colaṇ tr. ‘to agitate, move’.
4877 *culla— 2 ‘small’. [Cf. cūḍa3 ‘small’ BHS ii 232 (Pa. cūḷa—), cúṇḍati, cúṇṭati, cuṭṭáyati ‘becomes small’ Dhātup. Poss. collides with MIA. chulla— < kṣulla- (e.g. in Si.), but derivation of cūḍa3 < kṣudrá— (EWA i 394) phonet. impossible. PMWS 152 ← Mu. (see *chōṭṭa—), but H. Smith JA 1950, 196 derives from onom. *cu—cu. Belongs with culla1 to a ‘defective’ word—group (see, e.g., *bukka4) and rhymes with *bulla— < bulvá—, *kulla— < kulvá—, *bhulla—, *lulla—] Pa. Pk. culla— ‘small’; — Gy. eur. čulo ‘a little’; Si. sulu ‘small’, hul—an̆gilla ‘little finger’: less likely < kṣulla—. — MIA. cmpd. in Pk. culla—tāya— (< tātá—), M. ċultā m. ‘father's brother’. Addenda: *culla— 2 ‘small’. [Cf. also †;*cuṭṭa—]
4878 *culliyasi— ‘kitchen—knife’. [cullī—, así—] N. culesi ‘knife with which to prepare vegetables for cooking’?
4880 *cullīkarttāra— ‘kitchen knife’. [cullī—, *karttāra—] G. culetrɔ m. ‘knife for cutting up vegetables’.
4881 *cullīdhāna— ‘fire—place’. [cullī—, dhā́na—] Ku. culyāṇ m. ‘hearth, kitchen’; M. ċulāṇ n. ‘fire- place’, Ko. culāṇẽ n. ‘small do.’.
4882 *cullīdhāra— m. ‘having a stove’. [cullī—, dhāra1] P. culihār m.f. ‘baker’. cūcuka— see *cuccu—.
4888 *cūra— ‘powder’. 2. *cūrayati ‘powders’. 3. *cūraṇa—. [Abstracted from cūrṇa—, cf. pūra1, pūráyati, pū́raṇa- ~ pūrṇá—] 1. Pk. cūra— m. ‘powder’, K. ċṳ̄r m.; S. cūru ‘pul- verized’, cūro m. ‘powder’, °rī f. ‘bread crumbled in ghee and sugar’; L. cūrī f. ‘thick wheaten cakes broken up with butter and sugar’, awāṇ. cūrā ‘powder’; P. cūr m. ‘powder’, cūrā m. ‘fragments’; Ku. curo ‘powder’; N. cur ‘filings’, cur—cār ‘crumbs’; A. sūr ‘smashed, destroyed’; B. cur ‘coarsely ground powder’; Or. cura ‘powder’, OAw cūra; H. cūr m. ‘powder’, cūrā m. ‘powder, sawdust, bruised grain’; G. cūr, cūrɔ m., °rī f. ‘fragments, ruins’; M. ċūr, ċurā m. ‘fragments’, ċurī f. ‘powder’. 2. Pk. cūrēi ‘pulverizes’; P. cūrṇā ‘to break into small pieces’; Or. cūribā ‘to pulverize’, Mth. pp. cūral, OAw. cūraï, H. cūrnā, OG. pass. cūrīi, G. curvũ; M. ċurṇẽ ‘to crumble, crush, knead’. 3. S. cūraṇu m. ‘powdered medicine’, L. cūraṇ m.; G. cūraṇ n. ‘powder’. *cūraṇa—, *cūrayati ‘powders’ see prec. Addenda: *cūra—: S.kcch. cūro m. ‘crumbs’; WPah.kṭg. ċurɔ m. ‘fragment, piece, powder’, ċvri f. ‘particle’.
4891 *cūrṇakarman— ‘lime work’. [cūrṇa—, kárman1] Si. suṇuvam ‘plaster work’.
4893 *cūrṇadhāka— ‘lime box’. [cūrṇa—, dhāká—] Bi. Mth. cunhā.
4895 *cūrṇavarta— ‘lime box’. [cūrṇa—, *varta2] Ku. cunauti ‘box for lime eaten with betel’, N. cunauṭi, B. cunāti, cunati, cunaṭi, Bi. cunauṭī, H. cunauṭā m., °ṭī f. cūrṇita— see *cūrṇayati.
4899 *cūha— ‘rat, mouse’. S. cūho m. ‘rat’; L. cūhā m. ‘rat’, cūhī f. ‘mouse’; P. cūhā m., °hī f. ‘rat, mouse’; N. cuhā ‘mouse’; B. cuyā ‘rat, mouse’; Or. cūā ‘mouse’; H. cūhā, cūā m., cūhī, °hiyā f. ‘rat, mouse’, G. cuvɔ m.; M. ċuhā, ċuvā m. ‘sharp—witted person’.
4900 *cūhaḍa— ‘a partic. low caste’. P. cūhṛā m. ‘a caste of sweepers’; H. cūhāṛ, cūhṛā m. ‘a scavenger caste’. *cūhaḍakarman—.
4901 *cūhaḍakarman— ‘action of a Cūhṛā’. [*cūhaḍa—, kárman1] P. cuṛhamm m. ‘acting like a sweeper, shameful and foolish conduct’. CR̥T ‘fix’: see *uccr̥tati, saṁcŕ̥t—; √caṭ. *cēṅga— ‘young bird’ see *ciṅga—.
4903 *cēṭarūpa— ‘slave’. [cēṭa—, rūpá—] H. cerūā m. ‘slave’ (< *cerarūā); M. ceḍrū̃ n. ‘little child’; Ko. ceḍrū̃ n. ‘maidservant’, cerḍũ n. ‘boy’; N. ciruwādār ‘groom’ (+suffix —dār?).
4904 *cēṭṭa— ‘defective’. [Perh. like cēṭa— ← Mu., cf. Sant. ceṇḍa ‘young’, ceṭra ‘dwarfish’ PMWS 99] Wg. čeṭe ‘stupid’, Pr. čiṭë, Paš. čaṭā. *cēḍ— ‘make angry’ see *ciḍ—.
4911 *cēlla— ‘boy’. [LM 331 ← Drav. and separate from cēṭa—: nevertheless ultimately conn. with this and *cēṭṭa—. — Cf. cēluka— m. ‘Buddhist novice’ lex.] Pa. cellaka— m. ‘a class of novice (distinct from cēṭaka—)’; Pk. cella—, °aya—, cilla— m. ‘boy’; Gy. eur. romani—čel m. ‘the Gypsies’; S. celo m. ‘disciple’, L. celṛī f. ‘female disciple’, P. celā m., °lī f.; Ku. celo ‘son, disciple’; N. celo ‘pupil, apprentice’, B. Or. Mth. celā, H. celā m. (→ K. cela m.), °lī f.; G. celɔ m., °lī f. ‘pupil’, celkɔ m. ‘boy’, °kī f. ‘girl’ (as terms of endearment); M. celā m., °lī f. ‘disciple’, cilı̄̃—pilı̄̃ n. pl. ‘brats, children’; Ko. celli, calli f. ‘girl, daughter’. CĒṢṬ ‘be active’: cḗṣṭati, cēṣṭā—. Addenda: *cēlla— [Cf. Ir. in Shgh. ċƏl—dūr ‘younger’] Ku. celo m. ‘boy’, celī f. ‘girl’, Brj. celo m. ‘boy’, celī f. ‘girl’.
4914 *caitiya—, caitya— ‘relating to a funeral pyre’, m.n. ‘funeral monument, sacred tree’ ĀśvGr̥. [citā—] Pa. cētiya— n. ‘sepulchral monument’, Pk. cēia— m.n.; OG. ceīya, ceī m. ‘shrine’; OSi. (Brāhmī inscr.) ceta, ceya, Si. sã̤ya ‘heap of wood, funeral pyre’ H. Smith JA 1950, 207. caitya— see prec.
4917 *cōkka— (with ext. —ḍa—, —ra—, —la—) ‘chaff, bran’. P. cokar f. ‘bran’; Ku. cokaṛ ‘bran, husk, chaff’; N. cokar ‘bran’, cokrā ‘dregs (e.g. of rice—spirit)’; B. cokaṛ, cokal ‘bran’, coklā ‘rind, bran’; Bi. cokar, cõ;k°, cokrā, cõ;k° ‘bran, husks’; H. cokaṛ, cokar, cõ;k° m. ‘bran’.
4919 *cōgana— ‘pecking’. [√*cug] S. cūṇo m. ‘grain given to birds to peck’; L. cōṇ f. ‘pick, choice’; P. coṇ f. ‘refuse of cotton’, coṇī f. ‘pick- ing cotton’; G. cuṇi f. ‘pecking (of birds)’.
4920 *cōgya— ‘to be pecked up.’ [√*cug] S. coǥu, °ǥo m. ‘food for birds’; L. coggā m., (Ju.) coǥ f., coǥā m. ‘food for birds, food brought up from the crop’; P. coggā m. ‘food for birds.’
4921 *cōṅga— ‘section of bamboo’? Bshk. čõdotdot;k ‘small wooden vessel’; N. cũgā ‘a bamboo vessel for holding liquids’; A. soṅgā, suṅā ‘joint of bamboo, bamboo tube’; B. coṅg ‘pipe, tube’, coṅgā ‘blowpipe for blowing fire’, cuṅgī ‘bamboo tube used as vessel’; Or. coṅgā, cuṅgā, °gī ‘pipe, tube, cup’; Bi. Mth. cõ;gā, °gī ‘pipe of smith's bellows’; H. cõ;gā m. ‘joint of bamboo, bamboo tube’, °gī f. ‘pipe, tube’; — M. ċõ;gā m. ‘stick used as a measure of two handbreadths’? *cōñca— ‘beak’ see cañcu—. *cōṭa— ‘beak’ see cōṇṭa—. cōṭáyati see cuṭáti. *cōṭṭ— ‘cut, strike’ see cuṭáti. *cōṭṭa— 1 ‘protuberance’ see cū́ḍa1.
4922 *cōṭṭa— 2 ‘thief’. [PMWS 135 with cōrá1 ← Drav. Tam. coṭṭu—, cuṟṟu— ‘to steal’] L. P. coṭā m. ‘thief’; WPah. bhal. ċɔṭṭ m. ‘rogue’, n. ‘despicable rogue’; N. coṭṭo ‘thief’, Or. coṭhā; Aw. lakh. coṭā ‘petty thief’, H. coṭṭā m.; G. coṭṭũ ‘thievish’. Addenda: *cōṭṭa—2: WPah.poet. ċɔṭue f. ‘vagabond girl, faithless girl’; Brj. coṭṭo m. ‘thief’. *cōṭṭa— 1 see cū́ḍa1 Add2.
4924 *cōḍa— 2, cōla2 m. ‘name of a people on the Coromandel coast’ MBh. Aś. coḍā m. pl. ‘name of a people’; Si. heḷa ‘Ceylon’, eḷuva ‘the ancient Sinhalese language’ H. Smith JA 1950, 212 < *coḷiya— (EGS 31 < siṁhala—). cōḍa— 3 ‘protuberance’ see cū́ḍa1.
4925 *cōṇṭa— ‘beak’. 2. cōṭa—. 3. *ṭōñca—. 4. *ṭōcca—. [For list of similar forms see tuṇḍa— and cañcu—] 1. K. cõ̂ṭu m. ‘chin’ (← Ind.); S. cõ;ṭa f. ‘beak’ (← Centre?), B. cõ;ṭ; Si. soṭa, ho° ‘beak, snout, mouth’ (LM 332, EGS 195 < cañcu—). 2. Paš. čōṛı̄́ ‘beak’. 3. M. ṭõ;ċ, ṭoċ f. 4. G. ṭoci f. *cōṇḍa— ‘protuberance’ see cū́ḍa1. *cōtth— ‘tear’ see cuṭáti.
4929 *cōddati ‘copulates’. [Perh. same as cṓdati ‘incites’ RV. with expressive doubling. — √cud] L. awāṇ. coduṇ ‘to copulate’, S. codaṇu (← P., &c.), P. codṇā, Ku. codṇo, B. codā (of the man), codāna (of the woman), Or. codibā, Mth. codab, H. codnā, G. codvũ; M. ċodṇẽ ‘to copulate’, ċõ;dṇẽ ‘to plug in, squeeze’. Addenda: *cōddati: K. —cod ‘copulating’ (← Ind. with c) in bīṭh—cod (with *bēṭta—, see *biḍḍa—); WPah.kṭg. ċodṇõ; ‘to copulate’.
4944 *cyutadhāna— ‘receptacle for what has fallen’. [cyutá—, dhā́na—] A. suwāni ‘place where leavings &c. are thrown’.
4946 *cyutita— ‘trickled’. [√cyut] L. cūā m. ‘irrigation’.
4949 *cyōtana— ‘trickling’. [√cyut] B. conā ‘urine (esp. of cattle)’; Bi. conā ‘exit for juice in sugar—mill’.
4950 *cyōtita— ‘caused to trickle out’. [√cyut] S. coī f. ‘produce of dairy’.
4951 *chaka— ‘dung’. [~ śáka— n. AV. — śákr̥t—] Pk. chaga— n. ‘dung’. *chakana—, *chakara—.
4952 *chakana— n. ‘dung’, chagaṇa— m. (n. lex.) ‘dried cowdung’ Pañcad. [~ *śakana—. — *chaka—] Pa. chakana—, °kaṇa— n. ‘animal dung’; Pk. chagaṇa- n., °ṇiyā— f. ‘cowdung’; S. cheṇu, °ṇo m. ‘cow or buffalo dung’; — G. chāṇ n. ‘cow or buffalo dung’, chāṇũ n. ‘cowdung cake’ or < *chākana—; M. śeṇ n. ‘cowdung’ or < śakana—. *chākana—; *chakanapānīya—, *chakanākara—.
4953 *chakanapānīya— ‘cowdung and water’. [*chakana—, pānīya—] M. śeṇvaṇī n. ‘thin cowdung wash’ or < *śakana- pānīya—.
4954 *chakanākara— ‘heap of dung’. [*chakana—, ākara—] M. śeṇārā m. ‘pile of cowdung lumps plastered over with cowdung and earth’ or < *śakanākara—.
4955 *chakara— ‘dung’. [~ *śakara—2. — *chaka—] Ku. chero ‘watery stool’; N. cher ‘diarrhoea’, chernu ‘to have diarrhoea’; A. serāiba ‘bowels to be loose’, serni ‘looseness of bowels’; Or. cherā ‘watery stools’, cheribā ‘to void such’; H. chernā ‘to have bad digestion’; G. cher f. ‘watery stools, bird dung’, chervũ ‘to have diarrhoea’; — M. śer f. ‘bird dung’, śerṇẽ ‘to void dung (of birds)’ or < *śakara2. *chākara—.
4956 *chakka— 1 ‘astonished, excited’. S. chakaṇu ‘to be infatuated’, caus. chakāiṇu; N. chakka ‘amazement’, chakinu ‘to be deceived’, caus. chakāunu; H. chāknā ‘to be intoxicated’, chaknā ‘to be astonished’; G. chāk f. ‘intoxication’, chākvũ ‘to be mad’, chākaṭ ‘intoxicated’. Addenda: *chakka—1: S.kcch. chakk ‘astonished’.
4957 *chakka— 2 ‘mouthful’. S. chakāiṇu ‘to cause to eat’; P. chakk f. ‘present to bards’, chakṇā ‘to eat’; N. chāk ‘anything sufficient for one time, a meal’, chāknu ‘to drink by letting water drop into mouth’; H. chāk m. ‘ready prepared food carried by labourers’; M. sāk, °ke, °kī f. ‘palm of hand hollowed to hold water or grain &c.’ *chakkaṭa— ‘cart’ see śákaṭa—. Addenda: *chakka—2: WPah.kṭg. ċhā́k m. ‘cooked food given to servants and labourers’; J. chākkā ‘a day's labour paid for with two seers of grain and a meal’.
4959 *chagaṭa— ‘goat’. [chaga—] K. kash. ċhoṛŭ , pl. ċhēṛi m. ‘he—goat’, ḍoḍ. chēṛo, WPah. bhad. ċhēṛō; Or. cheṛi ‘goat’. chagaṇa— see *chakana—.
4960 *chagadr̥ti— ‘goatskin’. [chaga—, dŕ̥ti—] WPah. jaun. chōṛī f. ‘goatskin’ (whence chōṛō ‘hide of cow or buffalo’): very doubtful.
4961 *chagana— ‘goat’ (or *chāgana—?). [→ Mj. čan ‘new- born kid’ IIFL ii 202. — chaga—] Ash. čäṇä́, čä̃ṛä ‘kid’, Wg. čẽ, čõdotdot;, Kt. čū̃, Kho. čhani (< *chāganikā— BelvalkarVol 89); Paš. lauṛ. čhanı̄́k, weg. čaṅaṛä́ ‘male kid’. *chagara— ‘goat’ see chagalá—. Addenda: *chagana—: line 3 delete Kt. čū̃ GM 22.6.71.
4962 *chagarūpa— ‘goat’. [chaga—, rūpá—] Bi. cheruā ‘goat (in general)’.
4964 *chajja— ‘basket’. Pk. chajjiā— f. ‘basket or pot for flowers’; S. chaj̄u m. ‘winnowing fan’; L. chajj, (Ju.) chaj̄ m. ‘winnowing basket’ (whence chājī m. ‘winnower’), P. chajj m., WPah. bhal. chaj̈j̈ n.; H. chāj m. ‘flat winnowing basket’.
4965 *chaṭ— ‘scatter, sift’. 2. *chāṭ— [~ *chaṭṭ—, *chaṇṭ—, *chiṭ—, *chiṭṭ—, *chitr—; — *chaṭṭa—1, *chīṭṭā—, *jhiṭṭa2] 1. Pk. chaḍā— f. ‘drop, lightning’ (semant. cf. Ku. chiṭo < *chiṭṭ—); S. chaṛhaṇu ‘to husk rice in a mortar’, P. chaṛnā; WPah. pāḍ. ċhaṛaṇ ‘to sow’, cur. chaṛnā ‘to place, put’; Ku. chaṛṇo ‘to husk out’; N. charnu ‘to scatter, dust, sow’, charkanu ‘to sprinkle’; B. chaṛāna ‘to scatter’; H. chaṛnā ‘to sift’; G. chaṛvũ ‘to beat, husk rice’, chaṛɔ m. ‘a sprinkling’, chaṛakvũ ‘to sprinkle’; M. saḍṇẽ ‘to pound and husk rice’, saḍā m. ‘sprinkling of thin cowdung wash’, saḍakṇẽ ‘to pelt, agitate violently, sift’. 2. K. ċhārun ‘to scatter, let go, rummage, seek for’; S. chāṛhu m. ‘rice—pounder’; Ku. bau—chāṛ ‘wind- driven drops of rain’. *ācchaṭ—, *ucchaṭ—, *pracchaṭ—, *vicchaṭ—. Addenda: *chaṭ—: WPah.kṭg. ċhɔ́ṛnõ; ‘to pound (corn or rice)’, J. chaṛnu.
4966 *chaṭa— ‘stick, cane’. 2. *chaṭṭa— 2. 3. *chiṭṭa—. 1. S. chaṛaha f. ‘thin pole’, °hī ‘walking-stick’; L. chaṛī f. ‘rod, switch’ (→ K. chīrü f. ‘switch’); P. chaṛ f. ‘bamboo spear—shaft’, °ṛī f. ‘stick, cane’, Ku. chaṛ ‘shoot’, °ṛī ‘stick’; A. sari ‘bamboo punting pole’; B. chaṛ ‘spear- shaft’, °ṛī ‘switch, cane’; Or. chaṛa ‘spear—shaft’, °ṛī ‘switch, cane’; H. chaṛī f. ‘stick, rod, whip’ (→ Bi. chaṛī ‘thin stick’, N. chaṛi); G. chaṛ m. ‘reed, bamboo, spear- shaft’, °ṛī f. ‘switch, cane’; M. saḍ m. ‘piece of stubble, stump of sugarcane’, °ḍī f. ‘splinter, piece of stubble’. 2. P. chaṭī f. ‘stick’; B. chāṭ ‘thin stick or cane’; Or. chāṭa ‘switch’; M. sāṭ m. ‘framework of slit bamboos, lathes over rafters’ → G. sāṭɔ m. ‘framework of carriage’. 3. P. chiṭī f. ‘cane’; N. chiṭi ‘basket’; A. siṭikā ‘piece of split bamboo’; B. chiṭkani ‘thin bamboo rod’; Or. chiṭikiṇi ‘pellet—bow’; H. chiṭkanī f. ‘bolt’. Addenda: *chaṭa— [~ Drav. DED 1899 — see saṭṭa2] 1. S.kcch. chaṛī f. ‘a cane’; WPah.kṭg. ċhɔṛɔ (ɔ́?) m. ‘stick, rib’, ċhɔ́ṛi f. ‘stick, symbol like a stick carried before an idol in procession’; J. chaṛi f. ‘gold— or silver—mounted stick kept by a gatekeeper’; Garh. chaṛ ‘iron bar’. 3. *chiṭṭa—: WPah.kṭg. ċhíṭṭɔ ‘lopped bare branch’.
4968 *chaṭṭ— ‘scatter’. [See *chaṭ—] Pk. chaṭṭā— f. ‘drop (of water &c.)’; Ash. čaṭā́— ‘to throw’; Paš. čaṭ— ‘to scatter’; K. ċhaṭun ‘to shake up and down, winnow’; L. chaṭṭaṇ ‘to scatter (seed)’; P. chaṭṭṇā ‘to winnow’ (whence chaṭṇā ‘to be selected’); WPah. bhal. ċhaṭṭnū ‘to winnow grain (with winnowing basket)’; N. chaṛkanu ‘to run away’; A. sāṭ ‘splash’, sāṭi ‘a quantity of seed or liquid thrown broadcast’, saṭiyāiba ‘to scatter, sprinkle’; B. chāṭā ‘to plaster a mud wall thickly’, chaṭkāna ‘to scatter’; Or. chāṭa ‘slanting rain’; H. chaṭaknā ‘to be scattered’; G. chaṭakvũ ‘to slip off’; M. sāṭā m. ‘sprinkling of flour’, saṭakṇẽ ‘to slip off’. *apacchaṭṭ—, *pracchaṭṭ—. Addenda: *chaṭṭ—: WPah.kṭg. ċháṭṇõ; ‘to whitewash’.
4969 *chaṭṭa— 1 ‘sudden movement’. [Cf. *chaṭṭ—, *chaṭ—] K. ċhaṭh, dat. °ṭi f. ‘windstorm’; S. chaṭo m. ‘stroke of wind which causes madness’; N. chaṭāunu ‘to be mad’, chaṭāhā ‘mad’, chaṭṭai ‘quickly’, chaṭpaṭi ‘restless- ness’; A. sāṭā ‘dazzling light’; B. chaṭpaṭ ‘restlessness’; Or. chaṭapaṭa ‘restless’; H. chaṭpaṭī f. ‘restlessness’; G. chaṭel ‘running wild’. *chaṭṭa— 2 ‘thin stick’ see *chaṭa—.
4970 *chaṇṭ— ‘scatter’. [See *chaṭ—; — → Psht. ċandƏl ‘to clean by shaking’; but cf. Pahl. čandēnīdan, Bal. čandag ‘to stir, shake’, Orm. ċwan— ‘to shake out dust from clothes’ IIFL i 391] Pk. chaṁṭa— m. ‘drop’, chaṁṭaï ‘sprinkles’; K. ċhā̃ḍun ‘to rummage, seek for’; S. chaṇḍaṇu ‘to separate dirt and tares from grain by sifting, sprinkle, dust’, chaṇḍo m. ‘sprinkle’, chaṇḍko m. ‘dusting’; L. chaṇḍkaṇ ‘to shake (e.g. a carpet)’; P. chaṇḍṇā ‘to sift’; Bi. chā̃ṭab ‘to beat (clothes in washing), tread out grain’; Aw. lakh. chā̃ṭab ‘to wash’; H. chā̃ṭnā ‘to knock off, sift, select’ (→Ku. chā̃ṭṇo ‘to scatter, choose’, N. chā̃ṭnu ‘to select’); G. chā̃ṭvũ ‘to sprinkle’, chā̃ṭɔ m. ‘drop’. *pracchaṇṭ—. Addenda: *chaṇṭ—: S.kcch. chaṇḍhṇū ‘to sprinkle’.
4971 *chatti— ‘covering’. [√chad 1] S. chati, chiti f. ‘roof’, L. chatt f. (whence chattaṇ ‘to roof’), awāṇ. chat, P. chatt f. (→ H. chat f. → N. chat ‘ceiling’), WPah. chattī, N. chāt; B. chāt ‘roof, terrace’, Or. chāta; Bi. chāt ‘roof, ceiling’, (Gaya) chattā, Mth. chātā; H. chāt f. ‘roof’, G. chati f. (← S.?). *praticchattika—. Addenda: *chatti—: S.kcch. chatt f. ‘ceiling’.
4973 *chattra— 2 ‘young animal’. S. chaṭru m. ‘six year old camel’; L. chatar, (Ju.) chatr m.f. ‘camel up to four years old’, chattrā m. ‘ram’, °rī f. ‘ewe’; P. chattrā m. ‘ram’; — L. chatrarā m. ‘ram over one year old’; N. chatauro ‘large male lamb’, °rī ‘ewe lamb not yet parturient’.
4982 *chadyati ‘seems good’. [chadáyati RV. — √chad 2] Pk. chajjaï ‘shines’, chajjita— ‘shining, decorated’; Ku. chājṇo ‘to be fit, suit’, gng. ċhāj̈aṇa ‘decoration’; Mth. chājab ‘to be beautiful, bloom’; OAw. chājaï ‘befits, looks nice’; H. chā̆jnā ‘to befit’, G. chājvũ, dial. sājvũ ‘to suit’; M. sāj̈ṇẽ ‘to befit, be congenial to’ (LM 418 wrongly < sajjayati). — Anal. pp. *chagga— ~ pres. chajj— in Mth. chaguab ‘to be pleased’, OH. chaganaüṁ ‘to taste’? *chadyatē ‘is covered’ see *chādyatē.
4984 *chandati ‘binds’. 2. *chanda— 3 ‘bond’. 3. *chan- dana— ‘binding’. 1. N. chā̃dnu ‘to bind, hobble’; A. sāndiba ‘to tie’, B. chā̃dā; Or. chandibā ‘to join together’; H. chā̃dnā ‘to tie’. 2. N. B. chā̃d ‘tether’; Or. chandā ‘tie, bond’; Bi. chā̃d, chān ‘hobble for cattle’; Mth. chān ‘fetter, hobble’; H. chā̃d f. ‘tether’. 3. A. sāndni ‘loop for feet in climbing trees’; Or. chandaṇi ‘tether for cows’. *chandana— ‘binding’ see prec.
4990 *channa— 2 ‘jingle’. [Cf. chanacchaniti ‘sizzlingly’ Amar.] P. chanchan f. ‘jingling’, N. chanchan, °ni, chan- chanāunu ‘to jingle’; B. chanchan ‘sound of urinating’; Or. chanchan ‘unsteady’; H. chanchan m., chanchanānā ‘to jingle’.
4991 *channapradēśa— ‘hidden region’. [channa—1, pra- dēśa—] Si. sanpiyes ‘pudenda’ (ES 87) prob. Si. cmpd.
4992 *channi— ‘covering’. [channa—1, √chad 1] S. chana f. ‘shed’; P. chann f. ‘thatched roof or shed’; Or. chāni ‘cataract in eye’; Bi. chānh, °hī, °hiyā ‘thatch roof’, OAw. chāna; H. chān f. ‘thatch, hut’, chānī f. ‘woven cover of jar for sugarcane juice’. *channighara—.
4993 *channighara— ‘roofed house’. [*channi—, ghara—] Bhoj. chanihar ‘thatched house’.
4994 *chapp— ‘press, cover, hide’. 2. *chipp—. [Cf. *capp- and *cipp— and *chupp—; further chimpikā— f. ‘dyer’, Pk. chiṁpaya— m. ‘cloth—printer’] 1. K. ċhapun ‘to be hidden’; S. chapaṇu ‘to lie hid’; L. (Ju.) chapaṇ ‘to be hidden’, awāṇ. chappuṇ, P. chapṇā; Ku. chāp ‘seal, stamp’; N. chāpnu ‘to cover, impress, print’; A. sāpiba ‘to squeeze, impress, print’; B. chāpā ‘to be concealed, print’; Or. chāpibā ‘to imprint’; Mth. chapab ‘to hide oneself’, chapāeb ‘to cover’, chapā ‘impression, seal’; OAw. chapaï ‘is hidden’, chāpaï ‘impresses’; H. chāpnā ‘to print’ (→ P. chāpṇā, S. chāpaṇu), G. chāpvũ. 2. K. ċhiph, dat. °pi f. ‘hiding’; P. chipṇā ‘to be hid- den’; Ku. chipṇo ‘to vanish’, tr. ‘to hide’; N. chipnu ‘to print cloth’, chipāunu ‘to hide’; A. sipāiba ‘to pre- varicate’; OAw. chīpaï ‘is hidden’; H. chīpnā ‘to print cloth’, chipnā ‘to be hidden’, chipānā ‘to hide’; OMarw. chipāvaï ‘hides’; G. chīpvũ ‘to be quenched’, chīpɔ m. ‘calico printer’. Addenda: *chapp—. 1. WPah.poet. ċhapo m. ‘stamp, hallmark’; kṭg. ċhƏpauṇõ;, °p e uṇõ; ‘to conceal’, J. chapṇu intr. ‘to hide’.
4995 *CHAMBH ‘be firm’. [< IE. *sqembh— ~ skabhnā́ti ‘makes firm’ as in Av. fra—scimbana— ~ fra—skƏmba—] *chambhayati; *ācchabhita—, *ācchambha—, *ācchambhati.
4996 *chambhayati ‘makes firm’. [√*chambh] Pa. chambhēti ‘is stiff (esp. with fear)’; — N. chāmnu ‘to grope, touch, feel’ semant. very doubtful.
4997 *chamma— ‘jingle, sizzle, sparkle’. [Cf. chamaccha- mita— n. ‘crackling’ MārkP.] P. chamakṇā ‘to fry’; N. chamchamnu ‘to tinkle’, chamkanu ‘to sprinkle, flash, be insolent’; B. chamcham ‘startling’; H. chamchamānā ‘to tinkle’; G. chamcham ‘jingling, simmering’, chamakvũ ‘to jingle, walk with airs’; M. samsam f. ‘harassing care’.
5002 *chala— 2 ‘splash’. 2. *chalakka—. 3. *challa—. 4. *challakka—. 1. S. chara f. ‘flood’ (or < *kṣarā—); WPah. ċhalnu ‘to churn (e.g. whey)’; N. chalchali mutnu ‘to micturate through fear’; M. saḷṇẽ ‘to boil up’. 2. P. chalaknā ‘to be spilt’; N. chalakka ‘splashingly’, chalkanu ‘to plash, fluctuate’, chachalkinu ‘to be shaken up in a bottle’; H. chalaknā ‘to be spilt’; G. chaḷkɔ m. ‘splash’. 3. K. ċhāl f. ‘jump’; L. P. chall f. ‘overflowing of water, very heavy rain’; Ku. chalār ‘wave’, N. chāl; H. chāl f. ‘spray, wave’; — Si. älla ‘waterfall, rapids’? 4. S. chalko m. ‘shower of rain’; G. chālak f. ‘wave’, chalkāvũ ‘to be spilt’. *chalakka— ‘splash’ see prec. Addenda: *chala— 2. 2. *chalakka—: WPah.kṭg. chɔ́lkƏṇõ;, chɔ́lƏkṇõ; intr. ‘to splash’ (with ch and —l— ← H. or P.). 5. †;*chāla—: WPah.kṭg. ċhā́ḷ f. (obl. — i ) ‘jump, leap’ Him.I 65 — or < *ut—śāla—, but if so, why not *śwāḷ? *chalakka— see *chala2 Add2.
5007 *chākana— ‘made of dung’, chāgaṇa— m. ‘fire of dried cowdung’ lex. [*chakana—] Pk. chāṇa— n., °ṇī— f. ‘cowdung’; L. chāṇā, (Ju.) chānā m. ‘fine pulverized manure’; P. chāṇā m. ‘cowdung’; - G. chāṇ n. ‘cow or buffalo dung’, chāṇũ n. ‘cowdung cake’ or < *chakana—.
5008 *chākara— ‘made of dung’. [*chakara—] M. sāraviṇẽ ‘to smear with cowdung’ or < *śākara—. chā́ga— m. ‘he—goat’ RV. [See chaga—] *chāgya—. chāgaṇa— see *chākana—. *chāgana— ‘goat’ see *chagana—.
5010 *chāgalya— ‘flock of goats’. [Cf. *ajya— ~ ajá—. - chagalá—] L. chāllā ‘pertaining to goats’, m. ‘flock of goats’, (Ju.) chālā m. *chāggala— ‘pertaining to goats’ see chagalá—.
5011 *chāgya— ‘herd of goats’. [Cf. *ajya— ~ ajá—. — chā́ga—] M. sāgā m. ‘flock of sheep or goats’.
5012 *chācchī ‘buttermilk’. 2. *chāśī—. [chacchikā— f. Bhpr.] 1. S. chāchī f.; Ku. chā̃c(h) ‘whey’, chā̃cṛo ‘rice and whey boiled together’; Mth. chā̃chī ‘earthen pot in which milk is curdled’; OAw. chāchī ‘whey’; H. chāc(h) f. ‘buttermilk’, Marw. chāchī f. 2. Pk. chāsī— f. ‘buttermilk’, S. chāhī f., L. chā f., P. chāh f., WPah. bhad. bhal. pāḍ. ċhāh, pan̓. cur. cam. chāh, jaun. chāś; Ku. chā̃s, chā̃ ‘whey’; H. chāh f. ‘buttermilk’. *chāṭ— ‘scatter’ see *chaṭ—. Addenda: *chācchī—: S.kcch. chāy f. ‘whey, buttermilk’; WPah.kṭg. ċhā́ f. ‘whey, curd mixed with whey’; J. chā f. ‘watery curd’; Garh. chāc ‘buttermilk’.
5013 *chāṇṭ— ‘cut’. L. chāṇḍaṇ ‘to lop’, B. chā̃ṭā, Or. chāṇṭibā, H. chā̃ṭnā (→ P. chā̃ṭṇā, N. chā̃ṭnu), OMarw. chāṭaï (= chāṁṭaï?), G. chā̃ṭvũ; — Bshk. čäṇḍ— ‘to beat’ AO xviii 230 doubts connexion.
5014 *chātti— ‘chest, breast’. S. P. chātī f., Ku. N. B. Or. Mth. chāti; H. chātī, °tiyā f. ‘chest’, °tā m. ‘broad prominent chest’; Marw. chātī, chā̃tī f. ‘chest’, G. chātī f. Addenda: *chātti—: WPah.kṭg. ċhátti f., kc. °te f. ‘chest, mind’.
5019 *chādayati 2 ‘pleases’. [chadáyati ‘seems, seems good, pleases’ RV. — √chad 2] Gy. rum. čal— ‘to please’, gr. rum. hung. čalo ‘satis- fied’: very doubtful. Addenda: chādáyati: WPah.kc. ċhāṇo ‘to cover, spread (blankets)’, J. chā(w)ṇu; Garh. chāṇu ‘to cover (esp. with a roof)’; — Pk. chāyavēi, WPah.kṭg. ċh e/ uṇõ;, ċhɛ̄́ṇõ; ‘to cover, deck, decorate, spread (blankets), thatch’.
5021 *chādikūṭa— ‘heap of ashes’. [chādi—, kūṭa2] Bi. chāur ‘ashes’; Mth. chāur ‘ashes, dust’, chauro ‘ashes’, chaurāṭh ‘ash—heap’ (+?). *chādiya ‘to be used for sheltering’ see chādya—.
5024 *chādyatē or *chadyatē ‘is covered’. [√chad 1] OAw. chājaï ‘is thatched’; N. chājan ‘thatch, shed’; H. chājnā ‘to thatch’, chājan m. ‘thatching’; G. chajāvvũ ‘to get thatched’.
5025 *chādyabhāra— ‘load of thatching material’. [chādya—, bhārá—] M. sāj̈ārā m. ‘load or bundle of thatching grass’.
5026 *chāpa— ‘young one’. [chā— m. ‘young animal’ lex. - Relationship with śāva— not clear though PMWS 67 makes both ← Mu.: very doubtful] Pa. chāpa—, °aka— m., °pī— f. ‘young of an animal’, Pk. chāva— m.; Gy. SEeur. čhavó m. ‘boy’, čhai f. ‘girl’, wel. čavō m., čai f.; K. ċhav m. ‘young of animal, young shoot of plant’; N. chāwā ‘young elephant or camel’; A. sāw, sāwā ‘young of animal or bird’; MB. chāo, B. chā, chā̃ ‘young of animal, infant child’; Or. chā, chuā ‘young of animal’; Bi. chāwā ‘young pig’, chāī ‘young sow’; H. chāwā m. ‘young of any animal, young ele- phant of 10 to 20 years’; OG. chāvaü m. ‘young man’; Si. suva ‘young of animal’. — Various ext.: — —ḍa—: Gy. SEeur. čhavri ‘young chicken’, wel. čavarī f. (pal. čmắri?); Ku. chyauṛo ‘boy’; N. chāuro ‘young of dog, cat, bear, &c.’; A. seurī ‘young female animal’; H. chāwṛā m. ‘young of animal, tiger cub’; — —nn—: Gy. pal. čṓnă m. ‘boy’, čṓni f. ‘girl’; P. chaunā m. ‘young of animal, boy, dwarf’; Ku. chauno ‘lamb, child’; A. sānā ‘young of bird or animal’; B. chānā ‘young of animal’; Bi. chaunā ‘young pig’; H. chāwnā, chaunā m. ‘young of animal, boy, son’; — —la—: A. sawāl ‘boy, son’; B. chāyāl ‘lad, brat’; — —kka—: Gy. arm. čhoki ‘daughter’ or < *chōkka—; — —ṇḍa— (cf. *lavaṇḍa—): Mth. chaũṛ ‘strong robust boy’, chaũṛā ‘boy’; — —ṭṭa—: WPah. jaun. chauṭā m., °ṭī f. ‘baby’. *chāśī— ‘buttermilk’ see *chācchī—. Addenda: *chāpa—: WPah.kṭg. (Khaś tribe) ċh e/ i f. ‘small girl, younger sister’.
5028 *chāyāmaṇḍapa— ‘awning for shade’. [chāyā́—, maṇḍapá—] Or. chāmuṛiā ‘temporary awning, shelter of branches and twigs’ < *chāāṽaṛuā.
5034 *chicchara— ‘quarrelsome’. [Cf. chittvará— ‘hostile’ lex.?] Ku. chicro ‘quarrelsome’; N. chicaro, chicro ‘quick- tempered’; G. chichallũ ‘troublesome’ < °charlũ.
5035 *chiṭ— ‘sudden movement, flash, splash, scatter’. 2. *chiṭṭ—. 3. *chiṇṭ—. [Cf. *chitr— and list of similar words under *chaṭ—] 1. K. chirkāwun ‘to sprinkle’, P. chiṛkaṇā; Mth. chirab ‘to be scattered’; OAw. chirakaï ‘sprinkles’; H. chiṛaknā, M. śiḍakṇẽ. 2. S. chiṭaṇu ‘to sprinkle’; P. chiṭṭ f. ‘sprinkling’; Ku. chiṭo ‘drop of water, lightning’; N. chiṭo ‘drop’, adj. ‘quick’, chiṭnu ‘to sprinkle’, chiṛko ‘spot’; A. siṭ ‘a splash’, siṭā ‘shot’, siṭikiba ‘to be scattered or sprinkled’; B. chiṭā, chiṭkā ‘to scatter, sprinkle’; Or. ch ṭā ‘drop’, chiṭāibā ‘to cause to scatter’, chiṭkibā ‘to scatter with a jerk’; Bi. chiṭab ‘to scatter seed’; Mth. chiṭi ‘whiplash’; OAw. chiṭakaï ‘is sprinkled’; H. chīṭā m. ‘splash’, chiṭaknā ‘to fly back with a spring’; M. śiṭā ‘drop of spray’, śīṭ f. ‘excrement of birds’. 3. Bi. chı̄̃ṭab ‘to scatter seed’; H. chı̄̃ṭnā ‘to scatter, sow’; M. śı̃ṭ f. ‘drop of rain’. *ucchiṭṭ—. *chiṭṭ— ‘scatter’: see prec. *chiṭṭa— ‘thin stick’ see *chaṭa—. Addenda: *chiṭ—. 2. *chiṭṭ—: A. chiṭā (phonet. s—) ‘stain, splash’. 4. †;*chēṭ—: WPah.poet. ċheṛu m.pl. used banter- ingly about small children, J. cheṛu ‘one who stirs’ rather than with Him.I 66 < *chēḍ—1, *chēḍ2. *chiṭṭ— ‘scatter’ see *chiṭ— Add2. CHID: †;*chēdu—.
5036 *chiṭṭā— ‘spotted cloth’. [Cf. *chiṭṭ—, *chaṭ—] Ku. chı̄̃ṭ ‘calico’, N. chiṭ, A. siṭ, B. chiṭ, Or. chiṭa, H. chīṭ, chı̄̃ṭ f. (→ K. chiṭh, dat. °ṭi f., S. chīṭa f., P. chīṭ, chı̄̃ṭ f.); G. chīṭ f. ‘chintz’, M. śīṭ n. *chiṇṭ— ‘scatter’ see *chiṭ—.
5040 *chitr— ‘scatter, sprinkle’. [Cf. *chiṭ— and list of words under *chaṭ—] Kho. (O'Brien) čitro g (= čhi°?) ‘leaking’; S. chiṭraṇu ‘to scatter, sprinkle’, chiṭriṛo ‘thin’; P. chitarnā ‘to be scattered, be spread’; — ext. —— (or —r— in H.): N. chitrinu ‘to be scattered’; H. chitrānā ‘to scatter’; M. śitaḍṇẽ ‘to fall in drops, sprinkle’. CHID ‘cut’: chitti—, chittvará—, chittvā́, *chidati, chidyátē, chidrá—, chinátti, *chindati, chinná—, *chilla—1, chḗttum, chēda—, chēdana—, chēdayati, chēdyatē; avachinna—, *ācchindati, ācchēda—, úcchitti—, úcchinatti, ucchinna—, ucchēdayati, *paricchindati, paricchinna—, paricchēda—, *pra- cchindati, pracchinna—, sáṁchinatti, samucchē da—.
5041 *chidati ‘cuts’. [chidaḥ 2 sg. inj. ŚBr. — √chid] Kt. ċyå̄—, pret. ċinist ‘to tear’; Kho. čhik (1 sg. čhium, pret. očhistam < acchidat, absol. čhiti < *chittvī) intr. ‘to break’; H. chīnā ‘to be torn, be slit, be worn away’, tr. ‘to bite, sting’: rather than < chyáti (*chiyati) ‘cuts off’ Pat.
5044 *chin— ‘sift, sprinkle (< sudden movement?)’. [Mean- ing influenced by forms s.v. √*kṣan 2?] G. chiṇvũ ‘to be sifted’; — S. chiṇkaṇu ‘to sprinkle’, P. chiṇkaṇā; N. chinkanu ‘to sift’; H. chinaknā ‘to winnow’; M. śiṇak f. ‘shooting pain’.
5046 *chindati, chinátti, pl. chindánti ‘cuts off, splits’ RV. [√chid] Pa. chindati, NiDoc. chiṁnati, pp. chiṁnida, Pk. chiṁdaï; Paš. čhind— ‘to cut’, čhindanı̄́, °nā́ ‘knife’; A. sindiba ’to cut’; Or. chindibā ‘to cut off’; Ko. śinda ‘cuts’; Si. sin̆dinavā, hi° ‘to cut off, pluck off (as feathers), press out (as oil)’; — with e from chēdayati &c.: M. śẽdṇẽ ‘to make small cuts in’; — altern. < chinná—: Gy. SEeur. čhin—, eur. čin— ‘to cut’, arm. čhin—, čhƏn—, pal. čin—; Ash. ċenā́—, ċinā́— ‘to divide, put aside, hide’, Wg. ċen— ‘to cut, fell’; Dm. čhin— ‘to cut, break’; Gaw. ċin- ‘to tear’; Woṭ. sin— ‘to cut’; Kal. čhin— ‘to cut, break, fell’; Kho. čhin— ‘to cut, break, pluck’; Bshk. Tor. čin- ‘to cut’; Phal. čhin— ‘to cut, break’. — X saṁdhí— q.v.
5048 *chinnāli— ‘adulteress’. [< ‘having the line broken’ P. Thieme ZDMG 91, 121 who considers chinnā— f. ‘harlot’ lex., Pk. chiṇṇā— f. hypochoristic for *chinnāli- or *chinna—nāsikā—. — chinná—, āli1] Pk. chiṇṇāliā— f. ‘harlot’; P. chināl, °ār (latter ← H.) f. ‘harlot’; Ku. B. chināl ‘unchaste’, Or. chiṇḍāḷa; Mth. chinār ‘wanton’ (→ N. chinār ‘harlot’); Bhoj. Aw. lakh. chināri ‘wanton woman’, H. chināl, °ār f., G. chināḷi f., M. śinaḷ, śı̃daḷ; — masculine deriv. Pk. chinnāla— m. ‘adulterer’; Bhoj. chinār ‘man of bad character’. *chipp— ‘press, cover, hide’ see *chapp—. *chimba— ‘pod’ see śimba—.
5049 *chir— ‘pierce’. N. chirnu ‘to pierce, bore a hole’; A. siriba ‘to tear’ or < chidrá—; M. śirṇẽ ‘to enter forcibly or suddenly’, śirakṇẽ ‘to pierce’. Addenda: *chir— ‘pierce’. 1. A. chiriba (phonet. s—) also ‘to be torn’ AFD 331. 2. *chēr—: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ċhérnõ; ‘to obsess (of a god), to be obsessed (by a god)’ Him.I 66.
5051 *chilla— 1 ‘torn, cut’. 2. ‘hole’. [< *chidla— ~ chidrá- ‘torn’ RV., n. ‘slit, hole’ VS. and to be separated from, though influenced by, *chilla—2. — √chid] 1. Pk. chillia— ‘torn’ L. A. Schwarzschild JAOS 77, 205; S. chilanu ‘to scale, peel’, L. chillaṇ; P. chillṇā ‘to cut with a knife, peel’; N. chilnu ‘to peel’, B. chilā, H. chīlnā, G. chilvũ; M. śilāṇ n. ‘peelings’. 2. Pk. chilla— n. ‘hole’; M. śīl n. ‘breach in a river bank, place to make a dam’; Si. sila, hi° ‘hole, perfora- tion’ H. Smith JA 1950, 196. Addenda: *chilla— 1 [Same as *chilla—2? ~ chidrá— ext. of chita— ‘cut off, torn’ lex. with —illa— Burrow Tau vii 153]
5052 *chilla— 2 ‘skin, rind’. [Perh. of similar non—Aryan origin as challi— and *chōll— and to be separated from verbs ‘to cut, peel’ s.v. *chilla1] S. chila, °lu f. ‘peel, bark, skin, shell’, chiluru m. ‘fish scale, crust of bread’; L. chill f. ‘skin, bark, rind’, awāṇ. chilluṛ ‘skin, peel’, P. chill, chillak f., chilkā m.; WPah. bhal. ċhil f. ‘bark’; N. chilko ‘crust, rind,s kin of milk’, B. Or. H. chilkā m.; H. chillaṛ m. ‘husk of gram &c.’; Marw. chīlo m. ‘bark’; G. chileṭũ n. ‘bark, peel’. Addenda: *chilla— 2 [Same as *chilla1?] WPah.kṭg. ċhílkɔ m. ‘bark (of trees)’; J. chilṇu ‘to bark, peel’.
5056 *chupta— ‘touched’. [Cf. acchupta— ‘untouched’. - √chup] Pk. chutta—; S. chuto ‘defiled’; Ku. gng. chū̃t ‘touched’; B. chut, °tā ‘unclean’; H. chutahrā ‘defiled by touching.’ — X kṣubdha—: OB. chudha ‘touched, impure’ ODBL 446. — X kṣipta—: Pk. chitta— replaced by chikka—.
5057 *chupti— ‘touch’. [√chup] Pk. chutti— f., P. chūt f., Ku. chūt, gng. chū̃t; N. chut ‘touch, infection’; B. chut, chũt ‘touch, impurity’; Or. chuti ‘contamination by touch’; Mth. chūti ‘touch’; OAw. chūti f. ‘touch of anything impure’, H. chūt f. — X kṣubdha—: B. chūdha ‘impurity the touch of which pollutes’. — Deriv. N. chuti ‘of low caste’.
5058 *chupp— ‘cover, hide’. 2. *chōpp—. [For list of poss. enlargements of IE. *sqeu— see √sku; but cf. *chapp- and *chipp—] 1. P. chupṇā ‘to be hidden’, H. chupnā, G. chupāvũ. 2. Ku. chopṇo ‘to conceal’; N. chopnu ‘to pounce on, cover, hide’; H. chopnā ‘to shut, fill up’; — K. ċhŏpa f. ‘silence’ prob. onom. with *cuppa1.
5059 *chupyatē ‘is touched’. [√chup] Pk. chuppaï; S. chupaṇu ‘to be touched by anything polluted’. — X kṣipyatē: Pk. chippaï ‘is touched’. chúbuka— see cibuka—. CHUR ‘strew’: churayati, chōrayati. churáti ‘cuts’ see kṣuráti.
5062 *chēḍ— 1 ‘make wander’. 2. *chēl—. 1. S. cheṛaṇu ‘to put cattle out to graze’. 2. S. cheraṇu ‘to cause to wander’; N. chelnu ‘to dispel, hide’. *chēḍ— 2 ‘make angry’ see *ciḍ—.
5065 *chēdacihnaka— ‘mark of punctuation’. [chēda—, cihna—] K. ċhyondu , ċhondu m.
5069 *chōka— ‘boy’. 2. *chōkka—. [Cf. *chōkara—] 1. Pk. chōia— m. ‘slave’; G. choṛī f. ‘girl’ (but cf. Pk. chōḍi— f. ‘small’). 2. Gy. arm. čoki ‘girl, daughter’ or ext. of *chāpa—.
5070 *chōkara— ‘boy’. 2. *chōkhara—. 3. *chōkkara—. [Cf. *chōka—] 1. Pk. chōyara— m. ‘boy’; N. choro ‘boy’, °ri ‘girl’, A. sorā, H. chorā m., °rī f., G. chorɔ m., °rī f., °rũ n. ‘brat’. 2. Pk. chōhara— m. ‘boy’, S. chuharu m., °hari, °hiri f., L. chohur m., °hir f., awāṇ. chòr, P. chohar, °hrā m., °hrī f., chuhur, °rā m., H. chohrā m. 3. K. chūkur m. ‘lad’, chūkürü f. ‘goodlooking girl’ (← Ind.); S. chokaru m. ‘boy’, °ri f. ‘girl’; P. chokrā m. ‘boy’, WPah. bhal. chokru, pl. °rā̃ n., B. chokrā m., chukri f., Or. chokarā m., H. chokrā (→ Mth. chokaṛā, N. chokaṛā), °rī f., G. chokrɔ m., M. sokrā m. *chōkka— ‘boy’ see *chōka—. *chōkkara—, *chōkhara— ‘boy’ see *chōkara—. Addenda: *chōkara—: WPah.kc. ċhoru m. ‘child, boy’.
5071 *chōṭṭa— ‘small’. [→ Ir. Zebaki čuṭ ‘small’ Rep1 79. Cf. Pk. chōḍi— f. ‘small’ (< *chōṭa—?): for other poss. connections in IA. see *culla2] Sh. gil. ċhŭṭŭ́ m. ‘dwarf’ (← K.?), koh. čōṭ m. ‘lie’ Morgenstierne Göteborgs Högskolas Årsskrift xli 35, 3, 37 (semant. cf. alīka— ~ N. ali ‘a little’, and similar range of meaning in ‘defective’ word—groups, e.g. *laṭṭa1); K. ċhọ̆ṭu ‘short, small’, L. choṭā, P. choṭṭā, Ku. choṭo, gng. ċhwaṭ; N. choṭo ‘small, mean’; A. soṭ ‘low—grade’, suṭā ‘deficient’; B. Or. choṭa ‘small’, Mth. choṭ, °ṭā, Aw. lakh. choṭ, H. choṭā, G. choṭũ; Si. hoṭē ‘very small (of cocoanuts &c.)’. — Kho. (Lor.) čurtu ‘tailless’, Or. choṭā ‘lame, crippled’ < *chōrta—? *ucchōṭṭa—. *chōpp— ‘cover, hide’ see *chupp—. Addenda: †;*chōṭa— ‘small’. 1. Pk. chōḍī— f. ‘small’, WPah.kc. ċhoṛe f. ‘girl’. 2. *chōṭṭa— ‘small’: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ċhóṭṭɔ ‘small’; kṭg. ċhṓṭu ‘boy, son’, ċhṓṭi ‘girl, daughter’, J. chō'ṭī, kc. ċhoṭe f. (but these are, according to Him.I 68 of different origin from *chōṭṭa— ‘small’ as also kc. ċhoru ‘boy, son’ poss. < *chōkhara— or *chōkara—). 3. †;*cōṭa— 2 ‘small’: Pk. cōḍī— f. ‘small’; G. coṛī f. ‘girl’. 4. †;*cuṭṭa— ‘small’: A. cuṭi (phonet. suti) ‘dwarfish’. — Cf. cúṇḍati, culla—2, †;cūḍa3.
5072 *chōra— ‘orphan’. [Cf. *śō2] Gy. gr. čoró ‘poor, orphaned’, rum. čor— ‘to orphan’, wel. čō̆rō ‘poor, unfortunate’; S. choro m. ‘orphan’; L. chorā ‘orphaned’; Ku. choro ‘orphan boy’. chōrayati see churayati. Addenda: *chōra— [< *chōkhara— or *chōkara—?]
5073 *chōll— ‘to peel, skin’. [← Drav. T. Burrow BSOAS xii 141, but cf. also challi— and *chilla2] Pk. chollaï ‘skins’; Gy. SEeur. čhol—, gr. čol— ‘to peel, cut out’, arm. čhol— ‘to destroy’; Ku. cholṇo ‘to peel a fruit’, gng. ċholaṇ ‘to cut’; N. lā̃ṛo cholnu ‘to mastur- bate’; B. cholā ‘to skin’, chuli ‘skin—disease’; Or. cholā adj. ‘having rind removed’, sb. ‘gram (husked?)’; H. cholnā ‘to cut, peel, scrape’; G. cholvũ ‘to peel, skin’, chol f. ‘peel, bark’; M. solṇẽ ‘to skin’, solā m. ‘shelled pea’; — Sh. čol m. ‘skin’? Addenda: *chōll— [MIA. ext. with —ulla— of chyáti to *chaülla- > Pk. chollaï Burrow Tau vii] S.kcch. cholṇū ‘to scrape’; WPah.kṭg. ċhólṇõ; ‘to scratch, cut’.
5074 *chōhāra— ‘date palm and its fruit’. S. chuhāro m. ‘a kind of date’; P. chuhārā m. ‘date palm’; N. choharā, °horo ‘dried date’, A. sohārā, °horā, B. chohārā, Or. H. chuhārā, chuā° m. chyáti see *chidati. [√chō]
5075 *jakka— ‘hair’. 2. *jagga—. [See jáṭā—] 1. Sh. ǰăkŭr m. ‘hair on head and body’; K. zọ̆ku m. ‘hair of female privities’. 2. P. jagoṭā m. ‘plaited hair worn round loins by faqirs’; N. jagar ‘mane’, jagaṭo ‘tangled hair’, jagalṭo ‘matted and dishevelled hair’.
5076 *jag— ‘glitter’. [Cf. *jhakk3] P. jagjagāṭ, jagmag f. ‘glitter’, jagmagāuṇā ‘to glitter’, N. jagmag, jagmagāunu; B. jagjagā ‘dazzle’; Or. jaka ‘brilliance’, jakajaka ‘dazzle’, H. jagmag f., jagjagānā. *jagga— ‘hair’ see *jakka—.
5084 *jaṅghiya— ‘belonging to the shank’. [jáṅghā—] Bshk. ǰēṅg ‘shin—bone’. *jacca— ‘hair’ see *jatta—.
5085 *jañjāla— ‘worry, affairs’. Kho. (Lor.) *l nǰal ‘quarrel’; P. jãjāl m. ‘disorder’ (→ S. jañjā̆lu m.); Ku. jãjāl ‘business’; N. jañjāl ‘affairs, family, children’; B. jañjāl ‘disorder, rubbish’, Or. jañjāḷa; Mth. jãjāl ‘trouble’; H. jañjāl m. ‘worries’; G. jãjāḷ m. ‘disorder’, M. j̈ãj̈āḷ m.
5089 *jaṭṭa— 2 ‘name of a tribe or people’. [Cf. jartika— m. ‘name of a people’ MBh.] Gy. as. zatt, (Firdausi) zott ‘gypsies of Arabia and Syria’; S. jaṭu m. ‘Sindhi peasant, Musulman’; L. P. jaṭṭ m., jaṭṭī f. ‘a Jāṭ’, H. jāṭ m.
5091 *jaḍati ‘joins, sets’. 2. *jāḍa— ‘joining, pair’. [← Drav. LM 333] 1. Pk. jaḍia— ‘set (of jewels), joined’; K. jarun ‘to set jewels’ (← Ind.); S. jaṛaṇu ‘to join, rivet, set’, jaṛa f. ‘rivet, boundary between two fields’; P. jaṛāuṇā ‘to have fastened or set’; A. zarāiba ‘to collect’; B. jaṛāna ‘to set jewels, wrap round, entangle’, jaṛ ‘heaped together’; Or. jaṛibā ‘to unite’; OAw. jaraï ‘sets jewels, bedecks’; H. jaṛnā ‘to join, stick in, set’ (→ N. jaṛnu ‘to set, be set’); OMarw. jaṛāū ‘inlaid’; G. jaṛvũ ‘to join, meet with, set jewels’; M. j̈aḍṇẽ ‘to join, connect, inlay, be firmly established’, j̈aṭṇẽ ‘to combine, confederate’. 2. S. jāṛo m. ‘twin’, L. P. jāṛā m.; M. j̈āḍī f. ‘a double yoke’. *jaḍḍa—, jáḍhu— ‘dull, cold’ see jaḍa—. Addenda: *jaḍati [Burrow Shwa 63 yátatē ‘places himself in the right position’ RV. with spontaneous cerebraliza- tion > *yaṭati > Pk. jaḍaï whence Sk. jaḍita- ‘studded with jewels’. According to Burrow < IE. *yéteti ‘fixes’, Toch. yā̆t— ‘to decorate’, yatwe ‘decora- tion’; see also yātyatē Add2]
5092 *jaṇṭa— ‘a kind of tree’. L. P. jaṇḍ m. ‘Prosopis spicigera’, jaṇḍī f. ‘a small variety’; H. jā̃ṭ m. ‘P. spicigera’.
5094 *jatughara— ‘house plastered with lac and other com- bustible materials for burning people alive in’. [Cf. jatugr̥ha— n. MBh. — játu—, ghara—] H. jauhar, joh°, jūh° m. ‘taking one's own life’; Marw. jauhar → G. jauhar n. ‘ceremony of burning women alive’. jatumaṇi— see jaṭula—. Addenda: *jatughara— see †;jyōtkāra—.
5095 *jatta— ‘hair’. 2. *jatra—. 3. *jacca—. [For list of poss. connected words see jáṭā—] 1. Ḍ. ǰāt ‘hair of head’; Sh. gil. (Lor.) ǰat ‘hair of animals’; S. j̄ati f. ‘soft downy hair’; L. jatt, (Ju.) j̄at f. ‘goat's or camel's hair, sheep's wool, short hair on body’, awāṇ. jat ‘goat's hair’; WPah. bhal. j̈at f. ‘hair’. 2. Tor. ǰaṣ ‘goat's hair’ < *ǰac̣? 3. Kal. ǰäč ‘goat's hair’, Kho. zoč; Woṭ. zas ‘hair’ < *zaċ? *jatra— ‘hair’ see prec. Addenda: *jatta—, cf. jarta— ‘hairy’ Candra Uṇ.
5097 *jadas— ‘vulva’. [Cf. Av. zadah— ‘podex’] Pr. zúlu ‘vulva’. JAN ‘be born’: ja—, jána—, janana—, jananī—, janáyati, jáni—, janita—, janítra—, janitrī—, jániman—, janús—, *janti—, jantú—, *jantra—, jánman—, jánya—, janyatē, jā́—, jātá—, jāti—, *jātiya—, jā́tya—, *jānayati, jāni—, jānya—, jā́yatē, jāyā́—, jñātí—1, jñātitva—, *jñātra—; ā́jāyatē, újjāyatē, nijá—, prajana—, prájanayati, prájāta—, prájāyatē, *vijanā—, *vijanati, vijanman—, vijāta—, *vijātra—, víjāyatē. Addenda: *jadas—: delete entry (see Add. 14514). JAN: †;*jn̄a2.
5109 *janti— ‘birth’. [√jan] Kt. zut ‘birth’; Pr. zwāt, zōt ‘lying—in house (?)’ NTS xv 281.
5112 *janmadāna— ‘birth’. [Cf. janmada— m. ‘progenitor’ Śak. — jánman—, dā́na—] Paš. ǰamā́n ‘birth’ IIFL iii 3, 82.
5115 *janmita— ‘born’. [jánman—] Pk. jammia—; P. jammı̄̃ ‘born, flourishing’. *navajanmita—.
5119 *janyavāsa— ‘lodging of bridegroom's party’. [jánya—, vāsá2] Bi. janwā̃sā ‘lodging the wedding procession’, Mth. janmāsā; OAw. janavāsa ‘place at the bride's home where the groom's party is received’, lakh. janwās ‘the groom's party’; H. janwās, °wāsā, °wā̃sā m. ‘the place where it is received’; M. j̈anavsā, j̈anivsā m. ‘lodging of the groom's party’. JAP ‘mutter’: jápati, japita—, *japyati. Addenda: *janyavāsa—: rather †;*janyāvāsa— as in OG. jānāvāsaü ŚSB.
5122 *japp— ‘to squeeze, press’. [Cf. *capp—] Pa. jappā— f. ‘attachment, lust’, jappati ‘longs for’ (= pajappā—, pajappati); B. jāpṭā ‘to hold tight, em- brace’; Or. jāpibā ‘to press, squeeze’, jāpaṭibā ‘to hold tight’; Si. dapa ‘sexual union’.
5123 *japyati ‘mutters, speaks’. [√jap] K. pog. zapun (pp. < japita—) ‘to say’, kash. zabunŭ , ḍoḍ. zabṇō.
5124 *jabbu— ‘network muzzle’. WPah. bhiḍ. e bõ;, pl. —u n. ‘muzzle for cattle’; N. jābi ‘network muzzle’, Bi. jāb, jābā ‘id.’, jabrā ‘small grain store’ (semant. cf. vakṣaskāra— in Bi.), Mth. jābī, H. jāb m., jābī f.; — P. jhābū m. ‘muzzle for horse or ox’, chābbū m. ‘id., small basket’. JABH ‘bite’: jábhatē, jámbha—, jámbhatē. Addenda: *jabbu— see chádman— Add2.
5133 *jambukāṣṭha— ‘jambu—wood’. [jambú—, kāṣṭhá—] Bi. jamwaṭ, jamoṭ ‘wooden base of the cylinder of a well made of wood of Eugenia jambolana’.
5135 *jamburukṣa— ‘Eugenia jambolana’. [jambú—, *rukṣa—] Pa. jamburukkha— m. ‘E. jambolana’; G. jamrukh n. ‘a guava’, jamrukhī, °khṛī f. ‘guava tree’. *jamburulla— ‘a tree’ see jambula—.
5139 *jambhahaḍḍa— ‘jaw—bone’. [jámbha—, haḍḍa—] H. jabhṛā, jābṛā m. ‘jaw—bone, lower jaw’ (or —ḍa— ext. of jámbha—); M. j̈ā̃bhāḍ, j̈ābh°, j̈ābāḍ, j̈ā̃bhāḍẽ n. ‘jaw, cheek; — dābhāḍ n. X dāḍh < *dāṁṣṭra—. jambhin—, jambhīra— see jambīra—.
5140 *jamm— ‘be bright’. [Cf. *jhamm3] N. jamkanu ‘to look bright’; B. H. jamak f. ‘brilliance’; B. jamakā ‘to be bright, flourish’, H. jamaknā ‘to be bright’. Addenda: *jamm—: WPah.kṭg. jamṇõ; ‘to be hot, get enraged, (of ear) experience a burning sensation’ (lw. with j—? - but cf. jhamm4), j̈Əmauṇõ; ‘to kindle’.
5142 *jayakāra— ‘song of victory’. [jayá—, kārá2] Pk. jaokkāra— m. ‘salutation’ (< *jayuṣkāra—??); M. j̈ohār ‘salutation to a superior’; H. johār f. ‘falling down at the feet in salutation’ J. Bloch Kunhan Raja Pre- sentation Vol. 129; — extremely doubtful. Addenda: *jayakāra—, Pk. jekkāra— m. ‘shout of victory’ replacing earlier †;jyōtkāra—, Pk. jokkāra—.
5153 *jarōṣṭra— ‘old camel’. [jára—, úṣṭra—] L. jharoṭ m. ‘useless old female camel’.
5156 *jaladīvi— ‘a water—bird’. [jala—, dīvi—] N. jalewā ‘a partic. kind of river bird’: very doubtful.
5159 *jalasthala— ‘water surface’. [Cf. jalasthāna— n. ‘lake’ MBh. — jala—, sthála—] P. jalthal m. ‘broad sheet of water’; N. jalthal ‘flood’; H. jalthal, jalṭhal m. ‘sheet of water’. jalāyukā— see jalūkā—.
5165 *jalya— ‘collection of water’. [jala—] Pa. jalla— n. ‘moisture, wet dirt, sweat (usu. rajō—j°, sēda—j°)’, jallikā— f. ‘drop (of sweat), dirt’; H. jallā m. ‘mass of water, reservoir’; Si däli ‘dirt’. jáḷhu— see jaḍa—.
5167 *javacāra— ‘flood—tide’. 2. *javacāla—. [Cf. jūtí— f. ‘flowing without interruption’ AV. — javá—, cāra2 and cāla2] 1. S. juhāro m. ‘high tide’; N. juwār ‘flood—tide in a river’, A. zowār; B. joyār ‘high tide’, Or. juāra; H. juwār, jawār, jwār m. ‘flood—tide’. 2. G. juāḷ m. ‘tide’.
5170 *jasana— ‘exhaustion’. [√jas] A. zahanī ‘cholera’.
5171 *jasara— ‘tired’. [Cf. jásu— f. ‘exhaustion’, jásuri- ‘starved’, ájasra— ‘perpetual’ RV. — √jas] L. jahrā m., °rī f. ‘an old person’ or < *jaratha—. jásuri— see prec.
5176 *jāgradrātra— ‘sleepless night’. [jā́grat—, rā́tri—] L. (Shahpur) jaǥrātā m.
5178 *jāṅgha— ‘relating to the leg’. 2. jāṅghika— W. [jáṅghā—] 1. S. j̄ā̃gho ‘relating to the leg’; L. (Ju.) j̄ā̃ghil ‘long- legged’. 2. P. jāṅghiā m. ‘short breeches’; N. jā̃ghiyā ‘drawers’, B. jāṅiyā, Or. jaṅghiā, H. jā̃ghiyā m., G. jā̃ghiyɔ m.
5181 *jāḍyadhānya— ‘winter rice’. [jā́ḍya—, dhānyà—] Bhoj. jaṛahan ‘winter rice’; H. jaṛhan m. ‘rice reaped at the end of the Rains’.
5184 *jātavāla— ‘new—born baby's hair’. [jātá—, vā́la—] M. j̈āvaḷ n. ‘hair of a child before it is shaved, cere- mony of cutting it’.
5186 *jātipattrikā— ‘horoscope’. [jāti—, páttra—] MB. jāyati ‘horoscope’. *jātiya— see jā́tya—.
5192 *jānayati ‘begets, bears’. [~ janáyati. — √jan] Pa. jānēti ‘begets’; Kho. ǰan— ‘to bear (?)’; — altern. < janyatē: Gy. wel. ǰan— ‘to bear, be born’; Si. inscr. dänä absol. ‘having been born’.
5196 *jānuvāmaya— ‘disease of the knee’. [jā́nu—, āmaya- (2nd member of cmpd. with ákṣi—, pr̥ṣṭhá—, śīrṣá—, hŕ̥daya—)] H. jānuwā̃ m. ‘disease affecting knees of an elephant.’
5199 *jāmātr̥bhaginī— ‘daughter's husband's sister’. [jā́mātr̥—, bhaginī—] M. j̈āvaīṇ f.
5202 *jāmipati— ‘husband's sister's husband’. [jāmí—, páti—] K. zömiyĕ m.
5204a *jāyantī— Add. 14518.
5207 *jārakuḍa— ‘paramour's son’. [jārá—, *kuḍa1] Kho. (Lor.) *l rōḷi ‘bastard, illegitimate’.
5210 *jāravr̥tti— ‘adultery’. [jārá—, vr̥tti—] WPah. paṅ. jaroṭī ‘debauchery’.
5215 *jāladhārin— ‘net holder’. [jā́la—, dhārin—] N. jalahāri ‘fisherman’.
5216 *jālākkha— ‘net bag’. [jā́la—, *akkha—] Ext. —ḍa—: Bi. Mth. jalakhrī ‘cord net for carrying goods on the head’.
5220 *jāsa— ‘exhaustion’. [√jas] A. zāh niyāiba ‘to digest, decompose’.
5229 *jihvākīla— ‘tongue—like post’. [jihvā́—, kīla—] Bi. jibhelā ‘right—hand post passing through roller of loom and preventing it from turning’, Mth. (SE Tirhut) jihelā, (NE) jihlā.
5231 *jihviya— ‘pertaining to or like a tongue’. [jihvā́—] Pk. jibbhiyā— f. ‘tongue, something shaped like a tongue’; S. j̄ibhī f. ‘flame’; N. Or. jibhi ‘tongue scraper’, H. jībhī f.; G. jībhī f. ‘sail hung on foremast’. Addenda: *jihviya—: S.kcch. jibbhī f. ‘dry saliva on the tongue’.
5232 *jījja— ‘nursery word for breast, mother, sister, relative’. [Cf. *diddā—] Paš. lauṛ. ǰīǰı̄́ ‘elder sister’, ar. ǰíǰi ‘husband's brother's wife’; S. jījā, jījī ‘affectionate term for mother, aunt, &c.’, jījali ‘do. for mother’; P. jījjā, jījā m. ‘sister's husband, child, bridegroom’, jījī f. ‘woman's breast for suckling, girl, bride’, ḍog. j̈īj̈ā m. ‘sister's husband’; N. jiju ‘great—grandfather’; Or. jeji ‘grandfather, grandmother’; H. jījī, jijjī, jijī, jijiyā f. ‘breast, elder sister, wet—nurse’, jījā m. ‘sister's husband’; G. jijī f. ‘mother’, jījī—mā f. ‘grandmother’, jījɔ m. ‘grandfather’, jījī—bā f. ‘husband's sister’; M. jijī f. ‘elder sister’.
5235 *jīrati ‘grows old’. [~ *jhirati 2: replaces jı̄́ryati AV. — √jr̥̄ 1] Pa. jīrati ‘grows old, is digested’; Pk. jīraï ‘becomes old or worn out’, jīravaï ‘digests’; P. jīrnā ‘to be absorbed (of water)’; G. *jīrvũ whence caus. jeravvũ ‘to digest’; M. jirṇẽ ‘to be absorbed, be digested’; Si. diranavā ‘to decay, rot’, caus. diravanavā; — K. (Elmslie) "zirin" ‘old man’, Si. diriṇi ‘old woman’ prob. with LM 335 < *jīraṇa—. — L. jīvaraṇ, jīuraṇ ‘(water) to be absorbed’, P. jīvarnā, jīurnā are obscure.
5236 *jīrayati ‘digests’. [√jr̥̄ 1] Pa. jīrēti, jīrāpēti ‘works out (e.g. wages), digests’; B. jirāna ‘to rest, repose’; Or. jireibā ‘to rest after a meal’; G. jiravvũ ‘to digest’; — A. zirni ‘rest’, B. jiren. Addenda: *jīrayati: Md. direnī ‘is digested’, diruvanī ‘digests’.
5249 *jīvāpatya— ‘having live offspring’. [Cf. jīváputra- RV., jīvapraja— ĀśvGr̥. — jīvá—1, ápatya—] B. jẽāc ‘woman whose child is living’ (ODBL 471 < *jīvitāpatya—).
5251 *jīvavāṭī— ‘garden for livelihood’. [jīvá—1, vāṭa1] OSi. [ji]väl ‘land granted for maintenance as reward for service’, Si. divela ‘id., pay’. *jīvāla— ‘alive’ see jīvalá—. jīvālā— see jīvalā́—.
5253 *jīvitra— ‘life’. [√jīv] G. jivtar n. ‘life’.
5254 *juṅgha— ‘beard, moustache’. 2. *cuṅgha—. [Cf. *phuṅgha—. — ← Drav. cf. Kan. juṅgu ‘pubic hair’?] 1. Ku. jūṅā ‘moustache’, N. jũghā, juṅā. 2. Kal. rumb. čuṅ ‘beard’. *juṇṭa— ‘hair’ see jūṭa—. *juvāla— ‘flame’ see jvālá—. JUṢ ‘enjoy’: juṣṭá—1, júṣṭi—, jṓṣati, jṓṣṭr̥—; *ājuṣṭa—.
5257 *juṣṭidhāna— ‘depository for remnants of meals’. [júṣṭi—, dhā́na—] N. juṭhyān ‘dunghill’. juhū́— see jihvā́—. ‘hasten’: javá—, jávatē; *ujjavati, *ujjavana—.
5259 *jūrati ‘is angry’ (jū́ryatē ‘hurts, is angry with’ Dhātup.). [Cf. jūrṇí— f. ‘glowing fire’ RV. — √jvar] Pk. jūraï ‘hurts’, jūlaï ‘is angry’, jūrāvia— ‘angered’, jūraṇa— n. ‘flame, abuse’; Pr. žorƏ— ‘to get angry’.
5261 *jūrṇatara— ‘rather old’. [jūrṇá—] M. j̈uner, °rẽ n. ‘old article of apparel’.
5262 *jūrṇapattra— ‘having old leaves’. [jūrṇá—, páttra—] M. j̈unvat f. ‘mature leaves’ esp. of nāgvallī (from which f. gender derives).
5263 *jūrṇaparṇa— ‘having old leaves’. [jūrṇá—, parṇá—] M. j̈unvan ‘mature (of leaves), old (of tree or plant)’. JR̥MBH ‘yawn’: jr̥mbhaṇa—, jŕ̥mbhatē, *jr̥mbhāyita—; víjr̥mbhatē; — √jabh.
5266 *jr̥mbhāyita— ‘yawned, yawning’. [See jŕ̥mbhatē. - √jr̥mbh] Pk. jaṁbhāia— n. ‘yawn’, Dm. žāmai, Phal. ǰāmäi, ǰāmã̤e, P. jamhāī f., Ku. jamhaī, jamaī, N. jamāi, H. jãbhāī, jamhāī f. JR̥̄ 1 ‘grow old, waste away’: jára—, jaraṇá—1, jaraṇa—2, jaraṇā́—, járati, jarā́—, jarā́yu—, jarjára—, jāraṇa—, jāráyati, *jīrati, *jīrayati, jīrṇá—, jūrṇá—; *ajr̥ta—, parijūrṇa—; — √*jhr̥̄. JR̥̄ 2 ‘praise’ see √gr̥̄ 3. Addenda: *jr̥mbhāyita—: WPah.kc. j̈Əmhaı̃ f. ‘yawning’, J. jmhāi f., OM. jāmbhaī f. (< jr̥mbhā—, jambhakā— Master GrOM §77), Ko. j̈āmbhai.
5269 *jēmanakāri— ‘making a meal’. [jēmana—, kāri—] Ku. jyūṇār ‘feast’, N. jiunār, OAw. jevanāra f., H. jewnār, jionār, jaunār f., jẽwnārā m.
5270 *jēmanapattra— ‘leaf used for eating off’. [jēmana—, páttra—] M. jevaṇvat n. *jōkkā—, *jōṅkā— ‘leech’ see jalūkā—.
5277 *jñāti— 2 ‘knowledge’. [√jñā] Pk. ṇāi— f. ‘knowledge’; — Ap. ṇāi, ṇāvaï ‘like, as if’; H. nāı̄̃ (later with ) ‘like, after the manner of’: rather < jñāyatē (jñāpayati). Addenda: *jñāti—2: delete entry (see nyāyá— Add2).
5278 *jñātighara— ‘kinsman's house’. [jñātí—1, ghara—] Pa. ñātighara— n. ‘paternal home’; B. nāyer, lāihar, °hor ‘wife's father's house’, Bi. naihar, nahirā, Mth. naihar, nehrā, Bhoj. Aw. lakh. H. naihar m. jñātitva— n. ‘kinship’ Mn.: see next. Addenda: *jñātighara—: Brj. naihar m. ‘wife's father's house’.
5279 *jñātra— ‘kinship, kinsman’. [Cf. jñātí—1. — √jan] Ku. nāto ‘acquaintance’; N. nāto ‘relationship’, nātā- gotā ‘relatives’; Aw. lakh. nāt ‘relative’; H. nāt, nātā ‘kinship, alliance’, nāt m. ‘kinsman’; OG. nātaraü m. ‘relationship, betrothal’, nātrā m. pl. ‘kin’, G. nātrũ n. ‘widow's relationship as mistress’, nātũ n., nātɔ m. ‘kin- ship’, M. nātẽ n. — S. nāto m. ‘kinship’, L. awāṇ. nātā; P. nāttā m. ‘kinship, relative’; WPah. bhal. nāto m. ‘wife's brother’, bhiḍ. n e_ töṭu n. ‘young relative’ are ← Centre rather than < *jñātatva— (jñātitva— LM 357) der. from *jñāta— ‘kinsman’ in Pa. ñātaka—, which would not account for G. Addenda: *jñātra—: WPah.kṭg. nattɔ m. ‘community of relations’, J. nātā ‘relative’ (both ← H.).
5280 *jñātrajāni— ‘kinsman's wife’. [*jñātra—, jāni—] WPah. bhal. naṭṭḷiāṇi f. ‘wife's brother's wife’. jñātvā see jānā́ti.
5287 *jyēṣṭhajāni— ‘senior wife’. 2. ‘elder brother's wife’. [jyḗstha—, jāni—] 1. K. ziṭhöñü f. ‘senior wife of a polygamous man’. 2. Pk. jiṭṭhāṇī— f. ‘husband's elder brother's wife’, S. jeṭhāṇī f., P. jiṭhāṇī, jaṭh° f., WPah. bhal. j̈aṭṭhāṇi, Ku. jeṭhāṇī (whence jeṭhāṇo ‘husband's elder brother’), N. jeṭhāni (whence jeṭhān ‘wife's elder brother’), Aw. lakh. H. jeṭhānī f., G. jeṭhāṇī f.
5290 *jyēṣṭaduhitr̥— ‘elder's daughter’. [jyḗṣṭha—, duhitŕ̥—] P. ḍog. j̈aṭhī f. ‘husband's elder brother's daughter’.
5291 *jyēṣṭhaputra— ‘elder's son’. 2. ‘eldest son’. [jyḗṣṭha—, putrá1] 1. L. jaṭhuttur m. ‘husband's elder brother's son’, P. jaṭhutt, jiṭhut m., ḍog. j̈aṭhuttar m.; A. zeṭhot ‘husband's eldest brother’; B. jeṭhutā ‘father's elder brother's children’; Bhoj. jeṭhaut ‘husband's elder brother's son’, H. jeṭhaut, °tā m. 2. Mth. jeṭhautī ‘eldest son's share’.
5292 *jyēṣṭhavaṇṭa— ‘elder's share’. [jyḗṣṭha—, vaṇṭa1] Ku. jeṭhaun ‘elder brother's share’, H. jeṭhuṇḍā m. (← NW dial.?). jyēṣṭhī— see jyaiṣṭhī—.
5294 *jyaiṣṭhaka— ‘pertaining to May—June’. [jyaiṣṭha—] L. jeṭhā ‘early (of crops)’, N. jeṭho ‘belonging to the month Jeṭh’.
5297 *jyōtiḥśālā— ‘fire room’. [jyṓtis—, śā́lā—] A. zuhāl ‘fireplace’.
5310 *jvalyatē ‘is burnt’. [√jval] Cf. Ap. saṁjallia— ‘angered, abusive’; L. jallaṇ ‘to be burnt, to burn’; — S. jalaṇu intr. ‘to burn’ with j— more prob. ← P.
5311 *jvāra— ‘burning’. [~ jvālá—. — √jvar] Phal. ǰār ‘fever’ (or < jvará—); H. jār m. ‘vehemence, virulence’. *tr̥tīyakajvāra—.
5313 *jvālana— ‘kindling’. [√jval] K. zālun m. ‘fuel’; Bhoj. jāran ‘burning of spices’; H. jāran m. ‘firewood’; M. j̈āḷaṇ n. ‘fuel’.
5316 *jhakk— 1 ‘sudden movement or blast’. 2. *jhakkōl—. [Cf. Sk. jhag—iti ‘suddenly’ S. M. Katre Calcutta Oriental Journal i 100] 1. S. jhaka f. ‘storm of wind’; P. jhakk m. ‘dust- storm’, jhakk(h)aṛ m. ‘squall’, jhakṇā ‘to be passionate’; Ku. jhā̃ko ‘fit of anger, epilepsy’; N. jhāk—jhuk ‘acci- dent’; A. zãk ‘sudden fit of anger’; B. jhā̃kan ‘jerking, passionate reproof’; Or. jhā̃ka ‘fit of rage’; H. jhakkaṛ ‘sudden blast’ (→ N. jhakkaṛ ‘storm’); — L. jhakkaṇ ‘to shrink back, be afraid’; N. jhakjhakāunu ‘to jog’. 2. S. jhakora f. ‘downpour of rain’; P. jhakolṇā ‘to shake’, H. jhakolnā, jhakornā; G. jhakoḷ f. ‘rainstorm’. Addenda: *jhakk—1: Ko. j̈hāṅki ‘ribald speech’.
5317 *jhakk— 2 ‘cover’. [Cf. *jhakk1 and similar range of meaning between *jhapp—1, *jhamp1 and *jhapp—2, *jhamp2] Bi. jhaknā ‘cover of a grain pot’; M. j̈hākṇẽ ‘to cover’.
5318 *jhakk— 3 ‘flash, shine’. 2. *jhaṅk— 2. 3. *jhagg—. [Same as *jhakk1? — Cf. jhagajhagāyatē ‘flashes’ DevīP.] 1. N. jhak—jhak ‘splendour’, jhakkalo ‘showy’, jhaka—makka ‘shining’; A. zak—mak ‘brightness’, B. jhak—jhak, —mak; Or. jhaka ‘glitter’, jhak—jhak ‘bright- ness’, jhakamaki ‘flint stone’; H. jhak ‘bright’, jhak—jhak ‘splendour’; M. j̈hakṇẽ ‘to be dazzled’, j̈hak—mag f. ‘brilliance’. 2. Pk. jhaṁkaï ‘is burnt’; K. zongu m. ‘fire, esp. a great blaze’; A. zãk—zãk ‘glittering’. 3. S. jhaǥi—maǥi f. ‘brightness’; G. jhag—jhag, —mag ‘brightly’; M. j̈hag—j̈hag f. ‘brilliance’; — cf. Pk. jaga- jagaṁta— ‘shining’. Addenda: *jhakk— 3. 3. *jhagg—: Ko. j̈hagj̈hagi ‘shining, polished’. *jhakk— 5 ‘clump’ see *jhaṅk1. Add2.
5319 *jhakk— 4 ‘obstinacy’. P. jhakk m. ‘doubt’; N. jhakki ‘intolerant of in- justice’, jhakkaṛ ‘obstinate person’; H. jhakkī, °kaṛ ‘stubborn’, M. j̈hakkaḍ. *jhakk— 5 ‘clump’ see *jhaṅk1. *jhakkā— ‘froth’ see *jhaggā—.
5320 *jhakkh— ‘babble’. [Onom.?] Pk. jhakkhia— n. ‘reproach’, jhaṁkhaï ‘babbles, re- proaches’; S. jhakaṇu ‘to chatter, gabble’. jhagajhagāyatē see *jhakk3.
5321 *jhagaḍ— ‘quarrel’. 2. *jhaggaḍ—. 3. *jhaggaṭṭ—. 1. Pk. jhagaḍa— m. ‘quarrel’ (cf. jagaḍaṁta— ‘quarrel- ling’); S. jheṛo m. ‘quarrel’, L. P. jheṛā m.; L. jheṛaṇ ‘to quarrel’. 2. S. jhaǥiṛo m. ‘quarrel’, jhaǥiṛaṇu ‘to quarrel’, L. jhagṛaṇ, P. jhagṛā m., jhagaṛṇā, WPah. pan̓. jhagaṛṇā, Ku. jhagṛo, N. jhagrā—sagrā, jhagranu, B. jhagṛā, Or. jhagaṛā, H. jhagṛā m., jhagaṛnā, Marw. jhagṛo, G. jhagṛɔ, jhaghṛɔ m., jhaghaṛvũ, M. j̈hagḍā m., j̈hagaḍṇẽ. 3. M. j̈hagaṭṇẽ ‘to collide with, seize violently’. *jhaggaṭṭ—, *jhaggaḍ— ‘quarrel’ see prec. Addenda: *jhagaḍ—. 2. *jhaggaḍ—: S.kcch. jaghaṛṇū ‘to quarrel’; WPah.kc. j̈hɔgṛo m. ‘quarrel’ prob. ← H. (Him.I 77). *jhagg— ‘shine’ see *jhakk3. *jhaggaḍ— ‘quarrel’ see *jhagaḍ— Add2.
5322 *jhaggā— ‘froth, scum’. 2. *jhakkā—. 1. S. jhaǥa f. ‘froth, scum, suds’; L. jhagg, f. ‘foam’, (Ju.) jhaǥ f. ‘foam, saliva’, jhaǥaṇ ‘to churn’, jhaǥǥā m. ‘small churning stick’; P. jhagg f. ‘foam, froth, scum’; H. jhāg f. ‘froth, scum’. 2. A. zāki ‘the frothing of boiling sugar—cane juice’.
5323 *jhaṅk— 1 ‘clump, cluster’. 2. *jhaṅkh— 2. 3. *jhakk— 5. [In meaning ‘hair’ cf. *jakka—] 1. S. jhaṅgu m. ‘jungle’, L. P. jhaṅg m. ‘thicket’; N. jāṅ ‘clump’; B. jhā̃k ‘flock’; Or. jhāṅka ‘flock’, jhāṅkaṛā ‘bushy’; H. jhā̃k m. ‘flock’; M. j̈hā̃kar n. ‘thick bush’. 2. Pk. jhaṁkhara— m. ‘dry tree’; Mth. jhā̃khī, °khaṛ ‘bush’; G. jhā̃khrũ n. ‘a prickly shrub with few leaves’. 3. Phal. ǰhakuṭo ‘woman's hair’; N. jhā̃kro ‘hair allowed to grow long and left uncombed’; A. zāk ‘crowd’; M. j̈hāk f. ‘flock’. *jhaṅk— 2 ‘flash’ see *jhakk3. Addenda: *jhaṅk— 1. 2. *jhakk—5: WPah.kṭg. j̈hàkkƏṛ, j̈hàkṛɔ m. ‘shrub, bush’, J. jhākhṛ m.
5325 *jhaṅkh— 1 ‘peep’. Ku. jhā̃kṇo ‘to peep at’, N. jhā̃knu, Or. jhāṅkibā; Mth. jhā̃kī ‘act of peeping’; Bhoj. jhā̃kal ‘to peep at’, H. jhā̃khnā (→ P. jhākṇā), OMarw. jhākaï, G. jhā̃khvũ, jā̃° (also dhā̃khvũ). *jhaṅkh— 2 ‘clump’ see *jhaṅk1.
5327 *jhaṭ— ‘sudden movement’. 2. *jhaṭṭ—. 3. *jhaṇṭ—. 4. *jhiṭṭ—. [Cf. jhaṭiti ‘instantly’ Bhartr̥. Further poss. conn. *jhaṭati] 1. Pk. jhaḍitti, °ḍatti ‘suddenly’; N. jharra ‘in a flash’; B. jhaṛājhaṛ ‘very quickly’, M. j̈haḍj̈haḍ. — Ext. —kk—: N. jharko ‘anger’, jharkanu ‘to be irritable’; A. zarak ‘rustling noise’; H. jhaṛāk m. ‘swiftness’; G. jhaṛak f. ‘swoop, leap’, jhaṛākɔ m. ‘sudden smart blow’; M. j̈haḍakṇẽ ‘to start’, j̈haḍākā m. ‘smart blow’; — —pp—: S. jhaṛpa f. ‘stroke (of wind, sun or fate)’, jhaṛpaṇu ‘to strike (of wind &c.)’; H. jhaṛap f. ‘fight’, jhaṛapnā ‘to fight’; G. jhaṛap f. ‘scuffling’, jhaṛapvũ ‘to snatch’; M. j̈haḍap f. ‘swoop’, j̈haḍapṇẽ ‘to swoop upon, fan’, j̈haḍpaṇ n. ‘flap, fan, shutter, lid’. 2. Paš. ǰaṭ— ‘to strike down, crack (a nut)’; S. jhaṭu m. ‘snatch’, jhaṭaṇu ‘to snatch at’; L. jhaṭṭ f. ‘snatch’, (Ju.) jhaṭ m. ‘a moment’, adv. ‘suddenly’; P. jhaṭṭ m. ‘a moment, haste, snatch’, jhaṭṭ—paṭṭ ‘in a moment’; Ku. jhaṭ—paṭ ‘quickly’, N. jhaṭṭa, jhaṭṭa—paṭṭa, A. zaṭo- paṭokai, B. jhaṭ, jhaṭ—phaṭ, Or. jhaṭ; Bi. jaṭāhab ‘to knock fruit down by throwing a stick at it’; Mth. jhaṭā ‘quickly’, Aw. lakh. H. G. jhaṭ; M. j̈haṭṇẽ ‘to collide violently’, j̈haṭ—j̈haṭ ‘smartly’. — Ext. —kk—: S. jhaṭko m. ‘snatch, shower of rain’; P. jhaṭkā m. ‘jerk’, jhaṭakṇā ‘to jerk’, N. jhaṛko, jhaṛkanu; B. jhaṭkā ‘blast of wind’, jhaṭkāna ‘to flap’; Or. jhaṭikā ‘strong wind’; H. jhaṭkā m. ‘jerk’, jhaṭaknā ‘to jerk’, G. jhāṭkɔ m., jhāṭakvũ, M. j̈haṭkā m., j̈haṭakṇẽ. 3. Mth. jhā̃ṭab ‘to beat (ears of corn to extract the grain)’. 4. Bi. jhiṭṭī ‘whiplash’. Addenda: *jhaṭ—. 2. *jhaṭṭ—: S.kcch. jaṭṇū ‘to snatch’, jaṭko m. ‘blow’; WPah.kṭg. j̈hɔṭ ‘suddenly’. 5. †;*jhiṭ—: WPah.kc. jhiṛno ‘to pull’; J. jhiṛṇu ‘to drag, draw’; kṭg. j̈hìṛkṇõ; ‘to interrupt (sleep) suddenly’; J. jhiṛkṇu ‘to scold’; H. jhiṛaknā ‘to shake, scold’.
5328 *jhaṭati ‘falls’. 2. *jhāṭayati ‘shakes down’. [Conn. *jhaṭ—? Or, since it collides in mng. with *jharati 1, < *jhr̥ta— pp. of √*jhar?] 1. Pk. jhaḍaï ‘hastens, makes fall’; Paš. ǰaṛ— ‘to fall off’; L. jhaṛaṇ ‘to drip, ooze’, awāṇ. jhaṛuṇ ‘to fall’; P. jhaṛṇā ‘to fall off, be shaken off, be emitted (of semen)’; WPah. cur. jhaṛnū ‘to fall’, khaś. j̈haṛ—; Ku. jhaṛṇo ‘to drop down’, N. jharnu ‘to fall’ (or < *jharati 1); Or. jhaṛibā ‘to fall’, H. jhaṛnā; M. j̈haḍṇẽ ‘to be shed or cast (of leaves &c.)’. — Ext. —kk(h)—: H. jhaṛaknā, jhiṛ° ‘to shake’; Mth. jharkhāeb ‘to shake (fruit from a tree)’; - Bi. jharjharāeb. 2. Pk. jhāḍaṇa— n. ‘sweeping’; Paš. ǰāṛ— ‘to shake down’; Kho. žāḷ ‘splashing (of water)’; S. jhāṛaṇu ‘to exorcize’; L. jhāṛaṇ ‘to thresh, sweep’, awāṇ. jhāṛuṇ ‘to dust’; P. jhāṛṇā ‘to shake off, thresh, sweep’; WPah. pāḍ. jhāṛaṇ ‘to fall’; Ku. jhāṛṇo ‘to shake off, sweep’; N. jhārnu ‘to put down’ (or < *jhārayati), jhārinu ‘to be shaken off’; A. zāriba ‘to winnow, exorcize’; B. jhāṛā ‘to shake off, thresh, exorcize’, Or. jhāṛibā; Bi. jhārab ‘to beat (heads of corn to extract grain)’, Mth. jhārab ‘to sweep’; H. jhāṛnā ‘to shake off, strain’; Marw. jhāṛṇo ‘to sweep’; G. jhāṛvũ ‘to shake, sift’; M. j̈hāḍṇẽ ‘to shake, flap, sweep, exorcize’. *jhaṭṭ— ‘sudden movement’ see *jhaṭ—. Addenda: *jhaṭati. 1. WPah.J. jhaṛnu ‘to fall’; Garh. jhaṛnu ‘to drop down’. 2. *jhāṭayati: WPah.poet. j̈haṛno ‘to cut (e.g. branches off a tree)’; P. jhāṛnā ‘to trim trees’. *jhaṭṭ— ‘sudden movement’ see *jhaṭ— Add2.
5329 *jhaḍī— ‘rainstorm’. [LM 337 ← Drav. (Kan. jaḍi, jiḍi ‘fine continuous rain’: note also meaning ‘rain- storm’ under *jhaṭṭ—, *jhakk—1, *jhapp1] Pk. jhaḍī— f. ‘continuous rain’; S. jhaṛī f. ‘continued rain or wind’; L. jhaṛ m. ‘large cloud’, jhaṛī f. ‘moderate rain’; P. jhaṛ m. ‘clouds covering sky, heavy rain’, jhaṛī f. ‘continued rain’; WPah. cur. cam. jhaṛī ‘rain’; Ku. jhaṛī ‘incessant rain’; N. jhari ‘showers’; A. zari ‘continuous rain for several days’; B. jhaṛ, °ṛi ‘storm, high wind’; Or. jhaṛa, °ṛī ‘continuous wind and rain’; H. jhaṛī f. ‘showers’; Marw. G. jhaṛī f. ‘continuous heavy rain’; M. j̈haḍ, °ḍī f. ‘long continued rain’. — Cf. S. jhuṛu m. ‘heavy clouds’, °ṛī f. ‘rainy weather’. JHAṆ ‘tinkle’: jhaṅkāra—, jhaṇajhaṇāyatē, *jha- ṇatka—, jhaṇatkāra—, *jhaṇikā—, *jhāṇayati. Addenda: *jhaḍī—: WPah.poet. j̈Əṛaṇe ‘in the rainy season’; J. jhaṛ m.pl. ‘continued rain’; A. spel. jaṛi.
5331 *jhaṇatka— ‘tinkling’. [√jhaṇ] N. jhanko ‘outburst of anger’; A. zanak ‘tinkling, rattling’; H. jhanaknā ‘to tinkle, be angry’, jhanākā m. ‘clank’; G. jhaṇkɔ m. ‘tinkling’; M. j̈haṇkā m. ‘smart, gust of passion’, °kī f. ‘tingling, ringing’; — S. jhiṇkaṇu ‘to fly out against, threaten’ (cf. Pk. jhiṁkhaṇa— n. ‘raging against’?).
5333 *jhaṇikā— ‘tinkling’. [√jhaṇ] Gy. gr. čeni, wel. šenī, šanī f. ‘bracelet, necklace’, as. ǰeni ‘bracelet’. *jhaṇṭ— ‘sudden movement’ see *jhaṭ—.
5334 *jhaṇṭa— ‘hair’. 2. *jhāṭṭha—. 3. *jhiṇṭa—. [Cf. *jhuṇṭa2, and for list see jáṭā—] 1. Pk. jhaṁṭī— f. ‘small bunch of hair’; S. jhaṇḍi f. ‘first hair on a child's head’, L. P. jhaṇḍ f.; A. zãṭ ‘matted hair’; B. jhā̃ṭ ‘pubic hair’; Or. jhaṇṭi ‘little tuft of hair on head’; Mth. jhā̃ṭi ‘pubic hair’, H. jhā̃ṭ f. (→ S. jhā̃ṭa f., P. jhā̃ṭ(h) f., Ku. jhā̃ṭ f., N. jā̃ṭhā), G. jhā̃ṭũ n.; M. j̈hā̃ṭ f. ‘matted tress’, m. ‘pubic hair’; Ko. jhāṇṭi ‘lock of combed out hair’. 2. Sv. žāṭ ‘hair’; Phal. ǰhāṭ ‘goat's hair’, ǰhēeṭi ‘mane’; Sh. pales. žaṭh, jij. žäṭ ‘goat's hair’; K. zaṭh, dat. °ṭi f. ‘clotted lump of hair on head, hair combings’; P. jhāṭṭā m. ‘woman's long hair’. 3. S. jhiṇḍā m. pl. ‘short hair of an infant’, jhiṇḍūlo ‘whose hair is allowed to grow’. — See jhiṇṭikā—. Addenda: *jhaṇṭa—. 1. S.kcch. jaṇḍ m. ‘first hair on a child's head’; WPah.kṭg. j̈hàṇḍ e f.pl. ‘pubic hair’, J. jhāṇṭo f.pl.
5335 *jhapaḍ— ‘onrush’. [Cf. *jhapp1] P. jhauṛ m. ‘attack’; H. jhauṛnā ‘to attack’; — M. j̈hoḍṇẽ ‘to destroy’ with which LM 338 compares Pk. jhōḍia— m. ‘hunter’?
5336 *jhapp— 1 ‘sudden movement’. 2. *jhamp— 1. [jhampa- m. ‘jump’ Hit.] 1. S. jhapo m. ‘pounce’, jhapaṇu ‘to snatch at’; L. jhappaṇ ‘to seize’; P. jhapp ‘quickly’; WPah. khaś. j̈happ f. ‘pounce’; Ku. jhapp ‘suddenly’; N. jhappa, jhāp—jhuppa ‘all at once’; A. zapaṅ ‘sound of suddenly plunging into water’; B. jhap, jhapāṅ ‘splash’, jhap- jhap ‘quickly’; Or. jhap ‘hastily’; Mth. jhap ‘at once’; H. jhap m. ‘jerk’; G. jhap ‘suddenly’, jhapājhap f. ‘scuffle’; M. j̈hap—j̈hap ‘suddenly’. — Ext. —kk—: P. jhapakṇā ‘to wink’; WPah. bhal. j̈hapkṇū ‘to flash’; N. jhapakka ‘suddenly’; H. jhapaknā ‘to spring at’, jhapak f. ‘blast’; M. j̈hapkaṇa ‘smartly’; — —ṭṭ—: P. jhapaṭṇā ‘to pounce on’, Ku. jhapṭaṇo, N. jhapṭanu; Or. jhapaṭa ‘scampering’; Mth. jhapaṭ ‘swoop’; H. jhapaṭnā ‘to run quickly’, jhapāṭ f. ‘quickness’; G. jhāpṭũ n. ‘sharp shower of rain’, jhapaṭ f. ‘spring’, jhapeṭvũ ‘to beat’; M. j̈hapāṭṇẽ ‘to accomplish smartly’, j̈hapeṭ f. ‘swoop (of a bird)’; — —s—: Mth. jhapās, jhāpas ‘violent rainstorm’, H. jhapās f. — Cf. also L. jhabb ‘quick’; P. jhapph f. ‘swoop (of a bird)’, jhapphṇā ‘to catch’. 2. L. jhamb f. ‘rain blown by wind’, jhambaṇ ‘to card cotton’; P. jambhṇā ‘to shake, card cotton’; WPah. cam. jambhṇā ‘to dust’; A. zā̃p ‘jump’, zā̃piba ‘to jump’, B. jhā̃p, jhā̃pā, Or. jhāmpa, jhāmpibā, Mth. jhā̃p; H. jhampnā ‘to pounce on’; G. jhãpāvvũ ‘to throw head- long’; M. j̈hā̃p f. ‘stoop (of a bird)’. — Ext. —ṭṭ—: N. jhamṭanu ‘to assault’. — Cf. also M. j̈hā̃baḍṇẽ ‘to snatch’.
5337 *jhapp— 2 ‘cover’. 2. *jhamp— 2. [Cf. *jhapp1 and similar range of meaning between *jhakk1 and *jhakk2, and in *ḍhapp—] 1. N. jhāpo ‘lid’; A. zāpiba ‘to be closed’, zapāiba ‘to cover’; B. jhāpnā ‘film over the eyes’, Or. jhāpaṇā; Mth. jhapnā ‘cover of a granary’. 2. Pk. jhaṁpaï ‘covers’, jhaṁpaṇī— f. ‘eyelid’; P. jhammaṇ m. ‘cover of a cart’; N. jhā̃po ‘lid’, jhā̃pnu ‘to cover’, jhā̃pan ‘cover of a litter’; A. zā̃p ‘cover’; B. jhā̃pāna ‘to overspread’; Or. jhāmpa ‘big basket with a lid’ (see also *jhamp3); Bi. jhā̃p ‘basket-lid’; Mth. Aw. lakh. jhā̃pab ‘to cover’, H. jhā̃pnā; M. j̈hā̃pṇẽ ‘to cover’, j̈hā̃paṇ n. ‘lid’. *jhamp— 1 ‘sudden movement’ see *jhapp1. *jhamp— 2 ‘cover’ see *jhapp2.
5338 *jhamp— 3 ‘matting’. [Same as *jhamp2?] B. jhā̃p ‘mat—door’, jhā̃pi ‘small wickerwork box’; Or. jhāmpa ‘big basket with a lid’; H. jhā̃p m. ‘bamboo frame, matted shutter’; G. jhā̃pɔ m. ‘matted gate’, jhā̃pī f. ‘small bamboo casket’; M. j̈hā̃p m. ‘thatched hut’ (cf. N. jhāpro ‘little shed’ < *jhappa—ḍa—), j̈hā̃pā m. ‘matted shutter’; — P. jhāmbh f. ‘matting shelter’. jhampa— see *jhapp1.
5339 *jhamm— 1 ‘sudden movement’. Bshk. ǰamda ‘quick’; P. jhammṇā ‘to throw on the ground’, jhamājham ‘heavily (of rain)’; N. jhamma ‘quite’, jham—jham ‘in torrents (of rain)’; A. zam—zam ‘cry caused by burning’; B. jham—jham ‘pattering’; H. jham—jham ‘sound of heavy rain’. — Ext. —ṭṭ—: Ku. jhamṭaṇo ‘to pounce on’, N. jhamṭanu. Addenda: *jhamm—1: cf. OP. jhimijhimi f. ‘steady drizzle’, P. jhim—jhim f.
5340 *jhamm— 2 ‘entanglement’. S. jhamaku m. ‘entangling of branches’, jhamaṭu m. ‘grove of trees’; N. jhamelā ‘entanglement, quarrel’; H. jhamelā m. ‘wrangling’.
5341 *jhamm— 3 ‘flash’. [Same as *jhamm1? — Cf. *jamm—] P. jhamjham ‘glittering’; H. jhamjhamānā ‘to sparkle’. — Ext. —kk—: P. jhamakṇā ‘to glitter’, N. jhamkanu; Or. jhamakibā ‘to flash’; H. jhamaknā ‘to glitter’; OMarw. jhamakālīyo ‘shining’; M. j̈hamakṇẽ ‘to glitter’. Addenda: *jhamm—3: WPah.poet. j̈hɔmko m. ‘light, flash’; J. jhamākā m. ‘lightning’. — Cf. S.kcch. jabakṇū ‘to flash’, G. jhabakvũ AKŚ 45.
5342 *jhamm— 4 ‘jingle, tingle’. [Same as *jhamm3?] N. jhamjhamāunu ‘to tingle’; A. zamzamāiba ‘to cause a burning sensation’; B. jhamjham ‘jingling’; G. jhamjham ‘with a jingle, with a burning sensation’; M. j̈hamj̈ham ‘with a jingle’. — Ext. —kk—: H. jhamkā m. ‘clanging’; G. jhamak f. ‘rhyme’, jhamkār m. ‘tingling, tinkling’. *JHAR ‘flow’: jhara—, jharaṇa—1, *jharati1, jhar- jhara—2, *jhāra—1, *jhāraṇa—, *jhārayati, *jhirati1, *jhurati1, *jhr̥ta—; *abhijjharati, *avajjhara—, *ujjharati, *nijjharati, nirjhara—1, *nirjharati, *nirjhāra—, *prajjhara—, *prajjharati, — *jhaṭati. — See √*jhal1, √*kṣar, √*kṣal.
5345 *jharaṇa— 2 ‘wearing away’. [~ jaraṇá—1. — √*jhr̥̄] G. jharṇũ n. ‘becoming old, old age’.
5346 *jharati1, pres. part. jharant— ‘flowing down’ Śatr. [Poss. a pre-vedic dialect form of the voiced consonant- group represented by g ž in Av. g žaraiti ‘streams’ and Sk. kṣ in kṣárati, kṣálati T. Burrow JAOS 79, 261, though doubted by M. Mayrhofer in Festschr. W. Kirfel 230 with lit. — In some meanings it has coalesced with *jharati2. — √*jhar] Pk. jharaï ‘drips, falls’; S. jharaṇu ‘to ooze, trickle, emit semen’; L. jharaṇ ‘to ooze, leak, drop, fall’; P. jharnā ‘to have emission of semen in sleep’; N. jharnu ‘to drip, fall’; A. zariba ‘to ooze out, shed tears’; B. jharā ‘to ooze out, drip, fall off (as leaves)’, Or. jharibā; Mth. jharab ‘to trickle, fall’; Bhoj. jharal ‘to fall’; OAw. jharaï ‘falls off’, lakh. jharab ‘to fall (of leaves)’; H. jharnā ‘to ooze, trickle away’; G. jharvũ ‘to ooze, drip, shed, melt’; M. j̈harṇẽ ‘to trickle, ooze’; Ko. jhartā ‘subsides’ — Ext. with —kk—: M. j̈harakṇẽ ‘to run off’. — See *jhārayati. Addenda: *jharati1: A. spel. jariba ‘to come out’ AFD 219, ‘to ooze out’ 331.
5346a *jharati 2 ‘wastes away’. [√*jhr̥̄] N. jharnu ‘to pine’; OAw. jharaï ‘withers’; G. jharvũ ‘to languish’ (or < *jhurati 2); M. j̈harṇẽ ‘to waste away’, Ko. jhartā. Addenda: *jharati2: WPah.kṭg. j̈hɔ̀ri , kc. j̈hɔre f. ‘sorrow, worry, concern’, kṭg. nƏj̈hɔ̀ri e ‘at ease’.
5347 *jharadhārā— ‘flowing spring’. [jhara—, dhā́ra2] P. jharāl, jhalār f. ‘excavation by the side of a river from which water is drawn for irrigation’.
5350 *jharjhara— 3 ‘worn out’. [jharjharita— R.: ~ jarjára—. — √*jhr̥̄] N. jhā̃jar ‘emaciated’. *JHAL 1 ‘flow’: *jhalati, *jhāla—1, *jhālana—, *jhāla- yati; *avajjhālayati, *ujjhalati, *ujjhāla—, *ujjhāla- yati, *prajjhalati. — See √*jhar, √kṣar, √kṣal.
5351 *jhal— 2 ‘sudden movement’. 2. *jhall— 1. [Cf. jha- lajjhalā— f. ‘flapping of elephants' ears’ Kām.] 1. N. jhaljhali ‘repeatedly’, jhalyā̃sse ‘startled’; B. jhalak ‘flapping of waves’, jhalās ‘purblind’ (< ‘*blink- ing’?); H. jhalnā ‘to move a fan to and fro’. 2. S. jhalaṇu ‘to seize’, jhalī f. ‘large fan’; P. jhall m. ‘swing of a fan’, jhallī f. ‘cloth used for fanning in winnowing’, jhallṇā ‘to move a fan’; Or. jhalajhala ‘flapping’, jhalakibā ‘to spring up’; H. jhallā, jhālā m. ‘shower of rain’; G. jhāl f. ‘sudden leap’, jhālvũ ‘to catch hold of’; M. j̈hāl f. ‘springing forward in anger’. Addenda: *jhal— 2. 2. *jhall—1: S.kcch. jalṇū ‘to hold’. †;*JHAL 3 ‘flame, blaze’: *jhal—3, jhalā—, *jhall—2, *jhāla2.
5352 *jhal— 3 ‘flash’. 2. *jhall— 2, jhallikā— f. ‘light’ lex. [See jhalā— and *jhil—. — Cf. jhalañjhala— m. ‘lustre’ lex.] 1. Pk. jhalajhalaṁta— ‘shining’; L. jhalbal m. ‘glitter’; N. jhaljhal, jhalājhal, jhallomalla ‘bright, ablaze’; A. zaliba ‘to shine, be angry’ (or < jválati); B. jhalsā ‘scorched’; Mth. jhalamala ‘shining’; Bhoj. jhalmal ‘sparkle’; H. jhaljhalānā ‘to shine’; OMarw. jhalamalīyo ‘shining’; G. jhaḷvũ ‘to be burnt’, jhaḷjhaḷ ‘resplendently’, jhaḷelɔ, jhareḷɔ m. ‘blister caused by scorching’; M. j̈haḷṇẽ ‘to get warm in the sun (of a liquor)’, j̈haḷj̈haḷ f. ‘glitter’. — Pk. jhalahalaṁta— ‘shining’, OG. jhalahalataüṁ; M. j̈haḷāḷṇẽ ‘to shine brightly’. — Ext. —kk—: Ap. jhalakkia— ‘burnt’; L. jhalkaṇ ‘to glitter’; P. jhalkā, °ārā m. ‘flash’, jhalakṇā ‘to shine’, jhalā̃g m. ‘morning’; Ku. jhalkaṇo ‘to glitter’, N. jhalkanu; A. zalak ‘brilliant light’; B. jhalkā ‘flash’; Mth. jhalakab ‘to glitter’; Bhoj. jhalak ‘flash’; H. jhalaknā ‘to sparkle’, jhalkā m. ‘blister’; G. jhaḷakvũ ‘to shine’; M. j̈haḷakṇẽ ‘to glitter’, Ko. jhaḷkatā. 2. S. jhalkaṇu ‘to shine’; P. jhall m. ‘rage’; WPah. bhal. j̈hall f. ‘flame’; Or. jhalakibā ‘to glisten’, Aw. lakh. jhalkab ‘to shine’; H. jhallā ‘hot’, jhallānā ‘to burn’, jhālnā ‘to make hot, polish’; G. jhallāvũ ‘to be scorched’, jhalakvũ ‘to shine’; M. j̈halāḷ f. ‘gleam’.
5353 *jhalati ‘flows’. [~ *jharati, kṣárati, kṣálati. - √*jhal 1] Or. jhaḷibā ‘to drip, be soldered’. — See *jhālayati. jhalarī— see jhallī—.
5355 *jhalla— ‘bush’. [Cf. jhāṭa—] Ash. Kt. zul ‘jungle’; Paš. dar. ǰal ‘tree’, nir. ǰāl, ar. ǰōl, kuṛ. zal, chil. zol, Gmb. ǰalā; Kal. Əhal ‘jungle’; Kho. žal ‘grove, copse (of trees)’; Sh. ǰēl m. ‘forest’; L. jhall m. ‘jungle’; P. jhall m. ‘reed—bed, thicket’; WPah. bhad. bhiḍ. j̈hall n. ‘bush’, bhal. j̈h e ll n., rudh. j̈hall ‘thicket’; N. jhāl ‘collection of vines or other plants’; H. jhalār m. ‘brushwood’; M. j̈hāl f. ‘pendulous flowering and fruitage of a tree’. Addenda: *jhalla— ‘bush’: WPah.kṭg. j̈hàll, kc. j̈hāl m. ‘bush’; J. jhāll m.pl. ‘thorny shrubs’; poet. j̈hɔlṭu m. ‘bush’.
5357 *jhallā— ‘lock of hair’. [Cf. jhallarī1. — For list of similar words for ‘hair’ see jáṭā—] M. j̈hāl f. ‘tassel of hair’.
5360 *jhas— ‘sudden movement’. 2. *jhass—. 1. Pk. jhasia— ‘thrown up’; Ku. jhasjhas ‘startling’. - Ext. —kk—: Ku. jhasak ‘fright’; N. jhasko ‘sprain in a muscle’, jhaskanu ‘to be startled’. 2. P. jhassṇā ‘to rub’; N. jhās—jhus ‘chaff’; Or. jhāsibā ‘to attack suddenly’. *jhass— ‘sudden movement’ see prec.
5361 *jhāñjha— ‘tinkling’. [Cf. jhañjhā—?] S. jhā̃jhu m. ‘cymbal’; P. jhā̃j m. ‘sound of a musical instrument’; N. B. jhā̃jh ‘cymbal’, Or. jhāñjha; OAw. jhāṁjha f. ‘cymbal’, lakh. jhā̃jh ‘anklet’; H. G. jhā̃jh f. ‘cymbal’, M. j̈hā̃j̈ f.
5363 *jhāṇayati ‘makes crackle’. [Caus. of jhaṇati ‘makes a noise’ lex. — √jhaṇ] N. jhānnu ‘to fry in ghee or oil’? *jhāṇṭa— ‘bush’ see jhāṭa—.
5364 *jhāta— ‘burnt’. [Cf. kṣātí— f. ‘burning’ RV. - √*jhai] Pk. jhāya— ‘burnt to ashes’; Si. dāya ‘destruction’ (not with Geiger EGS 74 < *jhaya— ~ kṣayá—).
5365 *jhāna— ‘burnt’. [~ *kṣāṇa—: cf. Pk. vijjhāṇa— ‘ex- tinguished’. — √*jhai] Pa. jhāna— n. ‘conflagration’; L. poṭh. jhāṇī m. ‘cremation ground’ or more prob. < *jhāyana—. *jhāpayati ‘causes to burn’ see *jhāyati.
5366 *jhāma— 1 ‘burnt’. 2. jhāmaka— n. ‘vitrified brick’ lex. [~ kṣāmá—. — √*jhai] 1. Pa. jhāma— ‘burning’; Pk. jhāma— ‘burning, dark- coloured’; Phal. ǰhām ‘itching’; A. zā̃u ‘vitrified brick’; Or. jhā̃ ‘burnt, over—roasted, calcined’; Mth. jhām ‘vitrified brick’. 2. S. jhā̃õ; m. ‘a kind of brick or pumice—stone for rubbing dirt off soles of feet’, P. jhā̃vā̃, jhāmā̃ m.; MB. jhā̃oe inst. ‘pumice—stone’, B. jhāmā; Or. jhāmā ‘vitrified brick’, Bi. jhā̃wā̃, Mth. jhāmā, Bhoj. jhāwā̃, H. jhā̃wā, jhāmā m. (whence jhãwānā ‘to clean the feet with pumice—stone’); Si. dam̆bu ‘burning, on fire’. - Deriv.: Pk. jhāmaï tr. ‘burns’; G. jhāmvũ ‘to dip a hot piece of stone in water’; — Pk. jhāmia— ‘burnt, blackened’; P. jhāı̄̃ f. ‘freckle’; B. jhā̃i ‘calcined rice’; Or. jhāı̃ ‘excessive heat, summer’; H. jhāı̄̃ f. ‘dusky colour’; — prob. also P. jhāı̄̃ f. ‘shadow’, G. jhā̃y f. *jhāmala—1; *jhāmarūpa—; *ardhajjhāma—. Addenda: *jhāma— 1. 1. WPah.kṭg. j̈hawɔ m. ‘flash of lightning’, J. jhā̃wã m. ‘light’. 2. A. jhā̃o (phonet. zão) ‘vitrified brick’, Brj. jhā̃wo, jhāmo m.
5367 *jhāma— 2 ‘dim—sighted’. [Cf. *jhāma1 in P. jhāı̄̃ f. ‘shadow’?] S. jhā̃ı̄̃ f. ‘dimness of sight’. *jhāmala2. *jhāmara— ‘a disease’ see *jhāmala2.
5368 *jhāmarūpa— ‘like a burnt brick’. [*jhāma—1, rūpá—] Mth. jhāmru ‘having the colour of a burnt brick, black’.
5369 *jhāmala— 1 ‘burnt—coloured’. [Formed from *jhāma1 after śyāmala— ~ śyāma—. — dhyāmala— ‘black’ is sanskritization of MIA. jhāmala—. — √*jhai] Pk. jhāmala— ‘dark, black’; Or. jhāũḷā ‘withered’; Mth. jhāmara ‘black, pale’; H. jhaũl, °lā, jhaũr, °rā, jhā̃wrā ‘dark—coloured, dusky, black, tawny’, jhā̃wlī f. ‘hot wind’. — Deriv.: Pk. jhāmaliya— ‘blackened’; Or. jhāũḷibā ‘to wither’. Addenda: *jhāmala—1: Brj. jhãwarno ‘to become black’.
5370 *jhāmala— 2 ‘a disease of the eyes’. 2.*jhāmara—2. [*jhāma2] 1. Pk. jhāmala— n.; S. jhā̃viro ‘dimsighted’; Or. hāũḷā ‘a disease of the eyes’. 2. G. jhāmar m. ‘a disease of the head and eye’, jhāmrɔ m. ‘a skin disease, large boil on palm’, °rī f. ‘boil on palm’. — L. jhā̃var f. ‘slight shower (< *mistiness?)’ very doubtful.
5371 *jhāyati intr. ‘burns’. 2. Caus. *jhāpayati. [~ kṣāyati intr. KātyŚr. com., kṣāpáyati1. — √*jhai] 1. Pa. jhāyati intr., Si. danavā (pret. dã̤vā < *jhāpita—?). 2. Pa. jhāpēti ‘burns, cooks’; Aś. jhāpayitaviye ger. ‘to be burnt’; Pk. jhāvaṇa— n., °ṇā— f. ‘burning’; Si. davanavā tr. ‘to burn’.
5372 *jhāyana— ‘burning’. [√*jhai] Pa. jhāyana— n. ‘burning, cremation’; L. poṭh. jhāṇī m. ‘cremation ground’ (perh. < *jhāyanīya— if gender given by Maya Singh PD 493 is correct) or poss. < *jhāna—.
5373 *jhāra— 1 ‘flowing’. [~ kṣāra—2, kṣālá—. — √*jhar] S. jhāro ‘diluted with water’; L. jhārā m. ‘dropping of water, waterfall’; B. jhārā ‘stream of water from the perforated bottom of a pot to water a plant’.
5374 *jhāra— 2 ‘collection’. S. jhāri f. ‘flock of birds’; G. jhārũ n. ‘troop’.
5375 *jhāraṇa— ‘causing to flow’. [√*jhar] A. zāran ‘a metallic calx’; Bi. jhara ‘iron sieve with handle’.
5376 *jhārayati ‘causes to flow’. [~ *jhālayati, kṣārayati, kṣāláyati. — √*jhar] N. jhārnu ‘to pour out’; Or. jhāribā ‘to let fall, drop’; H. jhārnā ‘to sift, winnow’; G. jhārvũ ‘to sift, wash with hot water, solder’; M. j̈hārṇẽ ‘to sift’.
5377 *jhārikā— ‘water—pot’. S. jhārī f. ‘metal vessel with long neck’, N. jhāri; A. zāri ‘drinking vessel with spout’, B. Or. Bi. jhāri, H. jhārī f. (→ Mth. jhāṛī), G. jhārī f., M. j̈hārī f.
5378 *jhāla— 1 ‘flow, causing to flow’. [~ *jhāra—1, kṣāra—2, kṣālá—. — √*jhal 1] P. jhāl f. ‘gilding, tinning’; Or. jhāḷa ‘sweat’; H. jhāl m. ‘solder’, jhālā m. ‘local rain’. *jhāladhāraka—.
5379 *jhāla— 2 ‘burning, pungent’, jhāli— f. ‘unripe mango fried with asafoetida’ Bhpr. [~ kṣārá—1. — √*jhai] P. jhāl f. ‘heat of condiments’; A. zāl ‘pungency, heat of fire’; B. jhāl ‘hot, pungent, pungency’, °luyā ‘highly seasoned’; Or. jhāḷa ‘chillies’, jhāḷi ‘pungent preparation of raw mango pickle with mustard and salt’, (Medinipur) jhāl ‘pungent, pungency’; H. jhāl ‘hot, sharp’, m. ‘heat, pungency’; G. jhāḷ f. ‘flame, heat’. Addenda: *jhāla— 2 [√†;*jhal 3]: WPah.kc. j̈hāḷ f. (obl. —a) ‘heat of the sun, sunrays’; Garh. jhāḷ ‘burning heat’.
5380 *jhāladhāraka— ‘flowing spring’. [*jhāla—1, dhā́ra2] H. jhālrā ‘spring of water’?
5381 *jhālana— ‘causing to flow’. [~ *jhāraṇa—. - √*jhal 1] G. jhāḷaṇ n. ‘soldering, solder’.
5382 *jhālayati ‘causes to flow’. [~ *jhārayati, kṣārayati, kṣāláyati. — √*jhal 1] Sh. ǰalóĭki̯ ‘to throw, sprinkle, scatter (e.g. seed, earth, manure)’; P. jhālaṇā ‘to gild’; A. zāliba ‘to solder’, B. jhālā; Or. jhāḷibā ‘to clear out silt from a well, to solder’; H. jhālnā ‘to solder’, G. jhāḷvũ, M. j̈hāḷṇẽ. — P. jhālaṇā ‘to polish’, H. jhālnā ‘to polish, clean’ perh. semant. < ‘to gild’. Addenda: *jhālayati: WPah.kṭg. j̈hàḷnõ; ‘to clean (e.g. by brushing dirt off clothes), to scold’.
5384 *jhikk— ‘bend, jerk’. 2. *jhiṅk—. [Cf. √*jhukk] 1. Tor. žigal— ‘to pull’; S. jhikaṇu ‘to bend, be crooked’, jhiku m. ‘a dint, inclination’, jhiko ‘crooked’; Ku. jhikṇo intr. ‘to delay’, jhikoṇo tr.; N. jhiknu ‘to pull in, take out or off’, jhikro ‘splinter’; A. zikār ‘sudden start’; Or. jhikibā ‘to pull with a jerk’; Bi. jhīkā ‘handful of grain poured into a mill’; G. jhikvũ ‘to dash to the ground’, jhīkɔ m. ‘dust of bricks’. 2. B. jhı̃kā ‘jerk’, Or. jhiṅkibā ‘to pull with a jerk’; Bi. jhı̄̃k, °kā ‘handful of grain poured into a mill’; G. jhı̃kvũ ‘to dash to the ground’; M. jhı̃kṇẽ, jhik° ‘to catch (a ball &c.)’. Addenda: *jhikk—: WPah.kṭg. jhìkṇõ; intr. ‘to swing, sway, tilt’. †;*jhiṭ— ‘sudden movement’ see *jhaṭ—.
5385 *jhiṅga— ‘prawn’. [Cf. ciṅgaṭa—, gāṅgaṭa—, kar- kaṭa1] P. jhiṅgā m. ‘shrimp, prawn’; N. jhiṅo ‘small fly’, jhiṅe mācho ‘shrimp, prawn’; Aw. lakh. H. jhı̄̃gā m. ‘shrimp, prawn’, M. jhı̃gā m. — Deriv. S. jhiṅgaṇu ‘(of flies) to alight on and spoil food’. *jhiṅgura—; *jhiṅgarūpa—.
5386 *jhiṅgarūpa— ‘shrimp’. [*jhiṅga—, rūpá—] M. jhı̃grū̃ n. ‘small shrimp’. jhiṅginī—, jhiṅgī— see jiṅgiṇī—.
5387 *jhiṅgura— ‘cockroach’. [Cf. jhiñjhī—, jhijjhī— f. ‘cricket’ lex.—*jhiṅga—] Pk. jhiṁgira—, °aḍa— m. ‘a small insect’; P. jhiṅgur m. ‘cricket’; N. jhiṅur ‘cockroach’; Mth. jhı̃gur ‘cricket’; Bhoj. jhiṅgur ‘grasshopper’; H. jhı̃gur m. ‘cricket’. *jhiṭṭ— ‘sudden movement’ see *jhaṭ—. *jhiṭṭa— ‘bush’ see jhāṭa—. *jhiṇṭa— ‘hair’ see *jhaṇṭa—.
5389 *jhirati 1 ‘flows’. [Perh. like *kṣirati formed from *jharati after type tárati ~ tirátē. — √ *jhar] H. jhirnā ‘to trickle away, ooze’, but perh. a forma- tion in H. itself.
5390 *jhirati 2 ‘decays’. [~ *jīrati. — √*jhr̥̄] M. jhirṇẽ ‘to waste in labour and pain’. Addenda: *jhirati1: M. jhirapṇẽ ‘to trickle’ (Master GrOM 136, Doderet BSOS iv 63).
5391 *jhil— ‘flash’. [Cf. *jhal3] Sh. (Lor.) ǰil boiki ‘to rise (of sun)’; Or. jhiljhil ‘flashing’; Si. dilihenavā, dilenavā ‘to glitter’. — Ext. —kk—: N. jhilik ‘flash’; A. zilikiba ‘to sparkle’; B. jhillikā ‘lustre’. — S. jhirmiri f. ‘starshine’; P. jhilmilāuṇā ‘to sparkle’; N. jhilimili ‘glitter’, A. zilmilāiba; Or. jhilimili ‘vivid light’; H. jhilmil m. ‘sparkling’; M. jhiḷmiḷ ‘dazzlingly’; — S. jhirmira f. ‘venetian blind’; P. jhilmilī f. ‘shutter’, N. jhilmil, B. jhilimili, jhilmil, Or. jhilimili, H. jhilmil m.; M. jhiḷmiḷī f. ‘hangings’.
5392 *jhilla— 1 ‘swamp, lake’. [Cf. *hilla2] Pk. jhillaï ‘bathes’, jhillī— f. ‘wave’; N. B. jhil ‘lake, pool’; Or. jhila ‘lake, pool, swamp’; Bi. jhīl ‘low marshy land’; Mth. jhīl ‘lake, marsh’, H. jhīl f. (→ P. jhīl f.); G. jhīl f. ‘deep reservoir of water’; M. jhīl f. ‘rill’, m. ‘swampiness’. Addenda: *jhilla—2: G. jhīl f. ‘a kind of plant’. †;*jhīvara— see dhīvara—.
5393 *jhilla— 2 ‘a partic. kind of plant’. Pk. jhillī— f. ‘a partic. wild plant’; S. jhilu f. ‘an edible water—plant, a small wild shrub from which tooth cleaners are made’.
5395 *jhīna— ‘wasted, worn, thin’. [~ kṣīṇá—. — √*jhi] Pk. jhīṇa— ‘wasted away, thin’; S. jhīṇo ‘weak, slight, gentle’; P. jhīṇā ‘weak, feeble’; N. jhinu ‘small, fine’, sb. ‘chip of wood’; OAw. jhīnā ‘thin’; H. jhīnā ‘wasted, thin’, OMarw. jhīṇa; G. jhīṇũ ‘thin, small, fine’; M. jhiṇā ‘rubbed fine’; — Pk. jhiṇṇa— ‘wasted away, thin’; Or. jhina ‘thin and delicate’: both prob. < *jhīna—, but phonet. may, like the above forms of N. Aw. H., be < *jhīrṇa—: poss. the two words have coalesced.
5396 *jhīyatē ‘wastes away’. [~ kṣīyátē. — √*jhi] Pk. jhijjaï ‘wastes away’, H. jhījhnā, M. jhij̈ṇẽ; — N. jhijo ‘worry, care’. — Phonet. derivation from jhīryati is possible, but in view of *jhīna— and the equivalence of kṣīyátē is less likely.
5397 *jhīrṇa— ‘wasted’. [~ jīrṇá—. — √*jhr̥̄] Pk. jhiṇṇa— ‘wasted’; Or. jhina ‘thin and delicate’: but see *jhīna—.
5399 *jhukkati ‘stoops, breaks’. 2. *jhuṅkati. [Cf. Shgh. ǰuk— ‘to beat’, Par. ǰukḗw— ‘to shake’ IIFL i 261. - √*jhukk] 1. S. jhukaṇu ‘to stoop’, L. jhukaṇ, P. jhukṇā; WPah. bhal. j̈ukṇū ‘to crush or break stone’; Ku. jhukṇo ‘to bow’; N. jhuknu ‘to bend forward’, jhukkinu ‘to be misled’; H. jhuknā ‘to bend’ intr., G. jhukvũ, M. j̈hukṇẽ; — S. jhokaṇu ‘to push faggots on to the fire’; N. jhok ‘a net hung up to hold clothes’. 2. N. jhuṅgi ‘carrying something by holding it on both sides’; B. jhũkā ‘to stoop’; Or. jhuṅkibā ‘to stoop, stagger’. — Bhoj. jhõ;k ‘gust of wind’? *jhuṅkati ‘stoops’ see prec. *jhuṭṭa— ‘knot of hair’ see *jhuṇṭa2. Addenda: *jhukkati. 3. †;*jhōkkati tr.: S. jhokaṇu ‘to push faggots on the fire’, P. jhokṇā ‘id., thrust forward’; WPah.kṭg. j̈hòkṇõ; ‘to throw down or away’ Him.I 78, J. jhokṇu ‘to throw fuel on fire’; — kṭg. j̈hòkṭi f. ‘firewood’, J. jhokkū m. ‘fuel’, N. jhok ‘net hung up to hold clothes’, cf. Sh. jŭk m. ‘wood’, WPah.kṭg. (kc.) j̈húkhṛɔ m. ‘wood’, kṭg. j̈hv́khṛi f. ‘firewood’, J. jhukhrī f.
5401 *jhuṇṭa— 2 ‘tangle, knot of hair, protuberance’. 2. *jhōṇṭa—. 3. *jhuṭṭa—. 4. *jhūṭa— 2. 5. *jhōṭṭa—. [Cf. jūṭa— and cū́ḍa1: for list of poss. connected words see jáṭā—] 1. WPah. bhal. j̈huṇṭṛī f. ‘woman's queue of hair’; B. jhũṭ ‘chignon, bird's crest, protuberance on back of ox or camel’, Or. jhuṇṭi; H. jhũṭiyā f. ‘lock of hair on crown of head’. 2. A. zõ;ṭ ‘entanglement’, zõ;ṭiba ‘to entangle’; Mth. jhõ;ṭī ‘queue of hair’; Bhoj. jhõ;ṭā ‘tuft of hair’; M. j̈hõ;ṭ f. ‘knot of hanging hair’. 3. S. jhuṭu m. ‘top knot’. 4. S. jhūṛo m. ‘knot of hair’, L. jhūṛā m.; G. jhuṛɔ m. ‘bunch of false hair for making up a woman's hair’, jhū̆ṛī f. ‘bunch, bundle’. 5. S. jhoṭo m. ‘tuft of hair on crown’.
5402 *jhuṇḍra— ‘crowd’. 2. *jhutta—. [Cf. *jhuppa2] 1. S. jhuṇḍru m. ‘band of fakirs’; P. jhuṇḍ m. ‘flock, troop’; Ku. jhuṇḍi, N. jhuṇḍa; Bi. jhuṇḍ, jhū̃ṛ ‘flock of sheep or goats’; Bhoj. jhũṛi ‘crowd’; H. jhuṇḍ m. ‘flock, troop’, G. jhuṇḍ n., M. j̈huṇḍ f. 2. N. jhut, jhutti ‘crowd’, jhutto ‘bundle of 4 or 6 maize cobs’, jhuttinu ‘to get entangled’; B. jhutta ‘crowd’. *jhutta— ‘crowd’ see prec.
5403 *jhuppa— 1 ‘hut’. 2. *jhumpa—. 3. *jhōppa—. 4. *jhōmpa—. 1. S. jhūpiṛo m., °ṛī f. ‘hut’; L. jhupṛī f. ‘hut of grass and branches’; N. jhupro ‘hut’, A. zupuri, B. jhupṛi, Or. jhupuṛi, G. jhupṛũ n. 2. Pk. jhuṁpaḍā— f. ‘hut’; L. jhub m. ‘hut of sticks or mud’; G. jhũpṛũ n., °ṛī f. ‘hut’. 3. Ku. jhopṛī f. ‘hut’, N. jhopro, °ri, B. jhopṛā, H. jhopṛā m., °ṛī f. 4. Bi. jhõ;pṛī ‘shed on threshing floor’; Mth. H. jhõ;pṛā m., °ṛī f. ‘hut’, G. jhõ;pṛũ n., M. j̈hõ;pā m., j̈hõ;pḍī f., j̈hõ;pḍẽ n. — L. jhômpṛā m., P. jhaumpṛā m. < MIA. *jhaüṁpa—.
5404 *jhuppa— 2 ‘crowd, cluster’. 2. *jhubba—. 3. *jhumma—. [Cf. *jhuṇḍra—] 1. Ku. jhupuro ‘cluster’, N. jhuppo; A. zupurā ‘low and bushy’; H. jhūpā m. ‘collection, heap’. 2. S. jhūbāṭaṇu ‘to crush’; P. jhubkā m. ‘pendent earring’. 3. S. jhumu m. ‘thicket’; N. jhumma ‘huddled together’, jhumminu intr. ‘to crowd together’; A. zum ‘herd’; G. jhum n. ‘group’. — Ext. —kk—: S. jhumaku m. ‘cluster’, jhūmaku m. ‘a kind of ear ornament’; P. jhumkā m. ‘pendent earring’; N. jhumko, jham° ‘cluster’; B. jhumkā ‘earring with pendants’, Or. jhumukā; H. jhumkā ‘cluster’, G. jhumkhũ n., °khɔ m., M. j̈humkā m.; — with —ṭṭ—: S. jhumaṭu m. ‘thicket’, jhumṭo m. ‘grove of trees’; Ku. jhumuṭo ‘flock, swarm’;—with —r—: P. jhumar m. ‘crowd’. *jhubba— ‘crowd’ see prec. *jhumpa— ‘hut’ see *jhuppa1. *jhumma— ‘crowd’ see *jhuppa2. Addenda: *jhuppa— 2. 2. jhubba—: OP jhubbaṇu intr. ‘to crowd together’. 3. *jhumma—: WPah.kṭg. jhùmkɔ m. ‘cluster’.
5404a *jhurati 1 ‘flows, drips’. [√*jhar] M. j̈hurṇẽ ‘to drip, ooze’. Addenda: †;*jhumba— ‘blanket’: WPah.kṭg. j̈hū̀m m. ‘cloak with a hood’, J. jhūm f., P. jhumb, jhumm m. ‘blanket thrown over the head’ Him.I 78. *jhumma— ‘crowd’ see *jhuppa2 Add2.
5405 *jhurati 2 ‘wastes away’. [~ juránt— pres. part. RV. - √*jhr̥̄] S. jhuraṇu ‘to be hurt (by blow, fall, &c.)’ whence caus. jhoraṇu; L. jhuraṇ ‘to pine with grief’; P. jhurnā ‘to wither, grieve’; N. jhurinu ‘to become parched’; Or. jhuribā ‘to lament’ (or < *jhūrati); Mth. jhurab intr. ‘to wither, parch, burn’; OAw. jhuraï ‘wastes away’, H. jhurnā; G. jharvũ ‘to pine away, languish’ (or < *jharati 2); M. j̈hurṇẽ ‘to waste away, drip, ooze’. — See *jhūrati. *JHUL ‘swing’: *jhulyati, *jhōlayati; *nijjhulati.
5406 *jhulyati ‘swings’. [Cf. Par. ǰūlē ‘shaking’, Pers. ǰūlīdan ‘to be scattered’. — √*jhul] Pk. jhullaï ‘swings’; Phal. ǰül— ‘to be lying down’, ǰhuli ‘on, to’ NOPhal 37; K. zŏl f. ‘brief drowsiness’; S. jhūlaṇu ‘to swing, nod’; L. awāṇ. jhuluṇ ‘to blow’; P. jhullṇā ‘to swing’; WPah. bhad. zhulṇu ‘to sleep’, bhal. j̈hullṇū, śeu. j̈hulnū; Ku. jhulṇo ‘to swing’; N. jhulnu ‘to nod, sleep’; A. zuliba ‘to be suspended’; B. jhulā ‘to swing, hang’, Or. jhulibā; Bhoj. jhūlā ‘woman's skirt’; OAw. jhulāvaï ‘causes to swing’; H. jhūlnā ‘to swing’, Marw. jhūlṇo; G. jhulvũ ‘to swing, hang, saunter’, M. j̈hulṇẽ. — Ext. —kk—: S. jhulko m. ‘blast of wind’; P. jhulkaṇā ‘to hang down, go’; N. jhulkanu ‘to rise (of sun)’; M. j̈hulakṇẽ ‘to wave gently’. *jhūṭa— 1 ‘bush’ see jhuṇṭa1. *jhūṭa— 2 ‘hair’ see *jhuṇṭa2. Addenda: *jhulyati: WPah.kṭg. j̈hùlṇõ; intr. ‘to swing’, J. jhulṇu, kṭg. caus. j̈Əlh e\ uṇõ;, poet. j̈Əlharo m., °re f. ‘act of waving, scintillating’, intr. j̈Əlharno; kṭg. (kc.) j̈hùllɔ m. ‘rope—bridge’, j̈hùllƏṇ m. ‘washing—line’.
5407 *jhūṭṭha— ‘false’. [→ Par. ǰuṭ ‘concealed’, ǰuṭī ‘theft’ IIFL i 263] Pk. jhuṭṭha—, juṭṭha— ‘false’; Paš. ǰuṭı̄́ ‘lascivious woman’; S. jūṭhu m. ‘lie’, juṭhi f. ‘abusing’; P. jhūṭh f. ‘lie’, jhūṭhā ‘false’; Ku. jhūṭo ‘liar’; N. jhuṭ ‘lie’, jhuṭho, °ṭo ‘false’, B. jhũṭha; Or. jhuṭha, °ṭa ‘false’, °ṭā ‘liar’; Mth. Bhoj. jhūṭh ‘lying, false’, H. jhūṭhā; Marw. jhūṭh f. ‘lie’, jhūṭho ‘false’, G. juṭhũ; M. j̈huṭ f. ‘lie’, j̈huṭā ‘false’. Addenda: *jhūṭṭha—: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) j̈hv́ṭṭhɔ ‘false, untrue’; J. jhuṭṭh m. ‘untruth’.
5408 *jhūra— ‘wasted away, worn—out’. [√*jhr̥̄] S. jhūru ‘old, ancient’; N. jhuro ‘brittle’, sb. ‘dry leaves for fire, crumb’; A. zur—zur ‘fine particles’; B. jhurā ‘crumbled’, sb. ‘crumb’; Or. jhura ‘crumb’; Mth. jhūr ‘burnt, disgusted’; H. jhūrā ‘withered, dried up’; M. j̈hūr n. ‘small particles of rice (when husking)’. *nirjhūra—.
5409 *jhūrati ‘wastes away’. [Cf. *jhurati2. — √*jhr̥̄] Pk. jhūraï ‘wastes away’ (~ jūraï ‘withers, regrets, is angry’, jūlaï ‘is angry’); P. jhūrnā ‘to repine’; Or. jhuribā ‘to lament’ (or < *jhurati 2); H. jhūrnā ‘to waste away, dry up’; OG. jhūraï ‘repents’, G. jhurvũ ‘to languish’. Addenda: *jhūrati: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) j̈hùrnõ; ‘to pine away (esp. from love), to long for, love’, kṭg. j̈hv̀ri f. ‘sweetheart, a certain kind of song’. †;*jhēṭa— see jhāṭa—.
5410 *jhūrṇa— ‘old’. [~ jūrṇá—. — √*jhr̥̄] S. jhūno ‘old, ancient’; B. jhun ‘overripe’, jhunā ‘old’, sb. ‘dried up cocoanut’; H. jhūnā m. ‘ripe cocoanut’.
5411 *jhūryatē ‘is worn—out’. [~ jū́ryant— pres. part. RV. - √*jhr̥̄] P. jhūjṇā ‘to be tired out’.
5412 *jhūśa— ‘hair’. [Cf. *jhūṭa— and kḗśa—: for list of poss. connected words see jáṭā—] Paš. kuṛ. ǰuš m. ‘hair’; Ku. jhūs ‘beard of barley’; N. jhus ‘fine hair, hairs on a plant or caterpillar, shavings’. *JHR̥̄ ‘waste away’. [equivalence of many of the forms below with those grouped under √jr̥̄ 1 suggests that √*jhr̥̄ derives from √jr̥̄ 1 with jh— from √*jhi ~ √kṣi 2] *jharaṇa—2, *jharati2, *jharjhara—, *jhirati2, *jhīrṇa—, jhīryati, *jhurati2, *jhūra—, *jhūrati, *jhūrṇa—, *jhūryatē; *nirjhara—2, *nirjhūra—; — √jr̥̄ 1.
5413 *jhēlati ‘undergoes’. N. jhelnu ‘to undergo, suffer’, H. jhelnā, OMarw. jhelaï. — H. jhelnā ‘to take’, M. jhelṇẽ ‘to catch’ (< *jhēll—)? *JHAI ‘burn’: *jhāta—, *jhāna—, *jhāpayati, *jhāma—1, jhāmaka—, *jhāmala—1, *jhāyati, *jhāyana—, *jhāla—2; *avajjhāyati, *vijjhāpayati, *vijjhāyati. — See √kṣai.
5414 *jhōṭati ‘cuts, beats’. [Cf. chōṭayati ‘cuts, splits’ Dhātup.] Pk. jhōḍaï ‘makes leaves fall off a tree’; N. jhornu ‘to beat for game’; B. jhoṛā ‘to cut, lop’; OAw. jhoraï ‘beats, shakes’; H. jhoṛnā, jhor° ‘to beat’, M. j̈hoḍṇẽ. *jhōṭṭa— 1 ‘bush’ see jhuṇṭa1. *jhōṭṭa— 2 ‘knot of hair’ see *jhuṇṭa2. jhōḍa— see jhuṇṭa1. *jhōṇṭa— ‘knot of hair’ see *jhuṇṭa2. *jhōppa—, jhōmpa— ‘hut’ see *jhuppa1. Addenda: *jhōṭati: A. juriba (phonet. z—) ‘to clear forest’ AFD 219 (3 sg. jure), 331 (st. jor—).
5415 *jhōla— 1 ‘bag’. 2. *jhōlla—. [jhaulikā— f. ‘small bag’ Dhūrtas. — Perh. conn. √*jhul, cf. parallel formation of N. jholuṅgo ‘swinging cradle’ and A. zoloṅgā ‘beggar's bag’] 1. Pk. jhōliā— f. ‘bag’; L. jhoḷī f. ‘skirt used as a bag, lap’; P. jholā m., °lī f. ‘bag’, Ku. jholo, °lī; N. jholi ‘small wallet’; A. zuli ‘bag, scrotum’; B. jholi, jhuli ‘bag’; Bi. jholā, °lī ‘feeding bag for cattle’; Mth. jhorī ‘bag’, Bhoj. jhōrā, H. jholī f., G. jhoḷī f., jhorṇɔ m., °ṇī f.; M. j̈hoḷī f. ‘mendicant's bag’. 2. Pk. jholliā— f. ‘bag’; S. jhola f. ‘skirt used to hold anything in’, jholī f. ‘fakir's bag, nest of eggs, brood of young birds’. Addenda: *jhōla— 1. 1. WPah.J. jhoḷā m. ‘wallet’. 2. *jhōlla—: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) j̈hòllɔ m. ‘bag’. *jhōlla— ‘bag’ see *jhōla1 Add2.
5416 *jhōla— 2 ‘juice’. Sh. (Lor.) ǰūli f. ‘soup’, Ku. jhol; N. jhol ‘juice, soup’; A. zol ‘soup’, B. jhol, Or. jhoḷa, Mth. jhor, H. jhol m.
5417 *jhōlayati ‘causes to swing’. [√*jhul] P. jholṇā ‘to stir buttermilk’; N. jholinu intr. ‘to dangle, get loose’; H. jholnā ‘to cause to swing, to fan’; G. jhoḷvũ ‘to shake’; M. jhoḷṇā m. ‘sling for lifting animals’. *jhōlla— ‘bag’ see *jhōla1. jhaulikā— see *jhōla1.
5418 *ṭaüna— ‘deaf’. WPah. bhad. ṭauṇo ‘deaf’, bhal. ṭaõ;ṇo, khaś. ṭaoṇā, N. ṭaunu; — Ku. ṭolo with l from kālo ‘dumb’ (< kalya2). Addenda: *ṭaüna—: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ṭɔṇɔ ‘deaf’, J. ṭōnwṇā.
5420 *ṭakk— 1 ‘remain, stop’. 2. *ṭikk—. 3. *ṭēkk— usu. tr. [Cf. *ḍakk—3, *ṭhēkk—] 1. Sh. (Lor.) ṭak boiki ‘to be hampered, be stuck’; P. ṭakk m. ‘settlement of price’; N. ṭakka aṛinu ‘to come to a dead stop’; G. ṭakvũ ‘to stop’; M. ṭākṇẽ ‘to leave’. 2. Kho. (Lor.) tika ‘support, cushion behind the back’; S. ṭikaṇu ‘to remain, be firm’; L. ṭikkaṇ ‘to stay’; P. ṭikṇā ‘to stay’, ṭikkṇā ‘to appoint’; N. ṭiknu ‘to remain, last’; A. ṭikiba ‘to last, be of service’; B. ṭikā ‘to remain’; Or. ṭikibā ‘to last, be effective’; H. ṭiknā ‘to stop, remain’; M. ṭikṇẽ ‘to stay’. 3. P. ṭekṇā ‘to prop’, ṭekaṇ m. ‘prop, bundle of wood’; Ku. ṭekṇo ‘to prop’, ṭeko ‘prop, obstacle’; N. ṭeknu ‘to set up’, ṭek ‘obstinacy’, ṭekan ‘prop’; A. ṭek ‘middle part of a dam’; B. ṭẽkā ‘to remain’; Or. ṭekibā ‘to lift up’; OAw. ṭekaï ‘puts, stops’, ṭeka f. ‘prop’; H. ṭeknā ‘to prop’; G. ṭekvũ, ṭek m.f. ‘support’; M. ṭekṇẽ tr. and intr. ‘to rest’. Addenda: *ṭakk— 1. 2. *ṭikk—: WPah.J. ṭikṇu ‘to stop’. 3. *ṭēkk—: WPah.kṭg. (kc.) ṭekṇõ; ‘to stop, stay, stand, support, endure, place’; J. ṭekṇu ‘to support’.
5421 *ṭakk— 2 ‘cut, break’. [Cf. ṭakkara—] Ash. ṭakä ‘broken’; Sh. (Lor.) ṭak thoiki ‘to break, open (e.g. a pomegranate)’; K. ṭakun ‘to gnaw, crunch’; L. ṭakkaṇ ‘to cut, mark by notching’, ṭakk m. ‘cut’, ṭākā m. ‘vaccinator’; P. ṭakkṇā ‘to cut, strike’, ṭakk m. ‘gash, cutting in a field of grain’, ḍog. ṭakka m. ‘bite’. *ṭakka— 1 ‘a coin’ see ṭaṅka1.
5422 *ṭakka— 2 ‘bald’. 2. *ṭhakka—. 1. B. ṭāk ‘bald patch’, ṭākuyā, ṭek° ‘bald’, Or. ṭākarā; M. ṭakkal n. ‘bald spot’, ṭakalyā ‘bald’, ṭakurẽ n., °korī f., ṭakulẽ n., °lī f. ‘slang term for head, esp. fore part’;- B. ṭākrā ‘palate’ semant. cf. tā́lu—. 2. Or. ṭhākerā ‘bald’.
5423 *ṭakka— 3 ‘hill’. 2. *ṭaṅga— 4. 3. *ṭikka— 2. 4. *ṭiṅga—. 5. *ṭēkka—. 6. *ṭēṅga—. 7. *ṭuṅka—. 8. *ṭuṅga— 1. 9. *ḍakka— 3. 10. *ḍagga— 1. 11. *ḍaṅga— 3. 12. *ḍuṅga—. 13. *ḍōṅga— 2. 14. tuṅga—. 15. *thuṅga—. 16. *daṅga—. [Cf. ṭaṅka4 m. ‘peak, crag’ MBh., tuṅga— (see below) ‘lofty’, m. ‘mountain’ MBh., and *ṭappa3 with further list. Variety of form indicates non—Aryan and perh. (with PMWS 149) Mu. origin. - Further poss. connexion with *ḍhōkka2 ‘rock’ and large group of words for ‘lump’ s.v. *ḍhikka1] 1. Ext. —r—: S. ṭakuru m. ‘mountain’, ṭakirī f. ‘hillock’, ṭākara f. ‘low hill’, ṭākirū m. ‘mountaineer’; N. ṭākuro, °ri ‘hill top’. 2. Or. ṭāṅgī ‘hill, stony country’. — Ext. —r—: Or. ṭāṅgara ‘rocky hilly land’. 3. Ext. —r—: Or. ṭikara ‘high land, sandbank’, ṭikarā, ṭīkirā ‘anthill’. 4. A. ṭiṅ ‘mountain peak’, ṭiṅnā ‘elevated piece of land’, ṭiṅāli ‘very high’. — Ext. —l— in *uṭṭiṅgala—. 5. M. ṭek m.n., ṭekā̆ḍ n., ṭekḍī, ṭẽk° f. ‘hillock’. — Ext. —r—: P. ṭekrā m., °rī f. ‘rock, hill’; H. ṭekar, °krā m. ‘heap, hillock’; G. ṭekrɔ m., °rī f. ‘mountain, hillock’. 6. K. ṭē̃g m. ‘hillock, mound’. 7. G. ṭũk ‘peak’. 8. M. ṭũg n. ‘mound, lump’. — Ext. —r—: Or. ṭuṅguri ‘hillock’; M. ṭũgar n. ‘bump, mound’ (see *uṭṭungara—); — —l—: M. ṭũgaḷ, °gūḷ n. 9. K. ḍȧki f. ‘hill, rising ground’. — Ext. —r—: K. ḍakürü f. ‘hill on a road’. 10. Ext. —r—: Pk. ḍaggara— m. ‘upper terrace of a house’; M. ḍagar f. ‘little hill, slope’. 11. Ku. ḍā̃g, ḍā̃k ‘stony land’; B. ḍāṅ ‘heap’, ḍāṅgā ‘hill, dry upland’; H. ḍā̃g f. ‘mountain—ridge’; M. ḍā̃g m.n., ḍā̃gaṇ, °gāṇ, ḍãgāṇ n. ‘hill—tract’. — Ext. —r—: N. ḍaṅgur ‘heap’. 12. M. ḍũg m. ‘hill, pile’, °gā m. ‘eminence’, °gī f. ‘heap’. — Ext. —r—: Pk. ḍuṁgara— m. ‘mountain’; Ku. ḍũgar, ḍũgrī; N. ḍuṅgar ‘heap’; Or. ḍuṅguri ‘hillock’, H. ḍū̃gar m., G. ḍũgar m., ḍũgrī f. 13. S. ḍ̱ū̃garu m. ‘hill’, H. M. ḍõ;gar m. 14. Pa. tuṅga— ‘high’; Pk. tuṁga— ‘high’, tuṁgī̆ya— m. ‘mountain’; K. tŏng, tọ̆ngu m. ‘peak’, P. tuṅg f.; A. tuṅg ‘importance’; Si. tun̆gu ‘lofty, mountain’. — Cf. uttuṅga— ‘lofty’ MBh. 15. K. thọ̆ngu m. ‘peak’. 16. H. dā̃g f. ‘hill, precipice’, dā̃gī ‘belonging to hill country’. Addenda: *ṭakka— 3. 12. *ḍuṅga—: S.kcch. ḍūṅghar m. ‘hillock’.
5430 *ṭaṅka— 6 ‘artificial pond’. Pk. ṭaṁka— m. ‘ditch, reservoir, shore’; H. ṭā̃kh m. ‘underground reservoir of water’; G. ṭā̃kũ n. ‘reservoir’, °kī f. ‘cistern, small well’; M. ṭā̃kẽ, ṭākẽ n. ‘hole dug in rock as a boundary mark, reservoir, cistern’. ṭaṅka—7, ṭaṅkaṇa— 1 ‘borax’ see ṭaṅgaṇa1. ṭaṅkaṇa— 2 ‘a tribe’ see *ṭāṅkana—.
5433 *ṭaṅkati 2 ‘chisels’. [ṭaṅka2] Pa. ṭaṅkita—mañca— ‘a stone (i.e. chiselled) platform’; G. ṭā̃kvũ ‘to chisel’, M. ṭā̃kṇẽ.
5436 *ṭaṅg— ‘hang up’. [Cf. √taṁs and similar relationship between √daṁś and *ḍaṅk—] S. ṭaṅgaṇu ‘to hang up’; L. ṭaṅgaṇ, ṭaṅgṇā m. ‘clothes line’; P. ṭaṅgṇā ‘to hang up’, Ku. ṭāṅṇo, ṭā̃kṇo; N. ṭāṅnu ‘to hang up, spread out’ (cf. Pk. ṭaṁkia— ‘spread out’); B. ṭāṅgā ‘to hang up’, Or. ṭāṅgibā; Bi. ṭãgnā, °nī ‘stick or rope for hanging clothes on’; Mth. ṭā̃gab ‘to hang up’, H. ṭā̃gnā, G. ṭā̃gvũ, M. ṭā̃gṇẽ. ṭaṅga— 1 ‘a weight’ see ṭaṅka1. ṭaṅga— 2 ‘sword, spade’ see ṭaṅka2. ṭaṅga— 3 ‘leg’ see ṭaṅka3. *ṭaṅga— 4 ‘hill’ see *ṭakka3. ṭaṅga— 5 ‘borax’ see next.
5438 *ṭaṭṭ— ‘pain, smart’. N. ṭāṭo ‘scar’, ṭaṭṭinu ‘to be exposed to hunger or sunshine’, ṭaṭṭāunu ‘to smart (of a sore)’; B. ṭāṭāna ‘to pain, be dried up’; H. ṭaṭānā ‘to pain’.
5439 *ṭaṭṭa— ‘defective’. 2. *taṭṭa—2. [See list s.v. *ṭuṇṭa2] 1. N. ṭaṭaro ‘obstinate fool’. 2. Gaw. taṭára ‘lean’. Addenda: *ṭaṭṭa—: WPah.poet. ṭaṭo ‘dumb, stupid’, J. ṭāṭā; kṭg. ṭɔṭṭɔ ‘stammering’.
5440 *ṭaṭṭu— or *taṭṭu— ‘pony’. [Onom.?] Sh. pales. ṭaṭū́ ‘horse’; K. ṭoṭu m. ‘pony’, S. ṭaṭū̃ m., L. ṭaṭṭū m., P. ṭaṭṭū m., Ku. ṭaṭṭu, N. ṭaṭu, B. ṭāṭu, Or. taṭu, Aw. lakh. ṭaṭuā, H. ṭaṭṭū m., G. ṭaṭṭu, ṭaṭu m., ṭaṭvũ n., °vāṇī f., M. taṭṭū, taṭū m., taṭāṇī f.
5441 *ṭaḍḍha— ‘distant’. Ku. ṭāṛ, N. ṭāṛho, ṭāṛo. — But H. tārī f. ‘distance’ < *tāra— or *tāḍa—?. Addenda: *ṭaḍḍha—: Garh. ṭāḍā ‘distant’, Ku. ṭāṛo, taṛā.
5442 *ṭaṇṭa— ‘dispute’. N. ṭaṇṭā ‘dispute, bother’; H. ṭaṇṭā m. ‘wrangling’, G. ṭaṇṭɔ m.
5443 *ṭan— ‘be tight’. 2. *ṭān— ‘tighten’. 3. *ṭhān—. [Re- lationship with √tan (tanṓti, *tānayati) is obscure] 1. N. ṭanna ‘tense, swollen’, ṭanṭani ‘securely’, ṭankanu ‘to become tense’; B. ṭanṭanāna ‘to be tense, throb’, ṭankāna ‘to stiffen’; M. ṭaṇṭaṇṇẽ ‘to be strained very tightly’, ṭaṇkā, ‘strong, healthy’. 2. S. ṭāṇaṇu ‘to pull tight’; Ku. ṭāṇi—ṭāṇi ‘tightness, painful feeling’; A. ṭāniba ‘to pull tight’; B. ṭānā ‘to tighten’, ṭān ‘spasm’; Or. ṭāṇibā ‘to pull tight’, ṭāṇi ‘warp’; H. ṭānnā ‘to pull tight’, M. ṭāṇṇẽ. 3. Mth. ṭhānab ‘to drag’.
5444 *ṭapp— ‘drip, drop’. 2. *ṭipp—2. 3. *ṭēpp—. 4. *ṭupp—. 5. *ṭōpp—. 6. *ṭhipp—. 7. *tapp—. [Onom., cf.